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1.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180432, Jan.-Dec. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1059134

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objectives: to identify situations of violence in the daily work of the health professionals of the Family Health Strategy and to describe the conducts adopted by these professionals in relation to the situations of violence identified. Method: a qualitative, descriptive and exploratory study whose scenario was a Family Clinic of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Eighteen health professionals participated. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and subjected to content analysis. Results: three thematic categories emerged: Situations of workplace violence in the Family Health Strategy; Consequences of workplace violence on the Family Health Strategy; The nurse's role as leader of the Family Health Team and the strategies adopted in the face of workplace violence. Conclusions: situations of interpersonal violence and collective violence were identified, exemplified by the contact with armed violence in the territory, racial discrimination, peer violence and violence suffered by the user, such as domestic violence, directly affecting the professional. The importance is highlighted of the nurse's role as leader of the Family Health Strategy team, envisioning the management of violence situations, often neglected.


RESUMEN Objetivos: identificar las situaciones de violencia en la rutina laboral de los profesionales de salud de la Estrategia de Salud de la Familia y describir las conductas que adoptan estos profesionales ante las situaciones de violencia identificadas. Método: estudio cualitativo, descriptivo y exploratorio que tuvo como escenario a una Clínica de Salud Familiar del municipio de Río de Janeiro. Participaron 18 profesionales de la salud. Los datos se recolectaron a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas y se los sometió a análisis de contenido. Resultados: surgieron tres categorías temáticas: Situaciones de violencia laboral en la Estrategia de Salud de la Familia; Consecuencias de la violencia laboral en la Estrategia de Salud de la Familia y Desempeño de los enfermeros como líderes de los equipos de Salud de la Familia y las estrategias adoptadas ante la violencia laboral. Conclusiones: se identificaron situaciones de violencia interpersonal y colectiva, ejemplificadas por el contacto con la violencia armada en el campo de acción, discriminación racial, violencia entre pares y violencia sufrida por el usuario, como ser la violencia doméstica, que afecta directamente al profesional. Se destaca la importancia del desempeño de los enfermeros como líderes de los equipos de la Estrategia de Salud de la Familia, con vistas a manejar las situaciones de violencia laboral, muchas veces desatendidas.


RESUMO Objetivos: identificar as situações de violência no cotidiano de trabalho dos profissionais de saúde da Estratégia de Saúde da Família e descrever as condutas adotadas por esses profissionais perante as situações de violência identificadas. Método: estudo qualitativo, descritivo e exploratório cujo cenário foi uma Clínica da Família do município do Rio de Janeiro. Participaram 18 profissionais da saúde. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas semiestruturadas e submetidos à análise de conteúdo. Resultados: emergiram três categorias temáticas: Situações de violência no trabalho na Estratégia de Saúde da Família; Consequências da violência no trabalho na Estratégia de Saúde da Família; Atuação do enfermeiro como líder da Equipe de Saúde da Família e as estratégias adotadas perante a violência no trabalho. Conclusões: foram identificadas situações de violência interpessoal e a violência coletiva, exemplificadas pelo contato com a violência armada no território, discriminação racial, violência entre os pares e violência sofrida pelo usuário, como a violência doméstica, afetando diretamente o profissional. Destaca-se a importância da atuação do enfermeiro como líder da equipe da Estratégia de Saúde da Família vislumbrando o gerenciamento das situações de violência no trabalho, muitas vezes negligenciadas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Violência , Saúde da Família , Pessoal de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Violência no Trabalho , Liderança , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros
2.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180235, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1101982

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to disclose knowledge and practices related to active aging based on the educational and care-related dialogical proposal with professionals from the Family Health Strategy. Method: a convergent care research developed with professionals from the Family Health Strategy, in a municipality in the Central North area of Paraná-Brazil. Data was collected through interviews with 14 professionals with an average duration of 12 minutes followed by a Culture Circle with four professionals and a duration of 59 minutes, following the educational stages of the same, namely: investigation, thematization and disclosure. The premises of Freire's dialogicity were used as a theoretical framework. Results: the data show that professionals have different conceptions about aging, distinct ways of conceptualizing active aging, and scarcity of systematization for the care of the robust elderly. These findings were the basis for the dialogical educational design that allowed to transform and build new knowledge on the theme. Conclusion: the educational and care-related dialogical pathway allowed the collective definition of aging and the understanding of active aging, thus making it possible to advance towards the promotion of comprehensive care for the elderly. The convergent care research approach is shown to be effective for studies of an educational dialogic nature due to its insertion in the context of study and collective construction based on reality.


