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2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238191, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a major cause of child death, and many children suffer from acute and chronic malnutrition. Nigeria has the second-highest burden of stunting globally and a higher-than-average child wasting prevalence. Moreover, there is substantial spatial variation in the prevalence of stunting and wasting in Nigeria. This paper assessed the socioeconomic inequalities and determinants of the change in socioeconomic inequalities in child stunting and wasting in Nigeria between 2013 and 2018. METHODS: Data came from the 2013 and 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Socioeconomic inequalities in stunting and wasting were measured using the concentration curve and Erreygers' corrected concentration index. A pro-poor concentration index is negative, meaning that the poor bear a disproportionately higher burden of stunting or wasting than the wealthy. A positive or pro-rich index is the opposite. Standard methodologies were applied to decompose the concentration index (C) while the Oaxaca-Blinder approach was used to decompose changes in the concentration indices (ΔC). FINDINGS: The socioeconomic inequalities in child stunting and wasting were pro-poor in 2013 and 2018. The concentration indices for stunting reduced from -0.298 (2013) to -0.330 (2018) (ΔC = -0.032). However, the concentration indices for wasting increased from -0.066 to -0.048 (ΔC = 0.018). The changes in the socioeconomic inequalities in stunting and wasting varied by geopolitical zones. Significant determinants of these changes for both stunting and wasting were changes in inequalities in wealth, maternal education and religion. Under-five dependency, access to improved toilet facilities and geopolitical zone significantly explained changes in only stunting inequality, while access to improved water facilities only significantly determined the change in inequality in wasting. CONCLUSION: Addressing the socio-economic, spatial and demographic determinants of the changes in the socioeconomic inequalities in child stunting and wasting, especially wealth, maternal education and access to sanitation is critical for improving child stunting and wasting in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Classe Social
3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1468, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, malaria is one of the public health problems, and it is still among the ten top leading causes of morbidity and mortality among under-five children. However, the studies conducted in the country have been inconclusive and inconsistent. Thus, this study aimed to assess factors associated with malaria among under-five children in Ethiopia. METHODS: We retrieved secondary data from the malaria indicator survey data collected from September 30 to December 10, 2015, in Ethiopia. A total of 8301 under-five-year-old children who had microscopy test results were included in the study. Bayesian multilevel logistic regression models were fitted and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the model parameters using Gibbs sampling. Adjusted Odd Ratio with 95% credible interval in the multivariable model was used to select variables that have a significant association with malaria. RESULTS: In this study, sleeping under the insecticide-treated bed nets during bed time (ITN) [AOR 0.58,95% CI, 0.31-0.97)], having 2 and more ITN for the household [AOR 0.43, (95% CI, 0.17-0.88)], have radio [AOR 0.41, (95% CI, 0.19-0.78)], have television [AOR 0.19, (95% CI, 0.01-0.89)] and altitude [AOR 0.05, (95% CI, 0.01-0.13)] were the predictors of malaria among under-five children. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed that sleeping under ITN, having two and more ITN for the household, altitude, availability of radio, and television were the predictors of malaria among under-five children in Ethiopia. Thus, the government should strengthen the availability and utilization of ITN to halt under-five mortality due to malaria.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária/prevenção & controle , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multinível , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Public Health ; 186: 137-143, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of parental international migration on health care seeking for common childhood illnesses (diarrhoea, fever, and acute respiratory infections) and nutritional status (stunting, underweight and wasting) in young children in Nepal using the most recent nationally representative Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. STUDY DESIGN: Nationally representative cross-sectional survey. METHODS: We used multiple logistic regression models to examine the association between parental international migration and the study outcomes adjusting for a range of potential confounders. RESULTS: Of 5310 children, 23.5% had at least one parent living abroad. Health care for common childhood illnesses was sought for 52.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 45.0%-59.2%) and 47.0% (95% CI: 42.7%-51.1%) of children from migrant and non-migrant families, respectively. The prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting among left-behind children were 35.3% (95% CI: 31.5%-39.1%), 28.3% (95% CI: 24.2%-32.2%) and 11.8% (95% CI: 8.8%-14.7%), respectively. In adjusted analyses, there were no statistically significant differences in health care seeking or nutritional status by parent's migration status. CONCLUSIONS: Despite large economic benefits to Nepal due to international labour migration, we did not observe any apparent differences in young left-behind children in terms of seeking health care for common childhood illnesses or prevalence of under-nutrition. Longitudinal studies are needed to accurately measure whether migration has any substantial temporal effect on the nutritional status of young children or seeking for health care.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigração e Imigração , Estado Nutricional , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Pais , Prevalência , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/epidemiologia , Migrantes
6.
