Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.092
Filtrar
1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3839-3851, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468677

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to identify dietary patterns and associations with socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle, nutritional status, lipid profile and inflammatory profile in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a probabilistic sample using baseline data (2014) from the Longitudinal Study on Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, Eating Habits and Adolescent Health. A total of 1,438 adolescents (10 to 14 years old) from public schools in the city of João Pessoa, Brazil, participated in the study. Data were collected on socioeconomic characteristics, nutritional status, lifestyle and the results of biochemical tests. Dietary data were obtained using the 24-hour recall method and dietary patterns were identified by exploratory factor analysis. Associations of interest were estimated using multiple logistic regression. Three dietary patterns were found: "Traditional", "Snacks" and "Western". These patterns were associated with age, socioeconomic status, parental education and lifestyle. The "Traditional" pattern was associated lower adiposity and a better lipid profile. However, with the increase in age, greater frequencies of the "Snacks" and "Western" patterns were found. The present findings underscore the need for strategies that encourage healthy behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-09-09. (PAHO/FPL/HL/COVID-19/21-0037).
Não convencional | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54815

RESUMO

COVID-19 can have significant direct and indirect consequences for the health and well-being of young people. The objective of this publication is to contribute to the strengthening of a comprehensive response to young people and COVID-19 during the pandemic and in the recovery phase, to mitigate the short-, medium- and long-term consequences of COVID-19 for young people in the Americas, particularly those living in conditions of vulnerability. The publication summarizes relevant WHO and PAHO guidance, as well as recommendations from other United Nations partners, such as UNFPA and UNICEF. It also provides links to related resources and practical examples of actions taken by governments, youth leaders, and other stakeholders. Intended users include national and local decisionmakers, program managers, multidisciplinary teams working on adolescent and youth health and well-being, youth-serving and youth-led organizations, and young people.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Betacoronavirus , Saúde do Adolescente , América
3.
FP Essent ; 507: 11-18, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410092

RESUMO

Communication is an essential component in providing health care for adolescent patients. A critical part of adolescence is identity development. Affirmation of identity and emphasis on individual strengths are important for this age group. The concept of resilience is at the center of adolescent care and shapes how care is defined and delivered. A primary goal is to protect patients from harm through a combination of promotion of protective factors, including resilience, and risk factor reduction. In adolescents, use of motivational interviewing has been shown to decrease risky sexual behaviors, help prevent unplanned pregnancy, increase physical activity levels, and decrease substance use. Confidentiality is another essential component of care. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends use of the Strengths, School, Home, Activities, Drugs/substance use, Emotions/eating/depression, Sexuality, Safety (SSHADESS) screen for psychosocial assessment. Several other standardized, validated screening tools also may be valuable in guiding discussions and identifying risky behaviors. Sexual orientation, gender identity, religious, racial, and ethnic components of identity development should be addressed. The empowerment of adolescent patients to achieve personal independence in the health care setting is part of the transition from an adolescent approach to health care to an adult approach.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Identidade de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Estados Unidos
4.
FP Essent ; 507: 19-25, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410093

RESUMO

Unintentional injuries, suicide, and homicide were the leading causes of deaths among US individuals ages 10 to 24 years in 2017. Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death by unintentional injury among US adolescents. Family physicians can encourage adolescent patients who drive to use safe driving practices (eg, seat belt use, cell phone-free driving, sober driving). Poisoning and drowning are the second and third most common causes of death by unintentional injury among adolescents, respectively. Suicide is the second overall leading cause of death among adolescents and is a growing problem. Depression is a risk factor. The Ask Suicide-Screening Questions (ASQ) suicide risk screening tool has been validated for use in patients ages 10 to 21 years in all medical settings. Screening, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of adolescent patients for depression and development of safety plans are key to suicide prevention. Homicides are the third leading cause of death among adolescents, and firearms are a clear contributor. Family physicians should assess adolescent patients for risk factors for violence, provide trauma-informed care, promote resilience and strong relationships with adults, and empower adolescents to use their strengths and skills to reduce their risk of involvement in violence.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Suicídio , Adolescente , Adulto , Causas de Morte , Criança , Homicídio , Humanos , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Violência , Adulto Jovem
5.
FP Essent ; 507: 26-32, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410094

RESUMO

Substance use in adolescents affects brain development and can influence health in adulthood. The substances most commonly used by adolescents are alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco. Adolescent alcohol use has been shown to inhibit and alter normal brain development, and has been associated with alcohol use disorder and other mental disorders in adulthood. Cannabis use during adolescence has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes. Adolescents may incorrectly assume that the negative health effects of smoking will not affect them. Electronic nicotine delivery systems, such as e-cigarettes, for vaping may be used to inhale nicotine, cannabis, or both. Strong family relationships and parental monitoring are protective factors against substance use. Screening at every preventive services visit is an essential element of adolescent care. The evidence-based Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) strategy has been shown to decrease substance use and its adverse effects in adolescents. On societal and community levels, family physicians have numerous opportunities to advocate for adolescent well-being and prevention of substance use. The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) recommends that family physicians advocate for legislation and governmental policies that facilitate the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of substance use.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Vaping , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Fumar , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle
6.
FP Essent ; 507: 33-38, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410095

