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1.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 148(4): 1824, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138499

RESUMO

Peru declared a state of emergency on March 16 in order to prevent SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) transmissions; thus, the International Airport was closed and the soundscape of urban zones under the flight tracks have been changed in view of the fact that airplane traffic was suspended. The authors have been conducting noise monitoring since February and because of that sufficient noise data for knowing the soundscape before and during the lockdown were obtained. This article presents a case of aircraft annoyance noise in one of Lima's city districts, which is near the aircraft climbing curve, toward the ocean on departure from Lima.


Assuntos
Viagem Aérea , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Humor Irritável , Ruído dos Transportes/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Isolamento Social , Saúde da População Urbana , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Peru , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Espectrografia do Som , Fatores de Tempo
2.
mSphere ; 5(5)2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028688

RESUMO

The objective was to analyze the longitudinal distribution, epidemiological characteristics, and local prevention and control measures of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in six cities in Henan Province, China, from 21 January 2020 to 17 June 2020: Xinyang City (including Gushi County), Nanyang City (including Dengzhou City), Zhumadian City (including Xincai County), Zhengzhou City (including Gongyi City), Puyang City, and Anyang City (including Hua County). Data were collected and analyzed through the COVID-19 information published on the official websites of the health commissions in the six selected cities of Henan Province. As of 17 June 2020, the cumulative incidence rate of COVID-19 in Henan Province was 1.33/100,000, the cumulative cure rate was 98.27%, the cumulative mortality rate was 1.73%, the age range of diagnosed cases was 5 days to 85 years old, and the male-to-female ratio was 1.09:1. The confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Henan Province were mainly imported cases from Hubei, accounting for 87.74% of all cases, of which the highest proportion was 70.50% in Zhumadian. The contact cases and local cases increased in a fluctuating manner over time. In this paper, epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in Henan Province were analyzed from the onset of the outbreak to the effective control within 60 days, and effective and distinctive prevention and control measures in various cities were summarized to provide a favorable useful reference for the further formulation and implementation of epidemic prevention and control and a valuable theoretical basis for effectively avoiding a second outbreak.IMPORTANCE Epidemic prevention and control in China have entered a new stage of normalization. This article analyzes the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in Henan Province and summarizes the effective disease prevention and control means and measures at the prefecture level; the normalized private data provide a theoretical reference for the formulation and conduct of future prevention and control work. At the same time, these epidemic prevention and control findings can also be used for reference in other countries and regions.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Saúde da População Urbana/tendências , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 722, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ross River virus (RRV) is responsible for the most common vector-borne disease of humans reported in Australia. The virus circulates in enzootic cycles between multiple species of mosquitoes, wildlife reservoir hosts and humans. Public health concern about RRV is increasing due to rising incidence rates in Australian urban centres, along with increased circulation in Pacific Island countries. Australia experienced its largest recorded outbreak of 9544 cases in 2015, with the majority reported from south east Queensland (SEQ). This study examined potential links between disease patterns and transmission pathways of RRV. METHODS: The spatial and temporal distribution of notified RRV cases, and associated epidemiological features in SEQ, were analysed for the period 2001-2016. This included fine-scale analysis of disease patterns across the suburbs of the capital city of Brisbane, and those of 8 adjacent Local Government Areas, and host spot analyses to identify locations with significantly high incidence. RESULTS: The mean annual incidence rate for the region was 41/100,000 with a consistent seasonal peak in cases between February and May. The highest RRV incidence was in adults aged from 30 to 64 years (mean incidence rate: 59/100,000), and females had higher incidence rates than males (mean incidence rates: 44/100,000 and 34/100,000, respectively). Spatial patterns of disease were heterogeneous between years, and there was a wide distribution of disease across both urban and rural areas of SEQ. Overall, the highest incidence rates were reported from predominantly rural suburbs to the north of Brisbane City, with significant hot spots located in peri-urban suburbs where residential, agricultural and conserved natural land use types intersect. CONCLUSIONS: Although RRV is endemic across all of SEQ, transmission is most concentrated in areas where urban and peri-urban environments intersect. The drivers of RRV transmission across rural-urban landscapes should be prioritised for further investigation, including identification of specific vectors and hosts that mediate human spillover.


