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1.
Index enferm ; 28(1/2): 13-17, ene.-jun. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184976

RESUMO

Objetivo: Describir los significados de la maternidad para un grupo de mujeres autoidentificadas como afrodescendientes. Metodología: Investigación cualitativa, con enfoque etnográfico. Previo aval de un Comité de Ética se realizaron observaciones no participantes, entrevistas y grupos focales. El análisis se guio por el método de las comparaciones constantes. Resultados principales: Para estas mujeres la maternidad significa una decisión libre versus un deseo creado, una responsabilidad de la mujer afro y un vínculo eterno. Conclusión principal: Los significados que estas mujeres asignaron a la maternidad confluyen en la vivencia de la maternidad como una etapa positiva pero frustrante, pues se resaltan las particularidades que responden a la cultura en relación con el machismo y la importancia de la mujer afrodescendiente en la preservación de las prácticas y creencias de su grupo étnico


Objective: Describe the meanings about motherhood for a self-identified women group as afro-descendants. Methods: Qualitative research with an ethnographic approach. Approved by an ethics committee. Non-participant observations, interviews and focus groups were made. The analysis was guided by constants comparisons method. Results: Motherhood means a free decision versus a created wish, a responsibility of the Afro-descendant women and an eternal bond. Conclusions: Meanings that these women gave to motherhood brings with the meaning that motherhood is a positive and frustrating experience at the same time because responds to the cultural particularities in regard to machismo and to the importance that the ethnic group assign to the women in the preservation of the Afro-descendants practices and beliefs


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Enfermagem Materno-Infantil , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher/tendências
2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 111, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is a growing public health problem, with pregnant women being particularly vulnerable due to its influences on maternal and neonatal outcomes. However, there are limited data published about mediators of vitamin D status in Louisiana women. We aimed to assess the vitamin D status and its determinants among low-income pregnant and non-pregnant reproductive-aged women from southeast Louisiana. METHODS: This study was conducted using data from the Gulf Resilience on Women's Health (GROWH) research consortium cohort of pregnant and non-pregnant women which contained sociodemographic and dietary variables as well as blood and salivary element concentrations. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 86 pregnant and 98 non-pregnant women with an even distribution of race in both groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of deficient vitamin D levels in the total cohort (184 women) was 67% and the mean 25(OH) vitamin D3 was 24.1 ng/mL (SD 10.7). Self-identifying as White, being pregnant, autumn season, young age and high exposure to tobacco smoke measured by cotinine were significantly associated with higher serum levels of vitamin D. Visiting Women and Infant clinics (WIC) was an important determinant in improving 25(OH) vitamin D3 levels for Black women but not for White women and concentrations varied more among Black women across seasons compared to White women. CONCLUSIONS: Serum vitamin D levels are inadequate among a high proportion of Black and White low-income pregnant and reproductive-aged women living in Southeast Louisiana who were enrolled in the GROWH study. Black women who are over 35 years old and non-WIC participants constitute the subpopulation most at risk for vitamin D deficiency, especially during the winter. As an overall higher level of deficiency exists in Black women, if even small behavioral and dietary modifications are produced by WIC, this can lead to a comparatively greater improvement in vitamin D status in women from Southeast Louisiana who self-identify as Black.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Pobreza/etnologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etnologia , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etnologia , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Womens Health Issues ; 29(3): 222-230, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755363

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the patterns of foreign-born Hispanic health convergence to U.S.-born Hispanics using an allostatic load index, a subjective biological risk health profile, and we explored whether the health convergence patterns differ by sex. METHODS: The analytic sample consisted of 3,347 Hispanics from the pooled 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used negative binomial regression models to investigate the association between duration in the United States and the allostatic load index, while controlling for potential covariates. RESULTS: Foreign-born Hispanics who had lived in the United States for 0-9 years and 10-19 years had lower levels of allostatic load than U.S.-born Hispanics; however, those who had lived in the United States for 20 or more years had a level of allostatic load similar to their U.S.-born counterparts. The pattern of immigrant health convergence shows a clear sex difference. In the sex-stratified models, we found that foreign-born Hispanic men converged to the level of allostatic load of U.S.-born Hispanic men after having lived in the United States for approximately 10 years. The health convergence pattern qualitatively differed for foreign-born Hispanic women, who remained healthier than U.S.-born Hispanic women regardless of duration in the United States. CONCLUSIONS: Foreign-born Hispanics are healthier than their U.S.-born counterparts, providing support for the healthy migrant hypothesis. This relatively better health of foreign-born Hispanics disappears with a longer duration in the United States, providing support for the health convergence hypothesis, but is most noticeable for men. Foreign-born Hispanic women converge to U.S.-born Hispanic women's health status at a slower tempo, compared with foreign-born Hispanic men.