RESUMO

Digital media use has increased rapidly during the past two decades, and media use is now a major issue in adolescent development. Online connections and communities can help foster healthy identity development and provide needed peer support, particularly for adolescents from historically marginalized communities. Online harassment, or cyberbullying, is a common phenomenon. Media use can interfere with sleep hygiene and quality, and screen-based sedentary behaviors have been associated with decreased physical activity, decreased aerobic fitness, and increased adiposity among adolescents. The literature on media use and adolescent mental health still is evolving. Some research suggests a U-shaped association between these two factors, with high and low levels of internet use associated with depression. Social media use may amplify peer pressure to engage in sexual behavior, provide exposure to a greater network of individuals with sexual experience, and increase the risk of sexual behaviors. Counseling adolescent patients about safe and healthy media use is essential. Conversations with patients and their families about media use should begin before adolescence and continue through adolescence in the context of routine preventive care. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends creation and implementation of a Family Media Use Plan.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Criança , Comunicação , Humanos , Internet
7.
Soc Sci Med ; 284: 114242, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333404

RESUMO

Adolescent mental health is becoming a critical concern. Mental illness rates are rising and many psychological disorders first present symptoms during teenage years. Studies consistently show associations between the built environment and mental health, including internalising mental health disorders in adults, but the evidence for adolescents is less robust and few studies attempt to isolate causality. This review examines the relationship between the urban public realm and adolescent mental health and wellbeing. Our search yielded 24 studies for inclusion. We undertook qualitative synthesis of 20 cross-sectional studies and conducted a separate quality analysis of four longitudinal studies. Greenspace and neighbourhood quality are associated with adolescent mental health and wellbeing although this may be due more to residual confounding, selection effects and same-source bias than evidence for a causal effect. Furthermore, the few longitudinal studies that seek to test causality remain prone to these biases. Overall, we find little evidence of an effect of the urban public realm on adolescent mental health and wellbeing, which, we argue, reflects the difficulty of researching complex pathways between environments and health and highlights a challenge to the field. To address this challenge, we propose a research agenda that prioritises more and better data drawn from diverse study designs, and more and better theories developed from diverse epistemologies.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Características de Residência
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2121934, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427678

RESUMO

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting conditions may negatively affect adolescents. Objective: To examine aspects of self-reported mental and physical health among adolescents in Norway before and during the pandemic, including the role of pandemic-associated anxiety. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study examined a diverse nationwide sample of grade 11 students from the longitudinal MyLife study in Norway. The original study recruitment of all 8th, 9th, and 10th graders from the same middle schools facilitated identification of 2 sociodemographically comparable cohorts assessed in October to December 2018 and 2019, before the COVID-19 pandemic, and October to December 2020, during the pandemic. School entry and enrollment in Norway is determined by the birth year, and students usually start high school (11th grade) during the fall of the year of their 16th birthday. Data were analyzed from March to June 2021. Exposures: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated conditions in Norway. Main Outcomes and Measures: In grades 10 and 11, adolescents reported their depression symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (cutoff scores for moderate/severe depression, ≥15), number of close friends, physical health, and organized sports participation. Cohort differences were examined with a set of nested regression models, incrementally controlling for sociodemographic covariates and grade 10 outcomes. Results: A sample of 2536 adolescents (1505 [59.4%] girls) was analyzed, including 1621 adolescents before the pandemic and 915 adolescents during the pandemic, of whom 158 adolescents (17.3%) reported high pandemic anxiety. The only significant difference in outcomes between the COVID-19 cohort and the pre-COVID-19 cohort were lower odds of organized sports participation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.56-0.87). However, in subanalyses comparing adolescents with high anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic with adolescents in the pre-COVID-19 cohort, adolescents with high pandemic anxiety were more likely to experience clinical-level depression symptoms (aOR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.39-3.37) and poor physical health (aOR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.01-2.31). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of Norwegian adolescents, adolescents who started high school during the pandemic year had lower odds of organized sports participation in late 2020, but were otherwise comparable in terms of self-reported mental and physical health with their pre-COVID-19 counterparts. However, adolescents in the COVID-19 cohort experiencing high pandemic-related anxiety had significantly greater odds of poorer mental and physical health than adolescents in the pre-COVID-19 cohort. Strategies aiming to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 may benefit from identifying youth disproportionally affected by the pandemic conditions.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Depressão/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Adolescente , Ansiedade/etiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , SARS-CoV-2 , Autorrelato , Esportes
11.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-08-24.
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54718

