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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6645252, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969122

RESUMO

Objectives: Handgrip strength (HS) is a risk factor of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular diseases. However, the influencing factors and mechanisms contributing to this correlation remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to explore factors related to HS and investigated the mechanism underlying its risk predictive value. Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. One hundred forty-five participants were recruited from December 2019 to November 2020. HS was measured using a hydraulic hand dynamometer and adjusted for body mass index (HSBMI) and body surface area (HSBSA). Body composition was assessed via bioimpedance spectroscopy. Physical fitness was measured using a cardiopulmonary exercise test system. Univariate, multiple linear regression analyses and receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) were conducted to evaluate the associations between various participant characteristics and HS. Results: The average participant age was 21.68 ± 2.61 years (42.8% were male). We found positive correlations between HSBMI/HSBSA and VO2max, VEmax, Loadmax, and METmax in both sexes (p < 0.05). Lean-tissue, protein, total water, and inorganic salt percentages were positively correlated, and fat percentage was negatively correlated with HSBMI in men and with HSBMI and HSBSA in women (p < 0.05). Multiple regression revealed that VO2max was independently associated with HSBSA in both sexes (ß = 0.215, 0.173; 95%confidence interval [CI] = 0.032 - 0.398, 0.026-0.321; p = 0.022, 0.022, respectively) and independently associated with HSBMI in women (ß = 0.016, 95%CI = 0.004 - 0.029, p = 0.011). ROC analysis showed that HSBMI and HSBSA can moderately identify normal VO2max in men (area under curve [AUC] = 0.754, 0.769; p = 0.002, 0.001, respectively) and marginally identify normal VO2max in women (AUC = 0.643, 0.635; p = 0.029, 0.042, respectively). Conclusions: BMI- and BSA-adjusted HS could serve as indicators of physical health, and HSBSA may moderately reflect cardiorespiratory fitness levels in healthy young adults, particularly in males. Clinical trials registry site and number: China Clinical Trial Center (ChiCTR1900028228).


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Saúde , Índice de Massa Corporal , Superfície Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Curva ROC , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
2.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(1): 83-92, 20210000.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178636

RESUMO

Introducción: Las nuevas tecnologías son aquellos medios de comunicación que van surgiendo de los avances de la electrónica y herramientas conceptuales. El impacto de TIC en la investigación en Paraguay no es muy evidente, dejando la investigación en vías de desarrollo. Objetivos: Establecer los factores tecnológicos y educativos más frecuentes e influyentes de los estudiantes de la Universidad Nacional de Asunción. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo, corte transversal, muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia, entre abril a mayo del 2018 en la Universidad Nacional de Asunción. Se consideró una p<0,05 como significativa. Resultados: Edades entre 18 a 30 años (22,04±2,25); sexo femenino 61,1 % (210); Gran Asunción 56,9 % (196). Factores tecnológico- educativos más frecuentes fueron no poseer grupo de estudio en 79,9 % (275); inglés básico con 35,5 % (122). Pertenencia de computadora portátil (89 %), internet inalámbrico (79 %), teléfono inteligente (92 %). 10,19 horas promedio de acceso a internet diario. Uso de Google, Google Académico y SciELO. Conclusión: Es necesario demostrar la relevancia de la incorporación de las TIC en la educación de los universitarios del área de la salud y su beneficio del desarrollo personal y profesional. Se señala la importancia de la educación a nivel regional y local.


Introduction: New technologies are those sources of communication that are emerging from advances in electronics and conceptual tools. The impact of ICT on research in Paraguay is not very evident, leaving research under development. Objectives: To establish the most frequent and influential technological and educational factors of the students of the Universidad Nacional de Asunción. Materials and methods: Descriptive observational study, cross-sectional, non-probabilistic sampling for convenience, between April to May 2018 at the Universidad Nacional de Asunción. A p <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Ages between 18 to 30 years (22.04 ± 2.25); female sex 61.1% (210); Great Asunción 56.9% (196). The most frequent technological-educational factors were not having a study group in 79.9% (275); Basic English with 35.5% (122). Ownership of laptop (89%), wireless internet (79%), smartphone (92%). 10.19 average hours of daily internet access. Use of Google, Google Scholar and SciELO. Conclusion: It is necessary to demonstrate the relevance of the incorporation of ICT in the education of university students in the health area and its benefit for personal and professional development. The importance of education at regional and local level is pointed out.