RESUMEN Objetivo: revelar saberes y prácticas sobre el envejecimiento activo a partir de la propuesta dialógica educativa/de atención con profesionales de la Estrategia de Salud de la Familia. Método: investigación convergente asistencial desarrollada con profesionales de la Estrategia de Salud de la Familia en un municipio del área centro-norte de Paraná-Brasil. Los datos se recolectaron por medio de entrevistas de 12 minutos de duración media con 14 profesionales, seguidas por un Círculo de Cultura de 59 minutos de duración con cuatro profesionales, para luego seguir con las etapas educativas del mismo, a saber: investigación, tematización y revelación. Como referencial teórico se utilizaron las premisas de la dialogicidad de Freire. Resultados: los datos demuestran que los profesionales tienen diversas concepciones sobre el envejecimiento, distintas formas de conceptualizar el envejecimiento activo y escasa capacidad de sistematización para cuidar al anciano robusto. Estos hallazgos fueron la base para el delineamiento educativo dialógico que permitió transformar y construir nuevos saberes sobre la temática. Conclusión: el itinerario dialógico educativo y relacionado con la atención permitió definir el envejecimiento en forma colectiva y comprender el envejecimiento activo, posibilitando así el avance en la promoción del cuidado integral a los ancianos. El enfoque de la investigación convergente asistencial se presenta como un medio eficaz para estudios de tinte educativo y dialógico con su inserción en el contexto del estudio y la construcción colectiva pautada en la realidad.


RESUMO Objetivo: desvelar saberes e práticas sobre envelhecimento ativo a partir da proposta educativo-cuidativo dialógica com profissionais da Estratégia Saúde da Família. Método: pesquisa convergente assistencial desenvolvida com profissionais da Estratégia Saúde da Família, em um município do Norte Central do Paraná-Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista com 14 profissionais com duração média de 12 minutos seguida de Círculo de Cultura com quatro profissionais e duração de 59 minutos, seguindo as etapas educativas do mesmo, a saber: investigação, tematização e desvelamento. As premissas da dialogicidade de Freire foram utilizadas como referencial teórico. Resultados: os dados demostram que os profissionais têm: concepções diversas sobre o envelhecer; distintas formas de conceituar o envelhecimento ativo e escassez de sistematização para o cuidado ao idoso robusto. Esses achados foram a base para o delineamento educativo dialógico que permitiu transformar e construir novos saberes sobre a temática. Conclusão: o percurso cuidativo-educativo dialógico permitiu a definição coletiva sobre envelhecimento e a compreensão sobre o envelhecer ativo, possibilitando assim, avançar para a promoção do cuidado integral ao idoso. A abordagem de pesquisa convergente assistencial apresenta-se como eficaz para estudos de cunho educativo dialógico pela inserção no contexto de estudo e construção coletiva pautada na realidade.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Envelhecimento , Saúde da Família , Saúde do Idoso , Educação Continuada , Estratégia Saúde da Família
3.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180104, Jan.-Dec. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1101981