J Environ Public Health ; 2020: 6042146, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831855

RESUMO

Few studies have investigated household interventions to enhance indoor air quality (IAQ) and health outcomes in relatively low-income communities. This study aims to examine the impact of the combined intervention with asthma education and air purifier on IAQ and health outcomes in the US-Mexico border area. An intervention study conducted in McAllen, Texas, between June and November 2019 included 16 households having children with asthma. The particulate matter (PM2.5) levels were monitored in the bedroom, kitchen, and living room to measure the IAQ for 7 days before and after the intervention, respectively. Multiple surveys were applied to evaluate changes in children's health outcomes. The mean PM2.5 levels in each place were significantly improved. Overall, they significantly decreased by 1.91 µg/m3 on average (p < 0.05). All surveys showed better health outcomes; particularly, quality of life for children was significantly improved (p < 0.05). This pilot study suggests that the combined household intervention might improve IAQ in households and health outcomes for children with asthma and reduce health disparities in low-income communities. Future large-scale studies are needed to verify the effectiveness of this household intervention to improve IAQ and asthma management.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Asma/etiologia , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida , Texas
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013679, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global burden of poor maternal, neonatal, and child health (MNCH) accounts for more than a quarter of healthy years of life lost worldwide. Targeted client communication (TCC) via mobile devices (MD) (TCCMD) may be a useful strategy to improve MNCH. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of TCC via MD on health behaviour, service use, health, and well-being for MNCH. SEARCH METHODS: In July/August 2017, we searched five databases including The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and Embase. We also searched two trial registries. A search update was carried out in July 2019 and potentially relevant studies are awaiting classification. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials that assessed TCC via MD to improve MNCH behaviour, service use, health, and well-being. Eligible comparators were usual care/no intervention, non-digital TCC, and digital non-targeted client communication. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane, although data extraction and risk of bias assessments were carried out by one person only and cross-checked by a second. MAIN RESULTS: We included 27 trials (17,463 participants). Trial populations were: pregnant and postpartum women (11 trials conducted in low-, middle- or high-income countries (LMHIC); pregnant and postpartum women living with HIV (three trials carried out in one lower middle-income country); and parents of children under the age of five years (13 trials conducted in LMHIC). Most interventions (18) were delivered via text messages alone, one was delivered through voice calls only, and the rest were delivered through combinations of different communication channels, such as multimedia messages and voice calls. Pregnant and postpartum women TCCMD versus standard care For behaviours, TCCMD may increase exclusive breastfeeding in settings where rates of exclusive breastfeeding are less common (risk ratio (RR) 1.30, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.06 to 1.59; low-certainty evidence), but have little or no effect in settings where almost all women breastfeed (low-certainty evidence). For use of health services, TCCMD may increase antenatal appointment attendance (odds ratio (OR) 1.54, 95% CI 0.80 to 2.96; low-certainty evidence); however, the CI encompasses both benefit and harm. The intervention may increase skilled attendants at birth in settings where a lack of skilled attendants at birth is common (though this differed by urban/rural residence), but may make no difference in settings where almost all women already have a skilled attendant at birth (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.34 to 2.94; low-certainty evidence). There were uncertain effects on maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity because the certainty of the evidence was assessed as very low. TCCMD versus non-digital TCC (e.g. pamphlets) TCCMD may have little or no effect on exclusive breastfeeding (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.07; low-certainty evidence). TCCMD may reduce 'any maternal health problem' (RR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.79) and 'any newborn health problem' (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.25 to 1.06) reported up to 10 days postpartum (low-certainty evidence), though the CI for the latter includes benefit and harm. The effect on health service use is unknown due to a lack of studies. TCCMD versus digital non-targeted communication No studies reported behavioural, health, or well-being outcomes for this comparison. For use of health services, there are uncertain effects for the presence of a skilled attendant at birth due to very low-certainty evidence, and the intervention may make little or no difference