Assuntos
Saúde , Pesquisa , Estudantes , Smartphone
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809449

RESUMO

The Asteraceae family is one of the largest flowering plant families, with over 1600 genera and 2500 species worldwide. Some of its most well-known taxa are lettuce, chicory, artichoke, daisy and dandelion. The members of the Asteraceae have been used in the diet and for medicine for centuries. Despite their wide diversity, most family members share a similar chemical composition: for example, all species are good sources of inulin, a natural polysaccharide with strong prebiotic properties. They also demonstrate strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity, as well as diuretic and wound healing properties. Their pharmacological effects can be attributed to their range of phytochemical compounds, including polyphenols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, acetylenes and triterpenes. One such example is arctiin: a ligand with numerous antioxidant, antiproliferative and desmutagenic activities. The family is also a source of sesquiterpene lactones: the secondary metabolites responsible for the bitter taste of many plants. This mini review examines the current state of literature regarding the positive effect of the Asteraceae family on human health.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/química , Saúde , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Verduras/química
4.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(2): 65, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929631

RESUMO

I begin with my impressions of a narrative of redemption that is caught up in the formation of new environmental, social, and political aspirations for the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic. I then reflect on, first, pre-pandemic scholarship on "biosecurity" and, second, taking up a variation of the syndemic approach to understanding the COVID-19 pandemic. I end by arguing that we should not expect to live with "new normals" for living in a post-COVID-19 world that leaves intact "old normals" that have historically contributed to the rise of anthropogenic environmental harms and inegalitarian social arrangements in the world today.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Bolsas de Estudo , Saúde/normas , /epidemiologia , /transmissão , Bolsas de Estudo/métodos , Bolsas de Estudo/organização & administração , Bolsas de Estudo/normas , Saúde/ética , Saúde/tendências , Humanos
5.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917477

RESUMO

Caffeine is a food supplement widely consumed by athletes, but it has not been established. So far, the veracity of their labeling in terms of the dosage and cause/effect relationship aimed at the consumer. The aim is to analyze the health claims and the dosage presented on the labeling of caffeine supplements and to evaluate if they follow the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and international criteria. A descriptive cross-sectional study of a sample of caffeine supplements was carried out. The search was done through the Amazon and Google Shopping web portals. In order to assess the adequacy of the health claims, the guidelines of reference established by European Food Safety Authority were compared to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, International Olympic Committee, and Australian Institute of Sport guidelines; in addition, recent systematic reviews were addressed. A review of labels of 42 caffeine supplements showed that, in less than 3% of the products were the health claims supported by the recommendations and by the labeled quantity of caffeine. The claims that fully complied the recommendations were, "improves or increases endurance performance", "improves strength performance", or "improves short-term performance". In most cases, the recommended dosage was 200 mg/day for these products, which is the minimum for the caffeine effects to be declared. The rest of the health claims were not adequate or need to be modified. Most of the health claims identified indicated an unproven cause and effect, which constitutes consumer fraud, and so must be modified or eliminated.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Saúde , Internacionalidade , Ciência , Esportes , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
6.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917585