Assuntos
Alostase , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/etnologia
4.
Health Care Women Int ; 40(1): 102-117, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676889

RESUMO

Current understandings of the effects trauma exposure on women's health are limited because prior research has largely focused on intimate partner and sexual violence in homogenous samples. In this descriptive study, the authors examined the relationships between lifetime trauma exposure and psychological well-being among women across the Pacific Rim. Psychological well-being differed significantly between the four locations and increased trauma exposures were related to poorer psychological well-being across and within locations. The authors report relevant findings on the relationship between trauma exposure and psychological well-being and provide evidence for future research to enhance knowledge on the effects of trauma in women's lives.


Assuntos
Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 9, 2019 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence regarding the ways in which displacement disrupts social norms, expectations and trajectories for adolescent girls and young women and the resulting impacts on their risks of violence. This knowledge gap is especially marked with regards to Syrian adolescent girls and young women seeking refuge in Turkey. We explored risks of gender-based violence against Syrian adolescent girls and young women in Turkey and examined how these risks were shaped by their displacement. METHODS: Data were collected in August 2016 in Izmir, Turkey through five sex-specific focus group discussions with Syrian adolescents and young people (aged 15-25 years) and two mixed gender focus group discussions with Syrian adults (18 years and older). Group discussions covered the issues facing Syrian adolescents and young women in Turkey, and how these were influenced by their displacement. Discussions in Arabic were audio-recorded, transcribed and translated into English. Data were coded inductively, and analysed thematically. RESULTS: Syrian adolescent girls and young women expressed an increased sense of vulnerability to violence since their displacement. Due to financial strains and limited educational opportunities, they were often encouraged by parents to work or marry, both of which they perceived to increase the risks of violence. In contrast, some adults suggested that marriage could protect adolescent girls and young women from risks of violence associated with working. Being alone outside the home was viewed as risky by all participants due to pervasive sexual, verbal and physical harassment, aggression, and even kidnapping attempts. To limit these risks, many parents reported keeping adolescent girls and young women at home, or ensuring that they were accompanied by male relatives when in public. CONCLUSIONS: Syrian adolescent girls and young women face multiple risks of violence following displacement related to altered social trajectories. Some family-based strategies to protect young women from violence could reinforce restrictive gender norms and increase risks of violence. Interventions to address violence should include providing safe spaces, access to education and safe transport for young women, and financial support for families as well as community-based interventions to address the daily risks of sexual harassment in public spaces.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Refugiados/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Síria/etnologia , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 98(2): 232-239, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252134

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immigrants and their offspring constitute 16.3% of the population in Norway. Knowledge about their contraceptive use is important in order to inform adequate family planning services. Prior research has shown less use of contraception among first-generation immigrants than among non-immigrant women. Our aim is to compare the use of hormonal contraceptives between immigrants and their adult daughters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information from the Norwegian Prescription Database on all hormonal contraceptives dispensed at all pharmacies in Norway in 2008 was merged with demographic, socioeconomic and immigration data from the National Population Register and information from the Regular General Practitioner Database and the Medical Birth Registry Norway. A total of 10 451 women aged 16-30 from five countries with relatively large numbers of immigrants and adult daughters living in Norway in 2008 were included in the study. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The main outcome measure was use of any hormonal contraceptive. RESULTS: More daughters of immigrants from Vietnam compared with immigrant women from these countries (odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-2.8) and Poland (OR 2.3, 95% CI: 1.6-3.3) used hormonal contraceptives. However, no adjusted differences between generations were detected for immigrants from Pakistan (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.4), Morocco (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.7-1.4) or Chile (OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.8-1.9). CONCLUSIONS: Further research should explore the reasons for heterogeneity in use of contraception among daughters of immigrants from different origins and explore whether daughters of immigrant mothers from some areas have unmet needs of contraception.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Saúde da Mulher , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepção/métodos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/métodos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Noruega/epidemiologia , Núcleo Familiar , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Qual Health Res ; 29(5): 747-757, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30293483