RESUMO

Cada año, más de 700.000 personas pierden la vida por suicidio, la cuarta causa principal de mortalidad entre las personas de 15 a 29 años y la tercera entre las niñas de 15 a 19 años. La reducción de la tasa mundial de mortalidad por suicidio en un tercio para el 2030 es un indicador de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible de las Naciones Unidas, pero el mundo no está bien encaminado para lograr las metas mundiales y muchas más personas perderán la vida por una causa evitable. La OMS ha elaborado esta guía a fin de apoyar a los países para que ejecuten intervenciones eficaces clave basadas en la evidencia usando como punto de partida el enfoque multisectorial VIVIR LA VIDA, que les permitirá establecer una respuesta nacional integral para prevenir el suicidio.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Saúde Mental , Suicídio , Depressão , Psicologia , Transtornos Mentais , Processos Mentais , Valor da Vida , Felicidade , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente
12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): S107-S122, agosto 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281045

RESUMO

La Subcomisión de Derechos del Niño y el Comité de Pediatría Social, de la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría, realizaron un trabajo de campo que permitiera dar voz a nuestros niños, niñas y adolescentes (NNA) durante la cuarentena y el aislamiento social obligatorio impuestos en nuestro país por la pandemia mundial por la enfermedad por el nuevo coronavirus (COVID-19). Los objetivos fueron relevar el impacto sobre sus sentimientos, emociones y deseos; evaluar y comparar las repercusiones personales, familiares y sociales antes, durante y después de la cuarentena; e identificar las necesidades de apoyo y contención.Los resultados de la investigación permiten afirmar que los niños han sido los más afectados y los menos escuchados. La cuarentena ha tenido un enorme impacto individual, social y familiar en los NNA, y reclama un abordaje holístico, comprometido y mancomunado de la sociedad civil, las familias, los profesionales de la salud, los docentes y las autoridades políticas.


The Subcommittee on the Rights of the Child and the Social Pediatrics Committee of the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría carried out a fieldwork that allowed us to give a voice to our children and adolescents (NNA), during quarantine and social isolation mandatory imposed in our country by the global pandemic COVID-19. The objectives were to analyze the impact on their feelings, emotions and desires; evaluate and compare personal, family and social repercussions pre, intra and post quarantine; and identify support and containment needs.The results of the research allow us to affirm that children have been the most vulnerable and the least listened to. The quarantine has had an enormous individual, social and family impact on children and adolescents and calls for a holistic, committed and joint approach from civil society, families, health professionals, teachers and political authorities


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Percepção , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Proteção da Criança/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Emoções , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde da Criança , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Entrevistas como Assunto , Saúde do Adolescente , Distanciamento Físico , Direitos Humanos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299839

RESUMO

The role of supportive environments on health, wellbeing, and longevity has been widely recognized. However, there is no strong empirical evidence on the association between health literacy (HL) as a particular health-related competence and neighbourhoods. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the association between the features of neighbourhoods and the level of HL competencies of young people from three countries (Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia). Self-reported data from an international sample of 11,521 students aged 13-15 years participating in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study (HBSC) in the year 2018 were included in the analyses. The level of HL shows a strong positive relationship with family wealth, and a significant relationship is maintained in all studied countries. Both social and structural features of neighbourhoods turned out to have an impact on students' HL. However, HL is most clearly explained by the school environment. This study confirms the school effect on higher levels of HL competences in adolescents. This indicates the need to invest in schools located in less affluent areas to generally improve the level of education, implement modern health education combined with HL, and strengthen the social and health competencies of students.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , República Tcheca , Humanos , Polônia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Eslováquia
15.
Lancet ; 398(10298): 429-442, 2021 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302767

