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1.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(3): 930-938, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The overconsumption of sucrose is closely related to sugar-sweetened beverages and one of the main factors associated with the increase of metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and insulin resistance. So, the addition of alternative sweeteners to new fruit-based drinks could contribute to minimizing the incidence or severity of these pathologies. Nevertheless, current knowledge on the influence of these additives on the bioactive compounds present in these beverages is still scarce.new-onset hypertension, but few data were published in Asian. We aimed to investigate the association of lipid profiles with new-onset hypertension in a Chinese community-based non-hypertensive cohort without lipid-lowering treatment (n = 1802). METHODS AND RESULTS: Hence, to contribute to the understanding of this issue, the plasma concentration of phenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavanones), after the ingestion of a new maqui-citrus-based beverage, supplemented with sucrose (natural high caloric), stevia (natural non-caloric), or sucralose (artificial non-caloric), was evaluated as evidence of their intestinal absorption and metabolism previous to renal excretion. The beverages were ingested by volunteers (n = 20) and the resulting phenolic metabolites in plasma were analyzed by UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS. A total of 13 metabolites were detected: caffeic acid sulfate, caffeic acid glucuronide, 3,4-dihydroxyfenylacetic, 3,4-dihydroxyfenylacetic sulfate. 3,4-dihydroxyfenylacetic acid di-sulfate, 3,4-dihydroxyfenylacetic di-glucuronide, 3,4-dihydroxyfenylacetic glucuronide-sulfate, trans-ferulic acid glucuronide, naringenin glucuronide, vanillic acid, vanillic acid sulfate, vanillic acid glucuronide-sulfate, and vanillic acid di-glucuronide, being recorded their maximum concentration after 30-60 min. CONCLUSION: In general, sucralose provided the greatest absorption value for most of these metabolites, followed by stevia. Due to this, the present study proposes sucralose and stevia (non-caloric sweeteners) as valuable alternatives to sucrose (high caloric sweetener), to avoid the augmented risk of several metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/sangue , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Edulcorantes/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Antocianinas/administração & dosagem , Antocianinas/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Flavanonas/administração & dosagem , Flavanonas/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adoçantes não Calóricos/administração & dosagem , Espanha , Stevia , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Sacarose/análogos & derivados
2.
Life Sci ; 269: 119048, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453246

RESUMO

AIMS: The present study investigated the potential effects of pterostilbene (PT) on glycemic and lipid profiles, fat storage, cardiovascular indices, and hepatic parameters of rats fed with sucrose solution. MAIN METHODS: 24 male Wistar rats received either drinking water or a 40% sucrose solution over a period of 140 days. After this period, animals were randomly allocated into four groups (n = 6): Control (C), C + Pterostilbene (PT), Sucrose (S), and S + PT. Pterostilbene (40 mg/kg) was given orally for 45 consecutive days. KEY FINDINGS: Pterostilbene did not influence morphometric and nutritional parameters. The insulin sensitivity index TyG was elevated in the C + PT group (p < 0.01) and reduced in S + PT group (p < 0.05). Basal glucose levels were lower in the S + PT group (p < 0.05), and the glycemic response was improved with PT treatment in glucose provocative tests. Conversely, rats from the C + PT group showed impaired glucose disposal during those tests. Lipid profile was partially improved by PT treatment. Hepatic oxidative stress in the S group was improved after PT treatment. In the C group, PT reduced SOD activity, glutathione levels, and increased catalase activity. Collagen content was reduced by PT treatment. SIGNIFICANCE: PT effects depends on the type of diet the animals were submitted. In rats fed with sucrose-solution, PT confirmed its positive effects, improving glucose and lipid profile, and acting as a potent antioxidant. The effects of PT on rats that consumed a normal diet were very discrete or even undesirable. We suggest caution with indiscriminate consume of natural compounds by healthy subjects.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Sacarose na Dieta/toxicidade , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Hiperlipidemias/induzido quimicamente , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Oxirredução , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
3.
Life Sci ; 267: 118944, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359749