RESUMO

This article explores how six Pakistani Muslim women interpret cultural concepts of izzat (honor and self-respect); what role, if any, it has in their lives; and whether there is interplay between upholding izzat and the participants' help-seeking strategies for mental health and well-being. Semistructured interviews were conducted and analyzed with an interpretative phenomenological analytic framework. Three themes were identified: (a) "the rules of izzat," (b) "negotiating tensions," and (c) "speaking out/breaking the 'rules.'" Findings highlighted new insights into the understanding of izzat and the implications these cultural concepts have for strategies in managing or silencing of psychological distress. Interviews illustrated tensions the participants experience when considering izzat, how these are negotiated to enable them to self-manage or seek help, and possible life experiences that might lead to self-harm and attempted suicide. Notably, cultural codes, in particular izzat, appear to vary over the life course and are influenced by migration.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Características Culturais , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Islamismo , Londres , Paquistão/etnologia , Respeito , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/etnologia , Apoio Social , Suicídio/etnologia , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Ethn Health ; 24(2): 147-167, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28406041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ethnic and racial health disparities have been well-documented in the scholarly literature. In recent years, evidence about time spent in physical (in)activity and its relationship to physical and mental health has also emerged. This study assesses if observed ethnic/racial health differences were associated with differences in time use. DESIGN: Our analyses utilized baseline data from 510 Utah women who enrolled in one of two community-based, participatory research intervention studies between 2012 and 2015. The distinct racial/ethnic groups included African immigrants, African Americans, Latinas, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, and rural White, Non-Latina women. In the baseline survey, respondents reported the typical time they spent in paid employment, television/movie viewing, physical activity, food preparation/clean-up, and sleep. Cluster analysis was used to identify seven distinct patterns of time use within these five activities. We related these time use patterns along with race/ethnicity, socio-demographics, and other potentially contributing health-related factors (e.g. smoking status) to two health outcomes: (1) self-reported health status, and (2) depression. RESULTS: Our time use clusters revealed heterogeneity by racial/ethnic groups, suggesting that some of the health effects that may have been previously ascribed to group membership should instead be attributed to (un)healthy patterns of time use. In particular, spending too much time in sedentary activities such as watching television/movies and too little time sleeping both linked to poor physical and mental health, independently of racial/ethnic group membership. CONCLUSIONS: Researchers and policy makers designing culturally sensitive physical activity health-related interventions should consider patterns of time use that are associated with poor health. Programs designed to improve sleep time and reduce sedentary television-viewing time may be as important as interventions designed to increase physical activity time. These broader patterns of time use mediated the relationships between race/ethnicity and physical and mental health for the women in our study.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais , Depressão/psicologia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Idoso , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Utah
9.
Res Aging ; 41(2): 186-210, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30213232

RESUMO

A large body of research finds that the association between educational attainment and health is at historic highs for White women. Rapid changes in labor force participation, access to high-paying jobs, and gender attitudes have radically altered the meaning of education for women's lives and their dependence on the socioeconomic attainments of their families. Drawing on three nationally representative longitudinal surveys conducted from 1967 to 2012, this study examines how personal, parental, and spousal attainments contribute to the widening education gap in health for successive cohorts of White women ( N = 8,405). Overall, the health of women did not change substantially across cohorts, but results did uncover cohort differences among low-educated women that were linked to parental and spousal educational attainments and personal earnings. These findings confirm growing educational inequalities in health and demonstrate the importance of historical context and family attainments when examining cohort variation in the education-health relationship.