to attendance for antenatal influenza vaccination (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.58), though the CI encompasses both benefit and harm (low-certainty evidence). Pregnant and postpartum women living with HIV TCCMD versus standard care For behaviours, TCCMD may make little or no difference to maternal and infant adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (low-certainty evidence). For health service use, TCC mobile telephone reminders may increase use of antenatal care slightly (mean difference (MD) 1.5, 95% CI -0.36 to 3.36; low-certainty evidence). The effect on the proportion of births occurring in a health facility is uncertain due to very low-certainty evidence. For health and well-being outcomes, there was an uncertain intervention effect on neonatal death or stillbirth, and infant HIV due to very low-certainty evidence. No studies reported on maternal mortality or morbidity. TCCMD versus non-digital TCC The effect is unknown due to lack of studies reporting this comparison. TCCMD versus digital non-targeted communication TCCMD may increase infant ARV/prevention of mother-to-child transmission treatment adherence (RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.48; low-certainty evidence). The effect on other outcomes is unknown due to lack of studies. Parents of children aged less than five years No studies reported on correct treatment, nutritional, or health outcomes. TCCMD versus standard care Based on 10 trials, TCCMD may modestly increase health service use (vaccinations and HIV care) (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.34; low-certainty evidence); however, the effect estimates varied widely between studies. TCCMD versus non-digital TCC TCCMD may increase attendance for vaccinations (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.28; low-certainty evidence), and may make little or no difference to oral hygiene practices (low-certainty evidence). TCCMD versus digital non-targeted communication TCCMD may reduce attendance for vaccinations, but the CI encompasses both benefit and harm (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.20; low-certainty evidence). No trials in any population reported data on unintended consequences. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The effect of TCCMD for most outcomes is uncertain. There may be improvements for some outcomes using targeted communication but these findings were of low certainty. High-quality, adequately powered trials and cost-effectiveness analyses are required to reliably ascertain the effects and relative benefits of TCCMD. Future studies should measure potential unintended consequences, such as partner violence or breaches of confidentiality.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Saúde da Criança/normas , Comunicação , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Saúde do Lactente/normas , Saúde Materna/normas , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Parto Obstétrico/normas , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Saúde do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Envio de Mensagens de Texto
8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1397-1404, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783799

RESUMO

Recurrent enteric infections and micronutrient deficiencies, including deficiencies in the tryptophan-kynurenine-niacin pathway, have been associated with environmental enteric dysfunction, potentially contributing to poor child growth and development. We are conducting a randomized, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial interventional trial in a rural population in Haydom, Tanzania, to determine the effect of 1) antimicrobials (azithromycin and nitazoxanide) and/or 2) nicotinamide, a niacin vitamer, on attained length at 18 months. Mother/infant dyads were enrolled within 14 days of the infant's birth from September 2017 to September 2018, with the follow-up to be completed in February 2020. Here, we describe the baseline characteristics of the study cohort, risk factors for low enrollment weight, and neonatal adverse events (AEs). Risk factors for a low enrollment weight included being a firstborn child (-0.54 difference in weight-for-age z-score [WAZ] versus other children, 95% CI: -0.71, -0.37), lower socioeconomic status (-0.28, 95% CI: -0.43, -0.12 difference in WAZ), and birth during the preharvest season (November to March) (-0.22, 95% CI: -0.33, -0.11 difference in WAZ). The most common neonatal serious AEs were respiratory tract infections and neonatal sepsis (2.2 and 1.4 events per 100 child-months, respectively). The study cohort represents a high-risk population for whom interventions to improve child growth and development are urgently needed. Further analyses are needed to understand the persistent impacts of seasonal malnutrition and the interactions between seasonality, socioeconomic status, and the study interventions.