RESUMO

AIMS: Liver cirrhosis is the main chronic liver disease and is considered a catabolic disease. Cirrhotic patients have a low energy intake and high energy expenditure at rest, leading to metabolic disorders. Malnutrition is associated with complications of cirrhosis and has been shown that a nutritional intervention with increase of energy intake improves the survival of cirrhotic patients. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the effect of a high sucrose diet in the liver of animals with cirrhosis induced by thioacetamide and investigate the mechanism involved. MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Control; Thioacetamide; and Thioacetamide + high sucrose diet. The thioacetamide was administrated (100 mg kg-1) intraperitoneally and the sucrose was offered in drinking water (300 g L-1). KEY FINDINGS: The administration of thioacetamide was associated with fibrosis and inflammatory infiltrate in the liver and increased levels of transaminases enzymes. The high sucrose diet promoted a reduction of theses parameters in cirrhotic rats. The malnutrition observed in cirrhotic rats was attenuated by the high sucrose diet shown by the improvements in weight loss, subcutaneous fat, and caloric intake. The high sucrose diet also attenuated the oxidative stress present in the liver of animals with thioacetamide-induced cirrhosis. SIGNIFICANCE: The high sucrose diet had anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in the liver of animals with thioacetamide-induced cirrhosis. In addition, the high sucrose diet also improved malnutrition and catabolism present in cirrhosis. Thus, a high sucrose diet may be a therapeutic option for cirrhotic patients in a catabolic state.


Assuntos
Sacarose na Dieta/farmacologia , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Dieta , Sacarose na Dieta/metabolismo , Inflamação , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sacarose/metabolismo , Sacarose/farmacologia , Tioacetamida/efeitos adversos , Tioacetamida/farmacologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2020 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375525

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays a key role in regulating nutrient metabolism and appetite responses. This study aimed to identify changes in the GIT that are important in the development of diet related obesity and diabetes. GIT samples were obtained from C57BL/6J male mice chronically fed a control diet or a high sucrose diet (HSD) and analysed for changes in gene, protein and metabolite levels. In HSD mice, GIT expression levels of fat oxidation genes were reduced, and increased de novo lipogenesis was evident in ileum. Gene expression levels of the putative sugar sensor, slc5a4a and slc5a4b, and fat sensor, cd36, were downregulated in the small intestines of HSD mice. In HSD mice, there was also evidence of bacterial overgrowth and a lipopolysaccharide activated inflammatory pathway involving inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In Caco-2 cells, sucrose significantly increased the expression levels of the nos2, iNOS and nitric oxide (NO) gas levels. In conclusion, sucrose fed induced obesity/diabetes is associated with changes in GI macronutrient sensing, appetite regulation and nutrient metabolism and intestinal microflora. These may be important drivers, and thus therapeutic targets, of diet-related metabolic disease.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/genética , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Intestino Delgado , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
6.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(5): 410-418, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study focused on describing local trends in sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption, including variations between subgroups, to inform equitable health policy to curb soft drink consumption. METHODS: Weighted data were obtained from the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System, a state-based population health survey that monitors trends in health risk factors and chronic disease via computer-assisted telephone interviewing. From 2008 onwards, participants provided an estimate of the average amount of soft drink they consumed per day. RESULTS: From 2008-2017, there were significant decreases in the proportion of adults who consumed any SSBs, but the mean consumption per consumer increased. High-risk dietary and lifestyle behaviours are the strongest predictors for consumption of soft drink, but there is also a significant association with socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Population trends mask increasing inequity. There is a societal trend away from the consumption of SSBs across all subgroups, but at-risk groups who engage in clusters of unhealthy behaviours remain high consumers. Implications for public health: The identification of at-risk populations allows research to focus more precisely on the structural barriers, beliefs, attitudes and facilitators of ongoing consumption of SSB in order to inform future health promotion efforts.