Assuntos
Infecções por Alphavirus/epidemiologia , Vírus do Rio Ross , Adulto , Infecções por Alphavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Queensland/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Rural , Saúde da População Urbana
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238782, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021973

RESUMO

In 2015, UN member states committed to eliminate female genital mutilation (FGM) by 2030 as part of the Sustainable Development Agenda. To reach this goal, interventions need to be targeted and guided by the best available evidence. To date, however, estimates of the number of girls and women affected by FGM and their trends over time and geographic space have been limited by the availability, specificity and quality of population-level data. We present new estimates based on all publicly available nationally representative surveys collected since the 1990s that contain both information on FGM status and on the age at which FGM occurred. Using survival analysis, we generate estimates of FGM risk by single year of age for all countries with available data, and for rural and urban areas separately. The likelihood of experiencing FGM has decreased at the global level, but progress has been starkly uneven between countries. The available data indicate no progress in reducing FGM risk in Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mali and Guinea. In addition, rural and urban areas have diverged over the last two decades, with FGM declining more rapidly in urban areas. We describe limitations in the availability and quality of data on FGM occurrence and age-at-FGM. Based on current trends, the SDG goal of eliminating FGM by 2030 is out of reach, and the pace at which the practice is being abandoned would need to accelerate to eliminate FGM by 2030. The heterogeneity in trends between countries and rural vs urban areas offers an opportunity to contrast countries where FGM is in rapid decline and explore potential policy lessons and programmatic implications for countries where the practice of FGM appears to remain entrenched.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Feminina , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Circuncisão Feminina/legislação & jurisprudência , Circuncisão Feminina/estatística & dados numéricos , Circuncisão Feminina/tendências , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Saúde Global/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Saúde da População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , Nações Unidas , Saúde da População Urbana , Saúde da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher/tendências , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239175, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941485

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak has forced most of the global population to lock-down and has put in check the health services all over the world. Current predictive models are complex, region-dependent, and might not be generalized to other countries. However, a 150-year old epidemics law promulgated by William Farr might be useful as a simple arithmetical model (percent increase [R1] and acceleration [R2] of new cases and deaths) to provide a first sight of the epidemic behavior and to detect regions with high predicted dynamics. Thus, this study tested Farr's Law assumptions by modeling COVID-19 data of new cases and deaths. COVID-19 data until April 10, 2020, was extracted from available countries, including income, urban index, and population characteristics. Farr's law first (R1) and second ratio (R2) were calculated. We constructed epidemic curves and predictive models for the available countries and performed ecological correlation analysis between R1 and R2 with demographic data. We extracted data from 210 countries, and it was possible to estimate the ratios of 170 of them. Around 42·94% of the countries were in an initial acceleration phase, while 23·5% already crossed the peak. We predicted a reduction close to zero with wide confidence intervals for 56 countries until June 10 (high-income countries from Asia and Oceania, with strict political actions). There was a significant association between high R1 of deaths and high urban index. Farr's law seems to be a useful model to give an overview of COVID-19 pandemic dynamics. The countries with high dynamics are from Africa and Latin America. Thus, this is a call to urgently prioritize actions in those countries to intensify surveillance, to re-allocate resources, and to build healthcare capacities based on multi-nation collaboration to limit onward transmission and to reduce the future impact on these regions in an eventual second wave.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , África/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Previsões , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Incidência , América Latina/epidemiologia , Morbidade/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Saúde da População Urbana
7.
J UOEH ; 42(3): 237-249, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879188

RESUMO

Access to water and sanitation remain a challenge in many developing countries, especially in pro-poor urban informal settlements where socioeconomic livelihoods are generally low. The aim of this study was to characterise the water and sanitation facilities in the informal settlements of Kisumu City and to evaluate their effect on community hygiene and health. The study focussed on the five urban informal settlements of Nyalenda A, Nyalenda B, Manyatta A, Manyatta B and Obunga, and the three Peri-urban informal settlements of Kogony, Usoma and Otonglo. Using descriptive techniques, the researcher surveyed 114 water sources and all sanitation facilities within 0-15 m and 15-30 m radii of the water sources. The findings revealed dominance of shallow wells and traditional pit latrines as the primary water sources and sanitation facilities, respectively. Out of the water sources studied, 87.7% (100) were shallow wells (mean depth 1.5 m), 9.6% (11) springs and 2.6% (3) boreholes. Most of these shallow wells (83%) were within the urban informal settlements where uses range from washing and cleaning, cooking, and even drinking (13.5%), despite the majority being unprotected. The analysis of the density of sanitation facilities near the water points showed that 32.3% existed within a 15 m radius of the nearest water sources, in violation of the recommended safe distance of 30 m. With an increased density of toilets near critical water sources and other sanitary practices, public health is highly compromised.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Saúde , Pobreza , Saneamento , Classe Social , Toaletes , Saúde da População Urbana , Abastecimento de Água , Humanos , Quênia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942626