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Peso Corporal , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Intervenção Médica Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Sepse Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse Neonatal/epidemiologia , Niacinamida/uso terapêutico , Pobreza , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , População Rural , Estações do Ano , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1093, 2020 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Chinese government has been strengthening the primary care system since the launch of the New Healthcare System Reform in 2009. Among all endeavors, the most obvious and significant improvement lays in maternal and child health. This study was designed to explore the association of primary care physician supply with maternal and child health outcomes in China, and provide policy suggestions to the law makers. METHODS: Six-year panel dataset of 31 provinces in China from 2012 to 2017 was used to conduct the longitudinal ecological study. Linear fixed effects regression model was applied to explore the association of primary care physician supply with the metrics of maternal and child health outcomes while controlling for specialty care physician supply and socio-economic covariates. Stratified analysis was used to test whether this association varies across different regions in China. RESULTS: The number of primary care physicians per 10,000 population increased from 15.56 (95% CI: 13.66 to 17.47) to 16.08 (95% CI: 13.86 to 18.29) from 2012 to 2017. The increase of one primary care physician per 10,000 population was associated with 5.26 reduction in maternal mortality per 100,000 live births (95% CI: - 6.745 to - 3.774), 0.106% (95% CI: - 0.189 to - 0.023) decrease in low birth weight, and 0.419 decline (95% CI: - 0.564 to - 0.273) in perinatal mortality per 1000 live births while other variables were held constant. The association was particularly prominent in the less-developed western China compared to the developed eastern and central China. CONCLUSION: The sufficient supply of primary care physician was associated with improved maternal and child health outcomes in China, especially in the less-developed western region. Policies on effective and proportional allocation of resources should be made and conducted to strengthen primary care system and eliminate geographical disparities.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Médicos de Atenção Primária/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Adulto , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Gravidez
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1051, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Violence against children is a pervasive public health issue, with limited data available across multiple contexts. This study explores the rarely studied prevalence and dynamics around disclosure, reporting and help-seeking behaviours of children who ever experienced physical and/or sexual violence. METHODS: Using nationally-representative Violence Against Children Surveys in six countries: Cambodia, Haiti, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria and Tanzania, we present descriptive statistics for prevalence of four outcomes among children aged 13-17 years: informal disclosure, knowledge of where to seek formal help, formal disclosure/help seeking and receipt of formal help. We ran country-specific multivariate logistic regressions predicting outcomes on factors at the individual, household and community levels. RESULTS: The prevalence of help-seeking behaviours ranged from 23 to 54% for informal disclosure, 16 to 28% for knowledge of where to seek formal help, under 1 to 25% for formal disclosure or help seeking, and 1 to 11% for receipt of formal help. Factors consistently correlated with promoting help-seeking behaviours included household number of adult females and absence of biological father, while those correlated with reduced help-seeking behaviours included being male and living in a female-headed household. Primary reasons for not seeking help varied by country, including self-blame, apathy and not needing or wanting services. CONCLUSIONS: Across countries examined, help-seeking and receipt of formal services is low for children experiencing physical and/or sexual violence, with few consistent factors identified which facilitated help-seeking. Further understanding of help seeking, alongside improved data quality and availability will aid prevention responses, including the ability to assist child survivors in a timely manner.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Revelação/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Haiti/epidemiologia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Malaui , Masculino , Prevalência , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Violência/prevenção & controle
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234573, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, the under-10 years of age mortality has not been comprehensively studied. We applied the life-course perspective in the analysis and interpretation of the event history demographic and verbal autopsy data to examine when and why children die before their 10th birthday. METHODS: We analysed a decade (2005-2015) of event histories data on 22385 and 1815 verbal autopsies data collected by Iganga-Mayuge HDSS in eastern Uganda. We used the lifetable for mortality estimates and patterns, and Royston-Parmar survival analysis approach for mortality risk factors' assessment. RESULTS: The under-10 and 5-9 years of age mortality probabilities were 129 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 123-370) per 1000 live births and 11 (95% CI = 7-26) per 1000 children aged 5-9 years, respectively. The top four causes of new-born mortality and stillbirth were antepartum maternal complications (31%), intrapartum-related causes including birth injury, asphyxia and obstructed labour (25%), Low Birth Weight (LBW) and prematurity (20%), and other unidentified perinatal mortality causes (18%). Malaria, protein deficiency including anaemia, diarrhoea or gastrointestinal, and acute respiratory infections were the major causes of mortality among those aged 0-9 years-contributing 88%, 88% and 46% of all causes of mortality for the post-neonatal, child and 5-9 years of age respectively. 