Assuntos
Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos de Populações Continentais/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Austrália do Sul/epidemiologia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/estatística & dados numéricos , Edulcorantes/administração & dosagem , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 151(10): 782-789, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authors' aim was to examine the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and the prevalence and severity of the caries experience in children and adults in the United States. METHODS: The authors analyzed data obtained from 14,192 people aged 2 through 74 years, who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2011 through 2014. Using descriptive analyses, the authors assessed the distributions of sociodemographic characteristics overall and via SSB intake. The authors used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the association of untreated and severe untreated caries with SSB consumption in all age groups. RESULTS: Across all ages, male participants were more likely than female participants to consume SSBs, and consumption was higher in non-Hispanic black and Hispanic populations. Relative to those who did not consume SSBs, people aged 20 through 44 years who consumed SSBs had significantly higher odds of having untreated caries (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.55) and severe untreated caries (AOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.60). Adolescents aged 9 through 19 years had significantly higher odds of having untreated caries (AOR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.80), and middle-aged adults (45-64 years) had significantly higher odds of severe untreated caries (AOR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.92) relative to those who did not consume SSBs. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of SSBs was associated with increased caries experience among young children and increased risk of developing untreated caries in all age groups of children and adults. Continued efforts by policy makers, public health leaders, and clinicians to reduce consumption of SSBs across the life span are paramount.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4458, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895383

RESUMO

In rodent models of type 2 diabetes (T2D), sustained remission of hyperglycemia can be induced by a single intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1), and the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) was recently implicated as the brain area responsible for this effect. To better understand the cellular response to FGF1 in the MBH, we sequenced >79,000 single-cell transcriptomes from the hypothalamus of diabetic Lepob/ob mice obtained on Days 1 and 5 after icv injection of either FGF1 or vehicle. A wide range of transcriptional responses to FGF1 was observed across diverse hypothalamic cell types, with glial cell types responding much more robustly than neurons at both time points. Tanycytes and ependymal cells were the most FGF1-responsive cell type at Day 1, but astrocytes and oligodendrocyte lineage cells subsequently became more responsive. Based on histochemical and ultrastructural evidence of enhanced cell-cell interactions between astrocytes and Agrp neurons (key components of the melanocortin system), we performed a series of studies showing that intact melanocortin signaling is required for the sustained antidiabetic action of FGF1. These data collectively suggest that hypothalamic glial cells are leading targets for the effects of FGF1 and that sustained diabetes remission is dependent on intact melanocortin signaling.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Fator 1 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteína Relacionada com Agouti/metabolismo , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Glicemia/análise , Comunicação Celular , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipotálamo/citologia , Hipotálamo/patologia , Injeções Intraventriculares , Leptina/genética , Masculino , Melanocortinas/metabolismo , Hormônios Estimuladores de Melanócitos/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Oligodendroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligodendroglia/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Receptores de Melanocortina/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Melanocortina/metabolismo , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Célula Única , Técnicas Estereotáxicas , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(3): 279-284, set. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130602

RESUMO

El azúcar de mesa, que se obtiene de la caña de azúcar, es el edulcorante más utilizado en la elaboración de los alimentos. El azúcar es importante en la obtención de energía, es necesario para la síntesis de ácidos grasos, de ácidos nucleicos, evita el estrés oxidativo y el desarrollo de anemia. Puede ocasionar caries, diabetes, obesidad, arteriosclerosis y otras patologías. En el presente trabajo se valoró el efecto que tiene la ingesta crónica de agua endulzada con sacarosa al 30% sobre el consumo de alimento balanceado, el perfil lipídico, la concentración de glucosa sérica, y sobre algunos marcadores del estado nutricional como el peso y las proteínas séricas totales, en machos de ratas Wistar. El agua endulzada con sacarosa al 30% se administró a un grupo de 9 ratas Wistar durante 3 meses y se tomó como grupo control a un grupo de 9 ratas que bebieron agua natural. El consumo de alimentos por ambos grupos, así como los marcadores de química sanguínea se analizaron al final del tratamiento. Los niveles de glucosa, lípidos y proteínas séricas totales se midieron mediante espectroscopía. Los resultados mostraron que el consumo de agua endulzada con sacarosa al 30% redujo en más de un 90% el consumo de alimento balanceado; sin embargo, no afectó el perfil lipídico ni el nivel de glucosa en sangre, así como tampoco el nivel de proteínas séricas totales. El consumo de agua endulzada con sacarosa podría provocar desnutrición a largo plazo ya que ocasiona una reducción en la ingesta de alimento rico en nutrientes.