RESUMO

Wuhan encountered a serious attack in the first round of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has resulted in a public health social impact, including public mental health. Based on the Weibo help data, we inferred the spatial distribution pattern of the epidemic situation and its impacts. Seven urban factors, i.e., urban growth, general hospital, commercial facilities, subway station, land-use mixture, aging ratio, and road density, were selected for validation with the ordinary linear model, in which the former six factors presented a globally significant association with epidemic severity. Then, the geographically weighted regression model (GWR) was adopted to identify their unevenly distributed effects in the urban space. Among the six factors, the distribution and density of major hospitals exerted significant effects on epidemic situation. Commercial facilities appear to be the most prevalently distributed significant factor on epidemic situation over the city. Urban growth, in particular the newly developed residential quarters with high-rise buildings around the waterfront area of Hanyang and Wuchang, face greater risk of the distribution. The influence of subway stations concentrates at the adjacency place where the three towns meet and some near-terminal locations. The aging ratio of the community dominantly affects the hinterland of Hankou to a broader extent than other areas in the city. Upon discovering the result, a series of managerial implications that coordinate various urban factors were proposed. This research may contribute toward developing specific planning and design responses for different areas in the city based on a better understanding of the occurrence, transmission, and diffusion of the COVID-19 epidemic in the metropolitan area.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Urbana , Betacoronavirus , China , Cidades , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Pandemias
9.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol ; 34: 100355, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807400

RESUMO

Identifying areas with low access to testing and high case burden is necessary to understand risk and allocate resources in the COVID-19 pandemic. Using zip code level data for New York City, we analyzed testing rates, positivity rates, and proportion positive. A spatial scan statistic identified clusters of high and low testing rates, high positivity rates, and high proportion positive. Boxplots and Pearson correlations determined associations between outcomes, clusters, and contextual factors. Clusters with less testing and low proportion positive tests had higher income, education, and white population, whereas clusters with high testing rates and high proportion positive tests were disproportionately black and without health insurance. Correlations showed inverse associations of white race, education, and income with proportion positive tests, and positive associations with black race, Hispanic ethnicity, and poverty. We recommend testing and health care resources be directed to eastern Brooklyn, which has low testing and high proportion positives.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Urbana/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise por Conglomerados , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco , Análise Espacial , Saúde da População Urbana/economia , População Urbana
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237696, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822377

RESUMO

Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) are a public health concern in Ethiopia. However, the relationship between menstrual hygiene management (MHM) and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) factors to RTIs have not been well addressed. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2019 among 602 systematically selected reproductive-age women aged 15-49 years in Dessie City. Data were collected using a questionnaire and a direct observation checklist. RTIs were identified by the presence during one year before data collection of one or more signs of vaginal discharge, itching/irritation or ulcers/lesions around the vulva, pain during urination and sexual intercourse, and lower abdominal pain and lower back pain. Data were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis with 95%CI (confidence interval). The self-reported prevalence of RTIs was 11.0%(95%CI:8.5-13.7%) during one year prior to the survey. The most commonly reported symptoms of RTI were burning micturition (9.1%) and vaginal discharge (6.1%). Three-fourths 443(75.0%) of households used traditional pit latrines and the majority of the study participants 527(89.2%) did not meet the basic access requirement of 20 liters of water per capita per day. The majority 562(95.1%) of the study participants did not have multiple sexual partners during the last year and 97.8% did not practiced sexual intercourse during menstruation. The most common type of blood-absorbent material used was a sanitary pad 497(84.8%) followed by cloth 89(15.2%). Factors significantly associated with RTIs were using unclean latrines (AOR: 4.20; 95%CI:2.00-8.80), not washing hands with soap before touching the genital area (AOR: 3.94; 95%CI:1.49-10.45), history of symptoms of RTIs in the past year (AOR: 5.88; 95%CI:2.30-14.98), having multiple sexual partners in the past year (AOR: 4.46; 95%CI:1.59-12.53), changing absorbent material only once per day (AOR: 8.99; 95%CI:4.51-17.92), and washing the genital area only once per day during menstruation (AOR: 5.76; 95%CI:2.07-16.05). The self-reported prevalence of RTI showed that one women experienced RTI among ten reproductive-age women. Designing a women's health policy that focuses on ensuring availability of WASH facilities and improving MHM at the community level is key for sustainably preventing RTIs.