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify work aspects that generate satisfaction for the professionals who work in the Family Health Strategy. Method: This was a qualitative, descriptive study that involved five geographical regions of Brazil, and 27 Family Health Teams from six municipalities. The data were collected from 76 health professionals using semi-structured interviews, and were analyzed articulating the three phases of content analysis using Atlas.ti software resources. Results: The findings showed 129 statement excerpts, with 14 codes, grouped into three categories related to satisfaction. The category, Job Identification and Family Health Strategy Principles, represented 40.3%, with the codes: team work, job affinity, health model, completeness of care, and longitudinality of care. The category, Relationship with Family Health Strategy patients, represented 32.6%, with the following codes: bonding with patient, resoluteness of care, patient satisfaction, and patient care. Finally, the category, Professional and Working Aspects related to the Family Health Strategy, represented 27.1%, with the following codes: relationship with professionals, work recognition, enjoying the profession, team organization, and employment relationship. Conclusion: Professional satisfaction is associated with the work principles of the Family Health Strategy, and with the relationships that are established between patients, professionals and health management. It also has a subjective dimension, with a strong relationship with characteristics of the work process, how it is organized, and under what conditions and relationships this work occurs.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Identificar los aspectos del trabajo, que generan satisfacción en los profesionales de salud que actúan en la estrategia de salud familiar. Método: Estudio cualitativo que incluye 5 regiones geográficas del Brasil, 27 equipos de salud familiar de 6 municipios. Los datos fueron obtenidos, a través de 76 profesionales de salud por medio de entrevistas semi estructuradas y analizados, articulando las tres frases de Análisis del Contenido y los recursos del software Atlas ti. Resultados: Seleccionaron 129 extractos de conversaciones, 14 códigos agrupados en 3 categorías relacionadas a la satisfacción. La categoría Identificación con el trabajo y principios de la Estrategia salud de la familia, representó 40,3%; tuvo los códigos: trabajo en equipo, afinidad con el trabajo, modelo de salud, integralidad de la asistencia, longitudinalidad del cuidado. La categoría, Relación con los Usuarios en la Estrategia salud de la familia, representó el 32,6% con los siguientes códigos: vinculo con el usuario, resolutividad de la asistencia, satisfacción del usuario y asistencia al usuario. Finalmente, la categoría Aspectos Profesionales y de Trabajo, relacionados con la estrategia salud de la familia, representó 27,1% con los siguientes códigos: Relación con los profesionales, reconocimiento del trabajo, gusto por la profesión, organización del equipo, vinculo del trabajo. Conclusión: La satisfacción del profesional está asociada a los principios del trabajo en la Estrategia Salud de la Familia, a las relaciones que se establecen entre usuarios, profesionales y gestión de la salud. También posee una dimensión subjetiva, fuertemente relacionada con las características del proceso de trabajo, como se encuentra organizado, sus condiciones y relaciones.


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar os aspectos do trabalho que são geradores de satisfação para os profissionais que atuam na Estratégia Saúde da Família. Método: Estudo qualitativo do tipo descritivo que envolveu 5 regiões geográficas do Brasil, 27 equipes de Saúde da Família de 6 municípios. Os dados foram coletados com 76 profissionais de saúde por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas e analisados articulando as três fases da Análise de Conteúdo e dos recursos do software Atlas.ti. Resultados: Indicaram 129 trechos de falas e 14 códigos agrupados em 3 categorias relacionadas à satisfação. A categoria Identificação com o trabalho e princípios da Estratégia Saúde da Família representou 40,3% e teve os códigos: trabalho em equipe, afinidade com o trabalho, modelo de saúde, integralidade da assistência, longitudinalidade do cuidado. A categoria relações com os usuários na Estratégia Saúde da Família representou 32,6% com os seguintes códigos: vínculo com o usuário, resolutividade da assistência, satisfação do usuário, assistência ao usuário. Por fim, a categoria aspectos profissionais e trabalhistas relacionados à Estratégia Saúde da Família, representou 27,1% com os seguintes códigos: relação com os profissionais, reconhecimento do trabalho, gostar da profissão, organização da equipe, vínculo de trabalho. Conclusão: A satisfação profissional está associada aos princípios do trabalho na Estratégia Saúde da Família, as conexões que se estabelecem entre usuários, profissionais e gestão em saúde. Possui ainda uma dimensão subjetiva, possuindo forte vínculo com características do processo de trabalho, como esse é organizado e sob que condições e relações o trabalho acontece


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Condições de Trabalho , Estratégia Saúde da Família , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Satisfação no Emprego , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Trabalho , Sistema Único de Saúde , Saúde da Família , Pessoal de Saúde , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Gestão em Saúde , Assistência ao Paciente , Recursos em Saúde
4.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47856

RESUMO

As substâncias derivadas do tabaco se espalham pelo ambiente


Assuntos
Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Saúde da Família , Fumar
5.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(707): 1737-1740, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969608