33% of all causes of mortality among those aged 5-9 years was a share of Injuries (22%) and gastrointestinal (11%). Regarding the deterministic pattern, nearly 30% of the new-borns and sick children died without access to formal care. Access to the treatment for the top five morbidities was after 4 days of symptoms' recognition. The childhood mortality risk factors were LBW, multiple births, having no partner, adolescence age, rural residence, low education level and belonging to a poor household, but their association was stronger among infants. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified the vulnerable groups at risk of mortality as LBW children, multiple births, rural dwellers, those whose mother are of low socio-economic position, adolescents and unmarried. The differences in causes of mortalities between children aged 0-5 and 5-9 years were noted. These findings suggest for a strong life-course approach in the design and implementation of child health interventions that target pregnant women and children of all ages.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Mortalidade da Criança , Mortalidade Infantil , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Saúde do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/estatística & dados numéricos , Anamnese/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235258, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589647

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether the presence of care workers who completed a specialization course on family health was associated with improved care and maternal and child health indicators in municipalities in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: Negative binomial regression models with fixed effects were used for the 79 municipalities in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, with repeated observations for the period 2009-2015. For our reference, the parameter "number of professionals who completed the course" calculated the proportion of professionals who completed the course, and was divided by the total number of primary health care professionals in the municipality to create a ratio. The cutoff points used represented tertile distribution: T3: high (0.35-1.00), T2: intermediate (0.02-0.33) and T1: low (0.00-0.01); to avoid biased results, the analysis was also performed for the years prior to the beginning of the course in question (2009 and 2010). RESULTS: During the study period, enrollment of pregnant women, exclusive breastfeeding for children under 4 months, and up-to-date vaccinations in children younger than 1 year to 23 months increased (high to intermediate categories) in municipalities where professionals who completed the specialization course worked. Growth in the intermediate ratio was also observed in indicators related to cervical cancer screening and new diagnoses of congenital syphilis in infants under one year of age. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of care workers who completed a specialization course on family health was seen to be associated with improved care and indicators for maternal and child health in municipalities in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. These findings reaffirm the importance and effectiveness of policies on training and continuing education for the Brazilian Unified Health System.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Continuada , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232454, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353037

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study attempts to investigate the association between maternal exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and morbidity and mortality of children. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was carried out using the most recent nationally representative data of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) in India. RESULTS: The prevalence of morbidity and mortality was higher among the children whose mothers faced physical, emotional, or sexual violence perpetrated by the partner than those who did not encounter any violence. Multivariate analysis revealed that maternal exposure to physical and sexual violence significantly increased the risks of childhood diarrhea and fever; and emotional violence was associated with an increased likelihood of diarrhea, fever, and acute respiratory infection (ARI) in the past 2 weeks among under-five children. Moreover, women's experience of physical and emotional violence were associated with increased odds of infant mortality (<1 year) and under-five mortality (<5 years) in crude analysis. However, these associations were insignificant in the adjusted analysis. Similarly, we did not find any significant association between maternal exposure to IPV and child mortality (1 to < 5 years). CONCLUSION: Maternal experience of domestic violence was associated with an increased risk of childhood morbidity (diarrhea, fever and ARI). However, no significant association was found between violence against women and mortality of children. Prevention of domestic violence may help to reduce childhood illnesses. Additional efforts are needed for maternal and child healthcare programs to improve health status of women and children.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade da Criança , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Pediatr ; 224: 146-149, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416087