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that occurs in all areas of the environment, including the food chain. In the body, it causes oxidative stress by producing free radicals that are harmful to the cells. Grape seed extract (GSE) contains a wide range of biologically active components that help to neutralize the adverse effects of free radicals. In this study, the effects of GSE prepared form semi-resistant grapevine cultivar Cerason, which is rich in phenolics, on biochemical markers of brown rats exposed to the effects of cadmium were monitored. GSE increased the plasma antioxidant activity and, in the kidneys and the liver, Cd content was significantly lowered by GSE co-administration. Accordingly, the increase in creatinine content and alanine aminotransferase activity and the decrease of catalase and superoxide dismutase activities caused by cadmium were slowed down by GSE co-administration. The results of this work reveal that grape seed extract offers a protective effect against the intake of heavy metals into the organism.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Saúde , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Cádmio/sangue , Catalase/metabolismo , Creatinina/sangue , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Ureia/sangue
7.
Food Chem ; 356: 129738, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839532

RESUMO

Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb.(VBT) is well-known for many physiological and bioactivities in some ancient Chinese pharmacopeias and modern researches. The health benefits are related to the presence of various nutritional and bioactive compounds. This review aims to demonstrate an updated overview of VBT in respect of botanical characters, nutritional and bioactive composition, main biological activities, and current applications. Various studies have emphasized at promising health benefits of VBT against hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, depressive disorder, and retinal damage. However, the applications of VBT are limited to some native traditional foods and Chinese medicine. The novel beneficial efficacy and applications are still needed to be investigated. In conclusion, more research is necessary to overcome these gaps between the in-depth insights of health benefits and potential industrial applications. This review will contribute in future research for developing the functional foods derived from VBT.


Assuntos
Saúde , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química
8.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922412

RESUMO

In this study investigated the association between health practices and food stockpiling for disasters in predicted areas with a high risk of food shortage due to the Nankai Trough earthquake. A survey was conducted during 18-20 December 2019 using a self-administered web-based questionnaire. In total, 1200 individuals registered with an online survey company participated in the study. The association between health practices and food stockpiling status was analyzed (n = 998). 59.1% of participants had a poor Breslow's seven health practice scores (BHPS), 32.9% had a moderate score, and 8.0% had a good score. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that higher BHPS had a significantly higher prevalence of food stockpiling. Additionally, the interrupted group had the highest percentage of participants with low BHPS. Lower BHPS was significantly associated with interrupted stockpiled in the adjusted models. Among the seven health practices, the odds ratio of the "eating breakfast" practice was high. There was a significant positive association between higher health practice scores and food stockpiling for disasters in areas with a high risk of food shortage due to the predicted earthquake. Particularly, it was clarified that individuals who had fewer good health practices were associated with ending up interrupting food stockpiling.


Assuntos
Desastres , Alimentos , Saúde , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estatística como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922600

RESUMO

Seafood (fish in particular) is one of the main food groups in nutrition models with proven health benefits. Seafood has long been considered a very valuable dietary component, mainly due to presence of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) but it is also an important source of protein (including collagen), anserine, taurine, iodine, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin K, vitamin D, tocopherols, B vitamins and astaxanthin. Considering the beneficial effects of these ingredients on blood pressure, lipid profile and the inflammatory process, seafood should be an essential component of the diet. Non-communicable diseases (NCD) such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes and mental disorder, chronic respiratory diseases are common diseases associated with advanced age. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle (including proper nutritional behavior) and prevention of diseases are the most effective and efficient ways to decrease premature mortality from NCD and to maintain mental health and well-being. This review article shows the potential preventive and therapeutic effects of seafood with an emphasis on fish. Our narrative review presents the results of systematic reviews and meta-analysis.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Alimentos Marinhos , Adulto , Dieta , Saúde , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Alimentos Marinhos/efeitos adversos
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6680764, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880377