RESUMO

This article presents the construction of a chain of care of perinatal psychiatric situations within the University Service of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, which evolved within the framework of the departmentalization of this service. This chain of care includes the psychiatry of the liaison, the outpatient clinics as well as and day hospital care and extends from the prenatal period to the child's five years, with a focus on the relationship between child and caregivers, as well as an individual perspective on the child. Herein, we present and describe the different units and their functioning emphasizing the synergies and collaborations put in place that ensure the best possible continuity for patients and their families by promoting as much as possible the therapeutic alliance in this chain of care.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente/organização & administração , Psiquiatria Infantil/organização & administração , Adolescente , Cuidadores , Criança , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Gravidez , Universidades
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 647, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The family cluster is one of most important modes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission throughout China, and more details are needed about how family clusters cause the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). CASE PRESENTATION: We retrospectively reviewed 7 confirmed cases from one family cluster. Both clinical features and laboratory examination results were described. Patient 1 had been in close contact with someone who was later confirmed to have COVID-19 in Wuhan City before he returned back to his hometown. He had dinner with 6 other members in his family. All the persons developed COVID-19 successively except for one older woman who neither had dinner with them nor shared a sleeping room with her husband. Six patients had mild or moderate COVID-19 but one older man with underlying diseases progressed into the severe type. After general and symptomatic treatments, all the patients recovered. CONCLUSIONS: In a family cluster, having dinner together may be an important mode for the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. In this setting, most cases are mild with a favorable prognosis, while elderly patients with underlying diseases may progress into the severe type. For someone who has close contact with a confirmed case, 14-day isolation is necessary to contain virus transmission.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Saúde da Família , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(2): 155-162, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778630

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had been declared as a global pandemic by WHO. During the pandemic, a suspicion of COVID-19 infection could be found on patients presented with clinical symptoms of COVID-19. However, several new clinical symptoms of COVID-19 had also been reported recently. This caused difficulties to identify COVID-19 based on the clinical symptoms only. Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was absolutely needed to determine the correct diagnosis. We report a family cluster of COVID-19 with different clinical manifestations to show a potential COVID-19 transmission in person who has no symptoms initially but may develop symptoms later as the incubation period varies from 5-14 days. This asymptomatic person remains potential to transmit the virus. This report describes the epidemiological, clinical, radiological, laboratory findings, and different clinical manifestation of a family cluster of COVID-19 case in Indonesia. COVID-19 was transmitted from asymptomatic person in the incubation period.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Saúde da Família , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Análise por Conglomerados , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Radiografia Torácica/métodos
8.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 1): S86-S92, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737239