RESUMO

Young people aged 10-24 years constitute 24% of the world's population; investing in their health could yield a triple benefit-eg, today, into adulthood, and for the next generation. However, in physical activity research, this life stage is poorly understood, with the evidence dominated by research in younger adolescents (aged 10-14 years), school settings, and high-income countries. Globally, 80% of adolescents are insufficiently active, and many adolescents engage in 2 h or more daily recreational screen time. In this Series paper, we present the most up-to-date global evidence on adolescent physical activity and discuss directions for identifying potential solutions to enhance physical activity in the adolescent population. Adolescent physical inactivity probably contributes to key global health problems, including cardiometabolic and mental health disorders, but the evidence is methodologically weak. Evidence-based solutions focus on three key components of the adolescent physical activity system: supportive schools, the social and digital environment, and multipurpose urban environments. Despite an increasing volume of research focused on adolescents, there are still important knowledge gaps, and efforts to improve adolescent physical activity surveillance, research, intervention implementation, and policy development are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Exercício Físico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Tempo de Tela , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Get Outside: After School Activity Program (GO-ASAP) exemplifies how a rural community can utilize its natural resources and community partnerships to promote adolescent health. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive inquiry was conducted using convenience sampling. Data were collected from students (n = 13/2018; n = 13/2019) via focus group and art-based method (2018 only) and parent (n = 6/2018) focus group. Data were analyzed via qualitative content analysis using the applied theoretical frameworks of Social Cognitive Theory and Social Determination Theory. RESULTS: (1) Increasing Health-Related Competencies. Students increased their physical activity, improved their sleep, perceived less stress, and reported changes in dietary habits and electronic use. (2) Increasing Social Relatedness. Students made new friends, felt more connected, and spent less time home alone after school. (3) Increasing Autonomy and Intrinsic Motivation. Students recognized their emerging capabilities, and their increased confidence stimulated more action-oriented behavior. Parent-perceived changes support and mirror student reports. CONCLUSION: Outdoor, nature-based, activity programs are a novel upstream approach to promote adolescent health, especially in rural communities where natural resources often exceed health-service resources and community partnerships are a way of life.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Motivação , Estudantes
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299765

RESUMO

Internationally, the mental health of children and adolescents is undoubtedly an important construct of theoretical, clinical, and policy level concern. Worldwide, five mental disorders (depression, alcohol misuse, bipolar affective disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder) represent half of the 10 leading causes of disability and premature death; with mental disorders accounting for 15-30% of disability adjusted life years in the first three decades of life. This provides a solid rational founded in implications for population health as to why reducing and preventing mental health problems in children and adolescents deserves attention. Past research has indicated interventions focussed on building resilience through strengthening protective factors may offer the potential to address mental health problems in children and adolescents, and in particular aid in reducing such problems during times of increased risk or adversity. With childhood and adolescence being critical periods of development, there is a need to reflect on the strengths and limitations of resilience-focussed interventions and anticipated future needs of the world's youth. This conceptual analysis identifies a number of future research directions that may meaningfully add to the evidence base and improve implementation, evaluation, and impact of resilience-focussed interventions. These largely relate to refining the understanding of how resilience protective factors relate to mental health problems in children and adolescents. Important issues and potential opportunities to improve the related research field include improved reporting of intervention content; improved measurement of resilience protective factors in intervention trials; continued reporting and review of evidence of association between protective factors and mental health outcomes; and incorporation of mediation analysis within intervention trials. There is a need for further intervention studies in this space to be conducted as rigorous trials of resilience-focussed approaches based on such evidence of association, with clearly posited mechanisms of change, and inclusive of analysis of differential intervention effects. The suggested implications for research made in this conceptual analysis will aid in improving the quality of the evidence base relevant to the fostering of resilience and prevention of mental health problems in children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Família , Humanos , Saúde Mental
18.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(4): S107-S122, 2021 08.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309324

RESUMO

The Subcommittee on the Rights of the Child and the Social Pediatrics Committee of the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría carried out a fieldwork that allowed us to give a voice to our children and adolescents (NNA), during quarantine and social isolation mandatory imposed in our country by the global pandemic COVID-19. The objectives were to analyze the impact on their feelings, emotions and desires; evaluate and compare personal, family and social repercussions pre, intra and post quarantine; and identify support and containment needs. The results of the research allow us to affirm that children have been the most vulnerable and the least listened to. The quarantine has had an enormous individual, social and family impact on children and adolescents and calls for a holistic, committed and joint approach from civil society, families, health professionals, teachers and political authorities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Proteção da Criança/psicologia , Emoções , Percepção , Quarentena/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Argentina , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Estudos Transversais , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Distanciamento Físico , Pesquisa Qualitativa
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300116

RESUMO

Health-related quality of life, teachers' opinion of academic performance and self-perceived health are indicators of well-being in the adolescent stage. Some variables, such as those related to the quality of family and parental relationships, may influence these indicators and thus condition well-being during this stage of life and beyond. In this research, the aforementioned variables are analyzed jointly. It is a cross-sectional study in which 1375 adolescent schoolchildren between 11 and 18 years of age participated. Different instruments such as KIDSCREEN-10 and the questionnaire used in the international study Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children were used. The results obtained allow us to conclude that HRQoL, the teacher's opinion of performance and the perception of health status improve as adolescents perceive a more favorable family climate, also helped by good relations between parents. Finally, it is proposed to continue with the efforts made in the school, family environment and other areas because of the enormous potential for generating quality of life in the adolescent stage and the consequent positive repercussions this has on adulthood.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...