RESUMO

Introduction: In recent years, several controversial reports of the correlation between altmetric score and citations have been published (range: -0.2 to 0.8). We conducted a meta-analysis to provide an in-depth statistical analysis of the correlation between altmetric score and number of citations in the field of health sciences. Methods: Three online databases (Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed) were systematically searched, without language restrictions, from the earliest publication date available through February 29, 2020, using the keywords "altmetric," "citation," and "correlation." Grey literature was also searched via WorldCat, Open Grey, and Google Scholar (first 100 hits only). All studies in the field of health sciences that reported on this correlation were included. Effect sizes were calculated using Fisher's z transformation of correlations. Subgroup analyses based on citation source and sampling methods were performed. Results: From 27 included articles, 8 articles comprise several independent studies. The total sample size was 9,943 articles comprised of 35 studies. The overall pooled effect size was 0.19 (95% confidence interval 0.13 to 0.26). Bivariate partial prediction of interaction between effect size, citation source, and sampling method showed a greater effect size with Web of Science compared with Scopus and Dimensions. Egger's regression showed a marginally nonsignificant publication bias (p = 0.055), and trim-and-fill analysis estimated one missing study in this meta-analysis. Conclusion: In health sciences, currently altmetric score has a positive but weak correlation with number of citations (pooled correlation = 0.19, 95% C.I 0.12 to 0.25). We emphasize on future examinations to assess changes of correlation pattern between altmetric score and citations over time.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Publicações , Saúde , Humanos , Viés de Publicação , Análise de Regressão
11.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918657

RESUMO

Creatine (Cr) is a ubiquitous molecule that is synthesized mainly in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. Most of the Cr pool is found in tissues with high-energy demands. Cr enters target cells through a specific symporter called Na+/Cl--dependent Cr transporter (CRT). Once within cells, creatine kinase (CK) catalyzes the reversible transphosphorylation reaction between [Mg2+:ATP4-]2- and Cr to produce phosphocreatine (PCr) and [Mg2+:ADP3-]-. We aimed to perform a comprehensive and bioinformatics-assisted review of the most recent research findings regarding Cr metabolism. Specifically, several public databases, repositories, and bioinformatics tools were utilized for this endeavor. Topics of biological complexity ranging from structural biology to cellular dynamics were addressed herein. In this sense, we sought to address certain pre-specified questions including: (i) What happens when creatine is transported into cells? (ii) How is the CK/PCr system involved in cellular bioenergetics? (iii) How is the CK/PCr system compartmentalized throughout the cell? (iv) What is the role of creatine amongst different tissues? and (v) What is the basis of creatine transport? Under the cellular allostasis paradigm, the CK/PCr system is physiologically essential for life (cell survival, growth, proliferation, differentiation, and migration/motility) by providing an evolutionary advantage for rapid, local, and temporal support of energy- and mechanical-dependent processes. Thus, we suggest the CK/PCr system acts as a dynamic biosensor based on chemo-mechanical energy transduction, which might explain why dysregulation in Cr metabolism contributes to a wide range of diseases besides the mitigating effect that Cr supplementation may have in some of these disease states.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Creatina/metabolismo , Doença , Saúde , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Creatina/biossíntese , Creatina/química , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Humanos
12.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 26: 1-7, mar. 2021. tab, fig
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223230

RESUMO

O objetivo do estudo foi investigar se a exposição a informações sobre vida saudável, via aplicativo de mensagem de smartphone ou folder impresso, reduz o comportamento sedentário (CS) de universitários. Este estudo é um piloto prospectivo quase experimental, constituído por 69 participantes, randomizados por turma, em dois grupos de intervenção via mensagem de texto Whatsapp (grupo MSG)e folder impresso (grupo FOLDER). As intervenções apresentaram orientações semelhantes com foco geral de promover um perfil de vida saudável, reduzindo o CS. As mensagens foram encaminhadas às segundas-feiras por um período de quatro semanas consecutivas. O tempo exposto ao CS foi avaliado a partir do Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física na Baseline e após quatro semanas de intervenção. Para avaliar o efeito do tempo, da intervenção e a interação (tempo*intervenção) no CS, foram utilizados modelos mistos generalizados para medidas repetidas, utilizando uma matriz de covariância autorregressiva de primeira ordem (AR1) e foi utilizado o teste post hoc de Bonferroni. Foi adotado o nível de significância de 5%. Foram observados efeitos significantes das intervenções (F = 5,30; p = 0,024), FOLDER (519,71 ± 28,01) e MSG (430,37 ± 26,82), e dos tempos (F = 19,05; p < 0,001) baseline (522,07 ± 22,18) e após 4 semanas (428,00 ± 22,18) mas não foi observado interação entre o tempo e a intervenção (F = 0,430; p = 0,514). Foram observadas diferenças significantes entre os grupos no momento pós intervenção (p = 0,022). Ambas as intervenções parecem ser úteis para a redução do tempo exposto ao CS em uma população de adultos jovens durante o período de quatro semanas