Assuntos
Higiene , Infecções do Sistema Genital/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Menstruação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Saneamento , Parceiros Sexuais , Saúde da População Urbana , Qualidade da Água , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237059, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764826

RESUMO

Mortality disparities are influenced by race and poverty. There is limited information about whether poverty influences biologic markers of mortality risk. Emerging data suggests that growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is associated with mortality; however, the interplay between GDF15, sociodemographic factors and mortality is not known. We sought to evaluate the interactions between GDF15 and sex, race and poverty status on mortality. Serum GDF15 was measured in 1036 African American and white middle-aged men and women above and below 125% of the Federal poverty status from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. Multivariable adjusted Cox regression models were used to assess the association between log-transformed GDF15 (logGDF15) and 12-year mortality outcomes (all-cause, cardiovascular- and cancer-specific outcomes) and interactions with sex, race and poverty status. Likelihood ratio tests were used to assess significance of the interaction terms. Median GDF15 was 655.2 pg/mL (IQR = 575.1). During 12.2 years of follow-up, 331 died of which 94 cardiovascular- and 87 were cancer-specific deaths. One unit of increase in logGDF15 was associated with a hazard ratio for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular- and cancer-specific mortality of 2.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.94-2.64), 2.74 (95%CI, 2.06-3.63) and 1.41 (95%CI, 1.00-2.00), respectively. There was an interaction between logGDF15 and poverty status on all-cause mortality (p<0.05). The GDF15×poverty status interaction term improved model calibration for all-cause mortality. Our study provides the first evidence that the effect of elevated GDF15 on all-cause mortality is modified by poverty status.


Assuntos
Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Mortalidade , Pobreza , Saúde da População Urbana , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Envelhecimento Saudável/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População Urbana
12.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632726

RESUMO

Humankind is in constant interaction with the environment. If this interaction leads to individual internalization of the environment, which is also called "appropriation" in psychology, it has a positive effect on health and wellbeing. To promote appropriation, urban architecture must respond to human needs. The PAKARA model illustrates the dynamic interaction of these needs with urban architecture, distinguishing three sectors: preventive, curative, and rehabilitative architecture. The PAKARA model was developed in 2019 at the Technical University of Munich.In addition to the model, the article explains three central needs that, influenced by urban architecture, can lead to health-promoting saturation or health-damaging over- or undersaturation: stimulation, identification, and privacy. Conclusively, it is shown that the future challenge is to expand close interdisciplinary cooperation against the background of a drastic increase in the global urban population and an associated complexity of need-oriented design. The needs of the individual - even if they contradict each other and change over the course of a lifetime - are the driving motor behind the health of an entire community. Urban architecture has the potential to keep this motor running, or, destroy it.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Saúde da População Urbana , Previsões , Alemanha , Humanos , População Urbana
13.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643005

RESUMO

The interactions between cities/settlements and health have been an issue of discussion since antiquity. Since the late 1970s, there has been renewed interest in the role of nonmedical determinants of health. This paper aims to retrace the development of relevant new concepts during the last 40 years, clarify their mutual relationships, and from this background present the concept of sustainable urban health. For this purpose, a secondary analysis is conducted and relevant documents and literature are being interpreted.After an introduction using illustrative examples of urban health, the paper describes how the WHO has provided crucial input to a renewed debate on public health since the 1970s, based on concepts such as "multi-/intersectoral action," "healthy public policy," and "health in all policies." Sustainable urban health, tying in with this tradition, is characterized as a program of expanding the horizon and of building bridges between disciplines and societal sectors. This is exemplified by a local initiative in the city of Hamburg.Rather than being substantially different, the WHO concepts may be seen as representing various shades of emphasis. Health in all policies (HiAPs) are in line with the UN Declaration of Human Rights and the UN Sustainable Development Goals; the concept succeeded in being integrated into both WHO and EU policy making. Additional work is required for the sustainable urban health goal to synchronously promote health and sustainability in urban societies.


Assuntos
Formulação de Políticas , Saúde da População Urbana , Cidades , Alemanha , Política de Saúde , Humanos
14.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651659

RESUMO

New approaches in urban development are required to transform cities into sustainable places. This demands a higher degree of urban density, which is hardly conceivable without an increase in sound - mostly in the form of noise. To achieve a high level of acceptance for densification, high-quality and acoustically pleasant urban spaces are essential. Noise reduction measures are necessary, but not sufficient. What is needed is a broadening of the perspective of noise. For urban public health we propose the soundscape approach from two different scientific disciplines. Here, sounds are qualities that can be designed in urban spaces and are an important resource for a healthy city. Linking knowledge about the acoustic environment with human perception will significantly improve our understanding of the relationships between urban acoustic environments, urban spatial contexts, and their effects on human health, both qualitatively and quantitatively. However, a systematic application of these approaches to urban soundscapes is still missing, as is the joint implementation of soundscape approaches in noise impact and urban public health research. This paper aims to introduce the terms sound and noise as well as two soundscape approaches. Subsequently, the aims and methods of the acoustic quality and health in urban environments (SALVE) pilot project are presented. The paper provides early insight into the new field of urban sound quality and soundscapes in the context of urban public health.