RESUMO

Criminalization of perinatal substance use disorder and other coercive interventions in pregnancy (such as forced cesarean delivery or involuntary hospitalization for bed rest) directly affect the well-being of children and their families and, potentially, of all women of reproductive capacity. Untenable legal and policy approaches that occasion such incursions not only persist but affect a growing number of women. They are antithetical to healthy pregnancies, healthy children, and healthy families; they have the potential to reduce prenatal care seeking, divert attention and resources away from critical mental health and maternal and child support services, and epigenetically affect maternal and infant bonding. Punitive and coercive interventions contravene long-established guidance by professional associations that advocate for public health approaches and ethical frameworks to guide practice. Harmful policies persist because of motivated reasoning by clinicians, members of the judiciary, and ill-informed legislators who rely on personal experience and anecdote rather than evidence to fashion policy. Compounding the problem are inadequate substance use treatment resources and professional associations that choose not to hold their members accountable for violating their ethical obligations to their patients. Pediatricians must advocate for the cessation of coercive interventions within their institutions and their larger communities. All health care professionals should collaborate at the local, state, and national level to provide policymakers and legislators with data emphasizing the negative effects of punitive and coercive policies aimed at pregnant women and their children.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar da Criança , Coerção , Saúde da Família , Tratamento Involuntário/legislação & jurisprudência , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etnologia , Gestantes/etnologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Classe Social , Sociedades Médicas , South Carolina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etnologia , Estados Unidos
9.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 140(11)2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês, Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Robust serological assays for SARS-CoV-2 are essential for determining prior infection and the suitability of donated convalescent plasma for plasma therapy. We compared two in-house and three commercial serological assays in a family cohort with SARS-CoV-2-infected members. CASE PRESENTATION: Three individuals in a family of five developed COVID-19 confirmed by PCR, following a trip abroad. Three to four weeks after the onset of symptoms, three commercial ELISAs and an in-house immunofluorescence test demonstrated antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. An in-house neutralisation test also demonstrated neutralising antibodies. INTERPRETATION: The in-house assays and one commercial assay gave congruent results, which were also consistent with the initial PCR and/or clinical evaluation, indicating prior infection in three of the five family members. The other commercial assays indicated possible infection in a fourth family member, but this result was likely due to cross-reactivity. The neutralising antibodies suggest complete or partial immunity against reinfection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Betacoronavirus , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Saúde da Família , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Testes de Neutralização , Pandemias , Testes Sorológicos
10.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the 2% of US children being raised by their grandparents. We sought to characterize and compare grandparent- and parent-headed households with respect to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), child temperament, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and caregiver aggravation and coping. METHODS: Using a combined data set of children ages 3 to 17 from the 2016, 2017, and 2018 National Survey of Children's Health, we applied survey regression procedures, adjusted for sociodemographic confounders, to compare grandparent- and parent-headed households on composite and single-item outcome measures of ACEs; ADHD; preschool inattention and restlessness; child temperament; and caregiver aggravation, coping, support, and interactions with children. RESULTS: Among 80 646 households (2407 grandparent-headed, 78 239 parent-headed), children in grandparent-headed households experienced more ACEs (ß = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07 to 1.38). Preschool-aged and school-aged children in grandparent-headed households were more likely to have ADHD (adjusted odds ratio = 4.29, 95% CI: 2.22 to 8.28; adjusted odds ratio = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.34 to 2.20). School-aged children in these households had poorer temperament (ßadj = .25, 95% CI: -0.63 to 1.14), and their caregivers experienced greater aggravation (ßadj = .29, 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.49). However, these differences were not detected after excluding children with ADHD from the sample. No differences were noted between grandparent- and parent-headed households for caregiver coping, emotional support, or interactions with children. CONCLUSIONS: Despite caring for children with greater developmental problems and poorer temperaments, grandparent caregivers seem to cope with parenting about as well as parents.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Família , Avós/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalos de Confiança , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Avós/educação , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/educação , Agitação Psicomotora/epidemiologia , Família de Pais Solteiros/psicologia , Família de Pais Solteiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio Social , Temperamento
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 526, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the spread of SARS-CoV-2 worldwide, understanding the basic epidemiological parameter values of COVID-19 from real-world data in mega-cities is essential for disease prevention and control. METHODS: To investigate the epidemiological parameters in SARS-CoV-2 infected cases in Beijing, we studied all confirmed cases and close contacts in Beijing from Jan 1st to Apr 3rd 2020. The epidemiological and virological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 602 cases were positive for SARS-CoV-2, including 585 confirmed patients and 17 asymptomatic infections. The imported cases were mainly from Wuhan initially and then from abroad. Among 585 confirmed case-patients, the median age was 39 years old. The mean incubation period was 6.3 days. The secondary attack rate among households was higher than social contacts (15.6 vs 4.6%). The secondary attack rate of healthcare workers (HCWs) was higher than non-HCWs' (7.3 vs 4.2%). The basic reproduction number was 2.0, and the average serial interval was 7.6 days. No significant genetic variant was identified. CONCLUSIONS: The transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 was relatively high, especially among households and from HCWs, which draws specific public health attention. So far, no evidence of widespread circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in communities in Beijing was found.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Número Básico de Reprodução/estatística & dados numéricos , Pequim/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Características da Família , Saúde da Família/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e145, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631470

RESUMO

We report a family cluster of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection involving five patients in a family cluster in Dazhou, China, including the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and radiological findings. Three-generation transmission was observed. Through epidemiological investigation, we observed asymptomatic transmission to a cohabiting family member, as well as person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 outside Wuhan city. The asymptomatic transmission demonstrated here provides evidence that there could be a greater risk of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread. This cluster also demonstrated that COVID-19 is transmissible during the incubation period of an asymptomatic person. Early isolation and treatment, stressing prevention of cluster outbreaks, could help prevent further spread of the epidemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Assintomáticas , China , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Viagem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635599

RESUMO

Within the home environment, parents influence their children's dietary intakes through their parenting and dietary practices, and the foods they make available/accessible. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the associations between home environmental characteristics and children's dietary intakes. Three hundred and thirty-two children aged three-five years and their parents participated in the study. Home environmental characteristics, including parental control feeding practices, were explored using validated and standardized questionnaires such as the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ), the Physical and Nutritional Home Environment Inventory (PNHEI) and the Healthy Home Survey (HHS). Parent and child food consumption was also measured. Pressure to eat from parents was associated with lower fruit intake in children (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.96, p = 0.032). Greater variety of fruit available in the home increased the likelihood of fruit consumption in children (OR 1.35 95% CI 1.09-1.68, p = 0.005). Watching television for ≥1 h per day was associated with a decreased probability of children eating vegetables daily (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.20-0.72, p = 0.003) and doubled their likelihood of consuming confectionary/sugar-sweetened beverages more than once weekly (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.06-4.38, p = 0.034). Children whose parents had lower vegetable consumption were 59% less likely to eat vegetables daily. This study demonstrates that modifiable home environmental characteristics are significantly associated with children's dietary intakes.