RESUMO

The lower than expected rates of children affected by coronavirus disease-2019 does not mean that there was no impact on children's health. Using data on pediatric healthcare visits before and after the breakout of coronavirus disease-2019 and historical data, we identified pediatric conditions that were most affected by the pandemic and epidemic control measures during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 595, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood injuries are a significant and growing global public health problem, often with high morbidity and, at times, mortality. A large proportion of injuries in preschool children occur in or around the home. We aimed to identify socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with preschool children injuries in Egypt. METHODS: Secondary data analysis were done for the Egyptian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS), 2014. Potential associated factors were measured from data on child welfare and questions on the prevalence of accidents and injuries of preschool children. These data were linked to the children demographic data, maternal age at marriage, working status of the mother, and questions on childcare arrangements. RESULTS: Out of the 634 injured children, 520 (83.4%) children required medical care for their injuries. The most common reported injury was an open wound 288 (45.5%), followed by fractures 237 (35.7%), burns 124 (19.7%), electrical shock 12 (1.9%) and other unknown types of injury 15 (2.4%). There was a positive correlation between injury and child's age, household wealth, mother's age at marriage, and unsupervised children or children left in the care of a minor. CONCLUSION: Leaving children unsupervised or in the presence of other young children is significantly associated with the occurrence of child injuries.


Assuntos
Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
Int J Public Health ; 65(5): 649-660, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Air pollution is a leading environmental risk, and socioeconomic status (SES) is postulated as an effect modifier, especially in children. There is a growing interest in exploring this modifier. The present manuscript reviews SES as an effect modifier in children's respiratory health. METHODS: A search in the PubMed and SCOPUS databases was conducted in September 2017 to identify studies with the inclusion criteria of being centred on children, respiratory outcomes, air pollutants and SES measurement. RESULTS: A total of 17 studies were included. Twelve used single SES variables, and the remaining studies included composite SES indices. Household income (9) and parental education (8) were frequently evaluated. The significance of the effect modifier was found in nine studies that demonstrated a higher risk for individuals living in a lower SES. Sources of heterogeneity included SES measurement, health outcomes and geographical aggregation. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest a higher modification in the effect of SES, generally indicating greater risk for children in lower SES. Children's characteristics need to be more carefully theorized and measured in this area, including the use of transdisciplinary approaches.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Respiratórios/induzido quimicamente , Classe Social , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 313, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2009, the Chinese government has been reforming the healthcare system and has committed to reinforcing increased use of primary care. To date, however, the Chinese healthcare system is still heavily reliant on hospital-based specialty care. Studies consistently show an association between primary care and improved health outcomes, and the same association is also found among the disadvantaged population. Due to the "hukou" system, interprovincial migrants in the urban districts are put in a weak position and become the disadvantaged. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate whether greater supply and utilization of primary care was associated with reduced child mortality among the entire population and the interprovincial migrants in urban districts of Guangdong province, China. METHODS: An ecological study was conducted using a 3-year panel data with repeated measurements within urban districts in Guangdong province from 2014 to 2016, with 178 observations in total. Multilevel linear mixed effects models were applied to explore the associations. RESULTS: Higher visit proportion to primary care was associated with reductions in the infant mortality rate and the under-five mortality rate in both the entire population and the interprovincial migrants (p < 0.05) in the full models. The association between visit proportion to primary care and reduced neonatal mortality rate was significant among the entire population (p < 0.05) while it was insignificant among the interprovincial migrants (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our ecological study based in urban districts of Guangdong province found consistent associations between higher visit proportion to primary care and improvements in child health among the entire population and the interprovincial migrants, suggesting that China should continue to strengthen and develop the primary care system. The findings from China adds to the previously reported evidence on the association between primary care and improved health, especially that of the disadvantaged.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/provisão & distribução , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Int J Public Health ; 65(4): 457-468, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Unwanted pregnancy is an important public health concern in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Using a pooled dataset from 48 Demographic Health Surveys conducted in Africa, Asia, Latin America and Europe (n = 494,778), we examined the effect of unwanted pregnancy on maternal and child healthcare utilization and child health outcomes in LMICs. METHODS: We used logistic regression models to estimate the effect of unwanted pregnancy on antenatal care use, supervised delivery, childhood vaccination and three indicators of child health, viz. stunting (height-for-age), underweight (weight-for-age) and wasting (weight-for-height). RESULTS: We found that mothers of children whose pregnancies had been unwanted had a lower probability of attending four or more antenatal care visits by 3.6% (95% confidence interval = 1.9-5.4%) compared to those whose pregnancy was wanted. We did not find significant impacts of unwanted pregnancy on supervised delivery, childhood vaccination uptake or child health indicators. CONCLUSIONS: Birth characteristics, household-level determinants and country-level characteristics seem to be more closely related to maternal and child healthcare utilization as well as child health outcomes than whether the pregnancy was wanted or unwanted in LMICs.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez não Desejada/psicologia , Adulto , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pobreza , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(3): 337-342, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294831

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the health status and health service utilization of children born to syphilis infected mothers during pregnancy, in order to prevent mother-to-child transmission of syphilis to the newborns. Methods: Women with maternal syphilis were studied by trained researchers via phone calls, in Shanghai during 2014-2015. Data related to demographics, status of infection and health care, utilization by both mothers and their children were collected through specifically designed questionnaires. Non-parametric tests including chi-square were used to assess the health status and health service utilization of children born to mothers with different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Results: A total of 495 children born to mothers with maternal syphilis were recruited from 1 000 syphilis infected parturient women. A total of 61 out of the 495 children were diagnosed as having congenital syphilis (57 children were diagnosed at birth and another 4 were diagnosed during the follow-up period). Children born to women who received syphilis treatment during pregnancy were at lower risk on congenital syphilis (χ(2)=7.214, P=0.027). 37.8% of the children were reported to have had different illnesses in the past three months, mainly involving upper respiratory infections (32.3%) or diarrhea (3.6%). Children diagnosed with congenital syphilis showed a higher prevalence of different kinds of diseases, compared to those without congenital syphilis (47.5% vs. 36.6%). 81.6% of the children had received regular child health care services. Subjects with the following factors as: being immigrant, with lower education, unemployed, unmarried and multipara, were related to the less use of regular child healthcare services. Only 39.7% of the parents would inform the care-takers about the risk of congenital syphilis infection of their own children at the child health care centers. Mothers with residency of Shanghai, having higher education level and employed, were less willing to inform doctors about the risk of congenital syphilis infection of their children. Conclusions: Loss to follow-up among children born to syphilis infected pregnant women remained a serious problem. Few parents would be willing to inform the healthcare takers that their children are at risk of syphilis, when receiving child health care services at the centers. It was necessary to integrate the congenital syphilis follow-up programs into the routine child care services so as to timely diagnose and treat the patients with congenital syphilis.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Sífilis/terapia , Sífilis/transmissão , Sífilis Congênita/diagnóstico
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