Assuntos
Efeito de Coortes , Escolaridade , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Fatores Etários , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais , Cônjuges , Estados Unidos , Saúde da Mulher/tendências
11.
Menopause ; 25(11): 1244-1255, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30358720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine sexual function in a cohort of Baby Boomer women of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds; to compare differences between pre-and early perimenopausal women; and to identify sociodemographic, health-related, and psychosocial (including psychological, behavioral, and relationship) factors related to sexual function. DESIGN: Six domains of sexual function were studied in 3,167 women in the baseline cohort of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Participants were 42 to 52 years old, pre-or early perimenopausal, and not using hormones. The study sample included non-Hispanic white, African American, Hispanic, Chinese, and Japanese women. RESULTS: Early perimenopausal women reported greater pain with intercourse than premenopausal women (P = 0.01), but the two groups did not differ in frequency of sexual intercourse, desire, arousal, or physical or emotional satisfaction. Variables having the greatest association across all outcomes were relationship factors, the perceived importance of sex, attitudes toward aging, and vaginal dryness. Despite controlling for a wide range of variables, we still found ethnic differences for arousal (P < 0.0001), pain (P = 0.03), desire (P < 0.0001), and frequency of sexual intercourse (P = 0.0003). African American women reported higher frequency of sexual intercourse than white women; Hispanic women reported lower physical pleasure and arousal. Chinese women reported more pain and less desire and arousal than the white women, as did the Japanese women, although the only significant difference was for arousal. CONCLUSIONS: Relationship variables, attitudes toward sex and aging, vaginal dryness, and cultural background have a greater impact on most aspects of sexual function than the transition to early perimenopause.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Perimenopausa/etnologia , Pré-Menopausa/etnologia , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etnologia , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Dor/fisiopatologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Bioeth Inq ; 15(4): 549-555, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30117063

RESUMO

According to the World Health Organization, female genital cutting affects millions of girls and women worldwide, particularly on the African continent and in the Middle East. This paper presents a plausible, albeit hypothetical, clinical vignette and then explores the legal landscape as well as the ethical landscape physicians should use to evaluate the adult patient who requests re-infibulation. The principles of non-maleficence, beneficence, justice, and autonomy are considered for guidance, and physician conscientious objection to this procedure is discussed as well. Analyses of law and predominant principles of bioethics fail to yield a clear answer regarding performing female genital cutting or re-infibulation on an adult in the United States. Physicians should consider the patient's physical, mental, and social health when thinking about female genital cutting and should understand the deep-rooted cultural significance of the practice.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos , Circuncisão Feminina/ética , Obstetrícia , Preferência do Paciente/etnologia , Gestantes/etnologia , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Características Culturais , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Obstetrícia/ética , Gravidez
13.
Nutrients ; 10(7)2018 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986412

RESUMO

We estimated iodine status (median urinary iodine concentration (mUIC (µg/L))) for the US population (6 years and over; n = 4613) and women of reproductive age (WRA) (15⁻44 years; n = 901). We estimated mean intake of key iodine sources by race and Hispanic origin. We present the first national estimates of mUIC for non-Hispanic Asian persons and examine the intake of soy products, a potential source of goitrogens. One-third of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants in 2011⁻2014 provided casual urine samples; UIC was measured in these samples. We assessed dietary intake with one 24-h recall and created food groups using the USDA’s food/beverage coding scheme. For WRA, mUIC was 110 µg/L. For both non-Hispanic white (106 µg/L) and non-Hispanic Asian (81 µg/L) WRA mUIC was significantly lower than mUIC among Hispanic WRA (133 µg/L). Non-Hispanic black WRA had a mUIC of 124 µg/L. Dairy consumption was significantly higher among non-Hispanic white (162 g) compared to non-Hispanic black WRA (113 g). Soy consumption was also higher among non-Hispanic Asian WRA (18 g compared to non-Hispanic black WRA (1 g). Differences in the consumption pattern of key sources of iodine and goitrogens may put subgroups of individuals at risk of mild iodine deficiency. Continued monitoring of iodine status and variations in consumption patterns is needed.