Assuntos
Dieta , Frutas , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Verduras , Bebidas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Saúde da Família , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Gerokomos (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 31(2): 71-75, jun. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193886

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Describir la participación del familiar cuidador para el confort de las personas mayores de 65 años hospitalizadas, según la percepción de las enfermeras y los familiares cuidadores en un hospital público de Lambayeque, Perú. MÉTODOS: Investigación cualitativa exploratoria descriptiva; la muestra fue de 20 informantes previo consentimiento informado. Los datos fueron recolectados mediante la entrevista semiestructurada y procesados según análisis de contenido temático. RESULTADOS: Emergieron tres categorías: a) participación en los cuidados básicos: confort del cuerpo; b) estrategias para el descanso y sueño: confort del ambiente; c) afecto, ánimo y fe: contribución al confort emocional y espiritual. CONCLUSIONES: La permanencia hospitalaria genera incomodidades en las personas adultas mayores, pero el familiar cuidador participa activamente en la satisfacción de las necesidades básicas como la higiene, alimentación, tendido de cama, evitación del dolor y de los ruidos, iluminación adecuada, seguridad, afecto, esperanza y fe; cuidados orientados a proporcionarles un entorno tranquilo y agradable que les ayuda en el descanso y sueño, la adaptación, la recuperación y la calidad de vida. Es indispensable que el personal de enfermería capacite al familiar cuidador y lo prepare para colaborar en el cuidado tanto en la hospitalización como en el hogar


OBJECTIVE: To describe the participation of the family caregiver for the comfort of people over 65 hospitalized, according to the perception of nurses and family caregivers in a public hospital in Lambayeque, Peru. METHODS: Descriptive exploratory qualitative research, the sample was 20 informants with informed consent. The data was collected through the semi-structured interview and processed according to thematic content analysis. RESULTS: Three categories emerged: a) Participation in basic care: Body comfort; b) Strategies for rest and sleep: Comfort of the environment; c) Affection, encouragement and faith: Contribution to emotional and spiritual comfort. CONCLUSIONS: The hospital stay generates discomfort in older adults, but the family caregiver actively participates in the satisfaction of basic needs such as hygiene, food, laying of bed, avoidance of pain and noise, adequate lighting, safety, affection, hope and faith; care oriented to provide a peaceful and pleasant environment that helps them in rest and sleep, adaptation, recovery and quality of life. It is essential that the nursing staff trains the family caregiver and prepares them to collaborate in the care of both the hospitalization and the home


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidadores/psicologia , Conforto do Paciente , Percepção , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Enfermagem Geriátrica/educação , Cuidadores/tendências , Saúde da Família , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Descanso/psicologia , Sono , Afeto , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3074, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555176

RESUMO

Polygenic risk scores are emerging as a potentially powerful tool to predict future phenotypes of target individuals, typically using unrelated individuals, thereby devaluing information from relatives. Here, for 50 traits from the UK Biobank data, we show that a design of 5,000 individuals with first-degree relatives of target individuals can achieve a prediction accuracy similar to that of around 220,000 unrelated individuals (mean prediction accuracy = 0.26 vs. 0.24, mean fold-change = 1.06 (95% CI: 0.99-1.13), P-value = 0.08), despite a 44-fold difference in sample size. For lifestyle traits, the prediction accuracy with 5,000 individuals including first-degree relatives of target individuals is significantly higher than that with 220,000 unrelated individuals (mean prediction accuracy = 0.22 vs. 0.16, mean fold-change = 1.40 (1.17-1.62), P-value = 0.025). Our findings suggest that polygenic prediction integrating family information may help to accelerate precision health and clinical intervention.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Saúde da Família , Herança Multifatorial , Medição de Risco/métodos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reino Unido
17.
Pediatr Emerg Med Pract ; 17(Suppl 6-1): 1-27, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496723

RESUMO

Although there is still much that is not understood, experience with previous coronavirus outbreaks and available data on COVID-19 indicate a reduced propensity to affect children. Nonetheless, serious complications­although rare­are being seen in pediatric patients. This review, written with the emergency medicine clinician in mind, describes the epidemiology, clinical features, and management implications for COVID-19 in pediatric patients. It includes a discussion of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19, as well as other aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic that are affecting children and families, such as poisonings, childhood immunizations, mental health, nonaccidental trauma, and neglect.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Emergências , Saúde da Família , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570808