Assuntos
Acústica , Ruído , Saúde da População Urbana , Cidades , Alemanha , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235227, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645013

RESUMO

The growth of administrative data made available publicly, often in near-real time, offers new opportunities for monitoring conditions that impact community health. Urban blight-manifestations of adverse social processes in the urban environment, including physical disorder, decay, and loss of anchor institutions-comprises many conditions considered to negatively affect the health of communities. However, measurement strategies for urban blight have been complicated by lack of uniform data, often requiring expensive street audits or the use of proxy measures that cannot represent the multifaceted nature of blight. This paper evaluates how publicly available data from New York City's 311-call system can be used in a natural language processing approach to represent urban blight across the city with greater geographic and temporal precision. We found that our urban blight algorithm, which includes counts of keywords ('tokens'), resulted in sensitivity ~90% and specificity between 55% and 76%, depending on other covariates in the model. The percent of 311 calls that were 'blight related' at the census tract level were correlated with the most common proxy measure for blight: short, medium, and long-term vacancy rates for commercial and residential buildings. We found the strongest association with long-term (>1 year) commercial vacancies (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.16, p < 0.001). Our findings indicate the need of further validation, as well as testing algorithms that disambiguate the different facets of urban blight. These facets include physical disorder (e.g., litter, overgrown lawns, or graffiti) and decay (e.g., vacant or abandoned lots or sidewalks in disrepair) that are manifestations of social processes such as (loss of) neighborhood cohesion, social control, collective efficacy, and anchor institutions. More refined measures of urban blight would allow for better targeted remediation efforts and improved community health.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Sistemas de Dados , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Saúde da População Urbana , Reforma Urbana/organização & administração , Algoritmos , Humanos , Governo Local , Cidade de Nova Iorque
17.
Am J Public Health ; 110(S2): S242-S250, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663075

RESUMO

Objectives. To characterize the association between social needs prevalence and no-show proportion and variation in these associations among specific social needs.Methods. In this study, we used results from a 10-item social needs screener conducted across 19 primary care practices in a large urban health system in Bronx County, New York, between April 2018 and July 2019. We estimated the association between unmet needs and 2-year history of missed appointments from 41 637 patients by using negative binomial regression models.Results. The overall no-show appointment proportion was 26.6%. Adjusted models suggest that patients with 1 or more social needs had a significantly higher no-show proportion (31.5%) than those without any social needs (26.3%), representing an 19.8% increase (P < .001). We observed a positive trend (P < .001) between the number of reported social needs and the no-show proportion-26.3% for those with no needs, 30.0% for 1 need, 32.1% for 2 needs, and 33.8% for 3 or more needs. The strongest association was for those with health care transportation need as compared with those without (36.0% vs 26.9%).Conclusions. We found unmet social needs to have a significant association with missed primary care appointments with potential implications on cost, quality, and access for health systems.


Assuntos
Pacientes não Comparecentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Transportes , Saúde da População Urbana
18.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127511, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640379

RESUMO

A biological assessment of environmental quality was performed using the tropical plant species Tradescantia pallida (Rose) D.R. Hunt. var. purpurea exposed to different levels of air contamination in urban intersections with high volume of vehicle traffic. Air quality (average daily levels of particulate material in the PM1, 2.5, 10 fractions) and traffic volume in crossing intersections were monitored for 30 days before the collection of plants. Frequency of micronuclei and pollen abortivity in inflorescences collected at different intersections with gradual levels of traffic volume were evaluated as biomarkers of genotoxicity. In addition, the concentrations of bioaccumulated heavy metals in the leaves of the collected plants were also investigated. The proposed biological assessment model found a positive association between the environmental variables (traffic volume; concentration of particulate material) and biological effects (leaf concentration of Cr and Cd; micronucleus frequencies and pollen abortivity).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , Tradescantia/genética , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/efeitos adversos , Saúde da População Urbana , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/farmacologia , Testes para Micronúcleos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Pólen/efeitos dos fármacos
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