Assuntos
Deficiências Nutricionais/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Estado Nutricional , Saúde Reprodutiva , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Saúde da Mulher , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/urina , Deficiências Nutricionais/diagnóstico , Deficiências Nutricionais/etnologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Iodo/deficiência , Iodo/urina , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Saúde Reprodutiva/etnologia , Fatores Sexuais , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/urina , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Rev. pesqui. cuid. fundam. (Online) ; 10(3): 847-855, jul.-set. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-906745

RESUMO

Objective: Herein, we have aimed to gain knowledge regarding the meanings of health care assigned by a community of quilombola women. Methods: It is a qualitative research with anthropological approach in quilombola women. The data obtained by the focus group technique were submitted to content analysis according to the operative proposal and interpretative anthropology. Results: The health care meanings assigned by the quilombola women are related to work, feeding, physical activities and actions to prevent diseases, such as subjecting to medical examinations and practicing safe sex. Conclusions: This study showed that the health care meanings assigned by the quilombola women are considered cultural products, which must be understood within the context that they were developed and observed from a cultural perspective


Objetivo: Conhecer os significados atribuídos por mulheres de uma comunidade quilombola ao cuidado à saúde. Método: estudo qualitativo descritivo, com vertente antropológica, realizado com mulheres quilombolas. Os dados foram produzidos por meio da técnica de grupo focal, analisados conforme a análise de conteúdo temática da proposta operativa e interpretados sob o prisma da antropologia interpretativa. Resultados: os significados atribuídos pelas mulheres ao cuidado à saúde estão condicionados ao trabalho, alimentação, higiene, atividade física e ações de prevenção de agravos à saúde, a partir da realização de exames preventivos e da prática de sexo seguro. Conclusões: os significados atrelados pelas mulheres quilombolas sobre o cuidado à saúde são considerados produtos culturais, que devem ser apreendidos dentro do contexto em que foram construídos e observados sob uma perspectiva cultural


Objetivo: Conocer los significados asignados a las mujeres de una comunidad quilombola el cuidado de la salud. Método: estudio cualitativo descriptivo, con filamento antropológico, con mujeres quilombolas. Los datos fueron producidos a través de la técnica de grupo focal, analizados según la análisis de contenido temático da propuesta operativa y interpretados bajo el prisma de la antropología interpretativa. Resultados: los significados asignados por las mujeres el cuidado de la salud están condicionados en trabajo, alimentacion, higiene, actividad física y prevención de enfermedades para la salud, a partir de la realización de examinaciones preventivos y la práctica de sexo seguro. Conslusiones: los significados asignados por las mujeres quilombolas a cerca de el cuidado de la salud se consideran productos culturales, que deben ser agarrados en el contexto en que fueron construidos y observados bajo una perspectiva cultural


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/história , Características Culturais , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia
15.
J Community Health ; 43(6): 1172-1181, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29926272

RESUMO

Stress is associated with poor mental and physical health outcomes. In the United States (U.S.), little is known about perceived stress and associated factors among HIV-infected and immigrant women. Here, we examine these associations within a sample of 305 HIV-infected and uninfected, U.S.-born and non-U.S.-born women who were part of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) at three sites (New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles). Perceived stress was measured using the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10); HIV infection was serologically confirmed, and nativity status was self-reported. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify associations with perceived stress. The majority of participants were U.S.-born (232, 76.1%) and were HIV-infected (212, 68.5%). Mutlivariable analyses found the odds of perceived stress to be lower for those employed [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) = (0.15-0.63)], with high levels of social support (AOR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.26-0.79), and HIV-infected (AOR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.79). Perceived stress was positively associated with living in unstable housing (AOR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.17-5.51). Here, immigration status was not associated with perceived stress. We identified stress to be higher among women who were unemployed, unstably housed, or who had low social support. Community-based programs should tailor interventions to include stress reduction strategies for participants with identified risk factors to improve mental and physical health outcomes.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Adulto , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social , Estados Unidos
16.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 71: 1-8, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Latinas suffer disproportionately from breast cancer (BC) in part due to lower guideline-concordant screening. Multiple intervention approaches have been developed to promote screening through direct patient education and empowerment approaches (i.e., training community members to share BC information). This study compares the relative effects of these approaches on: 1) women's BC screening; and, 2) women's dissemination of BC information within their social networks. DESIGN/METHODS: Our quasi-experimental trial is being implemented in community venues in two predominantly Latino neighborhoods in South and West Chicago. Eligible participants: 1) are female; 2) are 52-74 years old; 3) have not obtained a mammogram in the past 2 years; and, 4) have not previously participated in health-related volunteerism. Based on their geographic location, participants are assigned to one of two group-based interventions. Both interventions consist of three two-hour sessions, which includes BC early detection education. The education intervention sessions also covers BC prevention (diet, physical activity), whereas the empowerment intervention covers sharing information with family/friends, and health volunteerism. Navigation is provided for all women who wish to obtain mammograms. Primary outcomes include: 1) receipt of BC screening; and, 2) participants' dissemination of BC information. Secondary outcomes include positive changes in 1) participants' self-reported psychosocial facilitators; and, 2) social network members' BC behaviors. DISCUSSION: The design of our program allows for a preliminary comparison of the effectiveness of these two approaches. This work will inform larger comparativeness trials and offers a new approach to intervention evaluation via social network analysis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Hispano-Americanos , Mamografia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/educação , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Mamografia/métodos , Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Participação do Paciente/métodos , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia
17.
Med Anthropol ; 37(7): 582-596, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29634371