RESUMO

Gerontological scholarship has long seen the environment to be a silent partner in aging. Environmental Gerontology, an established approach in Social Gerontology, has shown how the everyday lives of older adults are deeply entangled in socio-spatial environments. Adopting an Environmental Gerontology approach, we explore social and cultural dimensions of the association between out-of-home mobility and wellbeing among older adults in a north western city of India. This was established by combining high resolution time-space data collected using GPS receivers, questionnaire data and time diaries. Following a multi-staged analytical strategy, we first examine the correlation between out-of-home mobility and wellbeing using bivariate correlation. Second, we introduce gender and family structure into regression models as moderating variables to improve the models' explanatory power. Finally, we use our results to reinterpret the Ecological Press Model of Aging to include familial structure as a factor that moderates environmental stress. Findings emphasize the central role that social constructs play in the long-established relationship between the environment and the wellbeing of older adults.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Saúde da Família , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Cidades , Feminino , Geriatria , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234570, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Family Health Surveys (NFHS) in India apply adult cutoffs of nutritional status for the estimation of undernutrition/overweight in the 15-19 age group. The prevalence of thinness in boys and girls thus estimated is 58.1% and 46.8% in NFHS-3, and 45% and 42% in NFHS-4 respectively. But the WHO recommends using age and sex-specific reference for adolescents. We reanalyzed the nutritional status of the adolescents using the WHO 2007 Growth Reference to obtain revised estimates of thinness, overweight and stunting across states, rural-urban residence, and wealth quintiles. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Demographic information, anthropometric data, and wealth index were accessed from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) database. We re-analyzed the anthropometric data using WHO AnthroPlus software which uses the WHO 2007 Growth reference. The revised estimates of thinness assessed by BMI-for-age z-scores in boys and girls was 22.3% (95%CI: 21.6, 23.0) and 9.9% (95%CI: 9.5, 10.3) in NFHS-3 and 16.5% (95%CI: 16.0,17.0) and 9% (95%CI: 8.9, 9.2) in NFHS-4 respectively. Stunting was found to be 32.2% (95% CI: 31.6, 32.9) in boys and 34.4% (95% CI: 34.2, 34.7) in girls in NFHS-4. This was higher than that in NFHS-3; 25.2% (95% CI: 24.4, 26) in boys and 31.2 (95% CI: 30.6, 31.8) in girls. There was a clear socioeconomic gradient as there were higher thinness and stunting in rural areas. There was wide variation among the states with pockets of a double burden of malnutrition. CONCLUSION: Using the adult cutoffs significantly overestimates thinness in adolescents in the age group of 15-19 years old in India. Stunting, which is an indicator of long term nutrition is also widely prevalent in them. Future editions of DHS and NFHS should consider adolescents as a separate age group for nutritional assessment for a better understanding of nutritional transition in the population.


Assuntos
Saúde da Família , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , População Rural , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Magreza/epidemiologia , Magreza/etiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(9): 1229-1236, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, when it first occurred in Wuhan, China, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly worldwide via human-to-human transmission. We aimed to describe the epidemiological and demographic features of COVID-19 outside Wuhan. METHODS: A single-center case series of 136 consecutive (from January 16 to February 17, 2020) patients with confirmed COVID-19 hospitalized in The First People's Hospital of Jingzhou, China, was retrospectively analyzed. Outcomes were followed up until February 19, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 136 patients (median age, 49 years; interquartile range [IQR], 33-63 years; range, 0.3-83 years), 91 (67%) had been to Wuhan or contacted persons from Wuhan. Forty-five (33.1%) were familial clusters. The median incubation period was 6 days (IQR: 4-11 days). All children had an exact exposure history, family members with COVID-19, and "Mild/Moderate" symptoms at admission. Among the 64 elderly patients, 14 (21.9%) had no exposure history, and 43 (67.2%) had a chronic illness. All 11 (8.1%) "Severe/very severe" illness at onset cases and 5 (3.7%) fatal cases were elderly patients. The duration from symptom onset to admission was positively correlated with the duration from symptom onset to endpoint. Overall, patients with a longer incubation period had more severe outcomes. CONCLUSION: As high-risk susceptible groups, strong protection should be implemented for children and the elderly. Universal screening should be performed for people with a clear exposure history, even lacking apparent symptoms. Given the rapid progression of COVID-19, people should be admitted quickly following symptom onset.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidade do Paciente , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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