The objective of the study was investigate whether exposure to information about healthy living, via smart-phone message application or printed folder, reduces the sedentary behavior (SB) of university students. This study is an almost experimental prospective pilot, consisting of 69 participants, randomized by class, in two intervention groups via Whatsapp text message (MSG group) and printed folder (FOLDER group). The interventions presented similar guidelines with a general focus on promoting a healthy life profile, reducing SB. The messages were forwarded on Mondays for a period of four consecutive weeks. The time exposed to the SB was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire on the baseline and after four weeks of intervention. To evaluate the effect of time, intervention and interaction (time * intervention) in the SB, generalized mixed models for repeated measures were used, using a first order autoregressive covariance matrix (AR1) and Bonferroni post hoc test was used. The significance level of 5% was adopted. Significant effects of the interventions (F = 5.30; p = 0.024), FOLDER (519.71 ± 28.01) and MSG (430.37 ± 26.82), and of the times (F = 19.05; p < 0.001) baseline (522.07 ± 22.18) and after 4 weeks (428.00 ± 22.18) but no interaction was observed between time and intervention (F = 0.430; p = 0.514). Significant differences were observed between the groups at the time after the intervention (p = 0.022). Both interventions appear to useful for reducing the time exposed to SC in a population of young adults over the four-week period


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Tecnologia , Saúde , Comportamento Sedentário
14.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 26: 1-5, mar. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151986

RESUMO

No epicentro da pandemia, as cidades enfrentam desafios econômicos e na saúde. Para lidar com a crise e reduzir os riscos de infecção nos transportes coletivos, o uso de transportes ativos passou a receber atenção de governos locais. Adotando como referencial o conceito de "Saúde em Todas as Políticas", o presente ensaio teórico teve como objetivo discutir oportunidades causadas pela pandemia da COVID-19, considerando as relações entre o uso de transportes ativos e seus impactos sobre a prevenção de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis, a mobilidade urbana e o meio-ambiente. Dentro deste contexto, destacamos a importância de se mensurar as influências e externalidades da indústria automotiva, caracterizando-a como um ator a ser enfrentado nas políticas de promoção da saúde e mobilidade ativa. Neste sentido, acreditamos que as Ciências da Atividade Física podem exercer um protagonismo na formação de uma agenda multisetorial de pesquisa e advocacy, que objetivem reorientar os sistemas de transporte, de desenho urbano e de uso do solo


At the epicenter of the pandemic, cities face economic and health challenges. In order to deal with the crisis and reduce the risks of infection in public transport, the use of active modes of transportation has received attention from local governments. Adopting the concept of "Health in All Policies" as a reference, this theoret-ical essay aimed to discuss opportunities caused by the pandemic of COVID-19, considering the relationship between the use of active transportation and its impacts on the prevention of non-communicable diseases, urban mobility and the environment. Within this context, we highlight the importance of measuring the ex-ternalities of the automotive industry, characterizing it as an actor to be fought in policies to promote health and active transportation. In this sense, we believe that the Physical Activity Sciences can play a leading role in the formation of a multisectoral agenda for research and advocacy, which aims to reorient the transport, urban design and land use systems


Assuntos
Mobilidade Social , Saúde , Cidades , Atividade Motora
15.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(1): 3-3, mar. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152208
16.
Licere (Online) ; 24(01): 51-77, 20210317. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179070