RESUMO

In this article I propose the notion of domestic mood as an important concept for mental health research. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among women living in Hanoi, Vietnam, I explore the maternal mental health problems that the women reported, focusing particularly on the household tensions and conflicts that made the entry into motherhood a distressful experience. To develop the concept of domestic mood, I draw on Martin Heidegger's work, particularly his claim that human being is always a being-with. Comprehending maternal mental health problems, I argue, requires that we pay attention not only to individual states of mind, but also to the ways that domestic environments shape people's moods. Taking this analytical approach, I show how the mental health states of pregnant women and new mothers in Vietnam were inseparable from their husbands' structural vulnerabilities within kin groups.


Assuntos
Depressão/etnologia , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Mães/psicologia , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Adulto , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Estresse Psicológico , Vietnã/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(6): 636-643, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29678902

RESUMO

Background: Risk prediction models have been widely used to identify women at higher risk of breast cancer. We aimed to develop a model for absolute breast cancer risk prediction for Nigerian women.Methods: A total of 1,811 breast cancer cases and 2,225 controls from the Nigerian Breast Cancer Study (NBCS, 1998-2015) were included. Subjects were randomly divided into the training and validation sets. Incorporating local incidence rates, multivariable logistic regressions were used to develop the model.Results: The NBCS model included age, age at menarche, parity, duration of breastfeeding, family history of breast cancer, height, body mass index, benign breast diseases, and alcohol consumption. The model developed in the training set performed well in the validation set. The discriminating accuracy of the NBCS model [area under ROC curve (AUC) = 0.703, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.687-0.719] was better than the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS) model (AUC = 0.605; 95% CI, 0.586-0.624), Gail model for white population (AUC = 0.551; 95% CI, 0.531-0.571), and Gail model for black population (AUC = 0.545; 95% CI, 0.525-0.565). Compared with the BWHS and two Gail models, the net reclassification improvement of the NBCS model were 8.26%, 13.45%, and 14.19%, respectively.Conclusions: We have developed a breast cancer risk prediction model specific to women in Nigeria, which provides a promising and indispensable tool to identify women in need of breast cancer early detection in Sub-Saharan Africa populations.Impact: Our model is the first breast cancer risk prediction model in Africa. It can be used to identify women at high risk for breast cancer screening. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(6); 636-43. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Nigéria , Fatores de Risco
19.
Am J Epidemiol ; 187(7): 1420-1423, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29390092

RESUMO

Circulating levels of vitamin D are generally lower in African Americans than in US whites, and 1 prior analysis carried out in a small number of African Americans suggested that, within this population, vitamin D levels may be related to the degree of genetic admixture. We assessed the association between percentage of European ancestry and serum vitamin D level (assessed in 2013-2015) among 2,183 African-American women from the Black Women's Health Study whose DNA had been genotyped for ancestry-informative markers. ADMIXMAP software was used to estimate the percentage of European ancestry versus African ancestry in each individual. In linear regression analyses with adjustment for genotype batch, age, body mass index, supplemental vitamin D use, ultraviolet B radiation flux in the participant's state of residence, and season of blood draw, each 10% increase in European ancestry was associated with a 0.67-ng/mL increase in serum vitamin D concentration (95% confidence interval: 0.17, 1.17). The association was statistically significant only among women who were not taking vitamin D supplements (for each 10% increase in European ancestry, ß = 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.14, 1.57). Among African Americans, use of vitamin D supplements may help to reduce vitamin D deficiency associated with genetic ancestry.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etnologia , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
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