RESUMO

Este artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa desenvolvida com um grupo de 16 mulheres idosas do projeto Instituto Federal Aberto à Terceira Idade (IFATI), executado na Estância Turística de Avaré (São Paulo) durante o ano de 2019. O estudo, qualitativo e exploratório, teve como objetivo principal identificar as percepções das participantes quanto aos significados deste projeto de lazer em suas vidas. Para tanto, foram aplicadas entrevistas estruturadas e, em seguida, utilizada a técnica de Análise de Conteúdo. A partir da revisão bibliográfica sobre o tema e com a análise das respostas apresentadas, pode-se concluir que há uma satisfação generalizada em relação ao projeto devido aos impactos positivos em sua saúde física e mental bem como na interação social, o que contribui, em última instância, para a sensação de um envelhecer com mais qualidade de vida.


This article presents the results of a research developed with a group of 16 elderly women from the Federal Institute Open to the Third Age (IFATI), executed in Avaré (São Paulo) during 2019. The study, qualitative and exploratory, had as main objective to identify the perceptions of the participants regarding the meanings of this leisure project in their lives. For this, structured interviews were applied and then the Content Analysis technique was used. From the literature review on the subject and with the analysis of the answers presented, it can be concluded that there is a generalized satisfaction about the project due to the positive impacts on physical and mental health as well as on social interaction, which ultimately contributes to the feeling of aging with a higher quality of life.


Assuntos
Atividades de Lazer , Saúde
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669501

RESUMO

People are living longer, not, as was previously the case, due to reduced child mortality, but because we are postponing the ill-health of old age [...].


Assuntos
Longevidade/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Dieta , Epigênese Genética , Saúde , Humanos , Longevidade/genética , Probióticos/farmacologia
19.
J Vis Exp ; (168)2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682863

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models of skeletal muscle are a valuable advancement in biomedical research as they afford the opportunity to study skeletal muscle reformation and function in a scalable format that is amenable to experimental manipulations. 3D muscle culture systems are desirable as they enable scientists to study skeletal muscle ex vivo in the context of human cells. 3D in vitro models closely mimic aspects of the native tissue structure of adult skeletal muscle. However, their universal application is limited by the availability of platforms that are simple to fabricate, cost and user-friendly, and yield relatively high quantities of human skeletal muscle tissues. Additionally, since skeletal muscle plays an important functional role that is impaired over time in many disease states, an experimental platform for microtissue studies is most practical when minimally invasive calcium transient and contractile force measurements can be conducted directly within the platform itself. In this protocol, the fabrication of a 96-well platform known as 'MyoTACTIC', and en masse production of 3D human skeletal muscle microtissues (hMMTs) is described. In addition, the methods for a minimally invasive application of electrical stimulation that enables repeated measurements of skeletal muscle force and calcium handling of each microtissue over time are reported.


Assuntos
Saúde , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Engenharia Tecidual , Cálcio/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Estimulação Elétrica , Humanos , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/citologia , Mioblastos/citologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672703

RESUMO

Circadian rhythms exist in almost all types of cells in mammals. Thousands of genes exhibit approximately 24 h oscillations in their expression levels, making the circadian clock a crucial regulator of their normal functioning. In this regard, environmental factors to which internal physiological processes are synchronized (e.g., nutrition, feeding/eating patterns, timing and light exposure), become critical to optimize animal physiology, both by managing energy use and by realigning the incompatible processes. Once the circadian clock is disrupted, animals will face the increased risks of diseases, especially metabolic phenotypes. However, little is known about the molecular components of these clocks in domestic species and by which they respond to external stimuli. Here we review evidence for rhythmic control of livestock production and summarize the associated physiological functions, and the molecular mechanisms of the circadian regulation in pig, sheep and cattle. Identification of environmental and physiological inputs that affect circadian gene expressions will help development of novel targets and the corresponding approaches to optimize production efficiency in farm animals.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Saúde , Gado/fisiologia , Animais , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Gado/genética , Estações do Ano
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