Sugar, obtained from sugarcane, is the most commonly used sweetener in food processing. Sugar is an important food for energy generation and it is necessary for the synthesis of fatty acids and nucleic acids. It prevents oxidative stress and anemia development. However, its consumption can cause dental caries, diabetes, obesity, arteriosclerosis and other pathologies. In the present work, the effect of chronic intake of water sweetened with 30% sucrose on balanced food consumption, lipid profile, serum glucose concentration, as well as some markers of nutritional status such as weight and total serum proteins was assessed in male Wistar rats. The water sweetened with 30% sucrose was administered to a group of 9 Wistar rats for 3 months, having 9 rats as a control group that drank natural water. Food consumption between both groups as well as blood chemistry markers were analyzed at the end of the treatment. Glucose, lipid levels as well as total serum proteins were measured by spectroscopy. The results showed that the consumption of water sweetened with 30% sucrose reduced the consumption of balanced food by more than 90%, however, it did not affect the lipid profile, the level of glucose in the blood or the level of total serum proteins concentration. Consumption of sucrose-sweetened water could lead to long-term malnutrition by reducing the intake of nutrient-rich food.


O açúcar comum, obtido a partir da cana de açúcar, é o adoçante mais utilizado na elaboração dos alimentos. O açúcar é importante para a geração de energia; necessário para a síntese de ácidos graxos e de ácidos nucleicos. Previne o estresse oxidativo e o desenvolvimento de anemia. No entanto, seu consumo pode causar cárie dentária, diabetes, obesidade, arteriosclerose e outras patologias. No presente trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito da ingestão crônica de água adoçada com sacarose a 30% sobre o consumo de alimentos ricos em nutrientes, perfil lipídico, concentração sérica de glicose e alguns marcadores do estado nutricional, como o peso. e as proteínas séricas totais em ratos Wistar machos. A água adoçada com sacarose a 30% foi administrada a um grupo de 9 ratos Wistar por 3 meses, tendo como grupo controle um grupo de 9 ratos que beberam água natural. O consumo de alimentos entre os dois grupos e os marcadores de química sanguínea foram analisados no final do tratamento. Os níveis de glicose, lipídios e proteínas séricas totais foram medidos por espectroscopia. Os resultados mostraram que o consumo de água adoçada com sacarose a 30% reduziu em mais de 90% o consumo de alimentos ricos em nutrientes, no entanto, não afetou o perfil lipídico, o nível de glicose em sangue nem o nível de proteínas séricas totais. O consumo de água adoçada com sacarose poderia levar à desnutrição no longo prazo, visto que produz uma redução na ingestão de alimentos ricos em nutrientes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Arteriosclerose , Análise Espectral , Sangue , Ácidos Nucleicos , Consumo de Alimentos , Ratos Wistar , Sacarose na Dieta , Saccharum , Controle , Ácidos Graxos , Anemia , Sacarose , Terapêutica , Água , Afeto , Cárie Dentária , Desnutrição , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Diabetes Mellitus , Açúcares , Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679717

RESUMO

A cross-sectional, self-administered survey was used to gather information about dental outcomes, sugar-containing food behaviors and intake, and sociodemographic characteristics of adults of Mexican and Central-American (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras) origin (n = 517). Bivariate and multiple-variable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations of behaviors related to added sugar-containing foods/beverages (overall intake and consumption before bed) with dental outcomes. Outcome measures involved dental outcomes, dental self-care practices, and added sugar intake. Estimated daily added sugar intake among all participants was 98 (SD = 99) g, with no difference in consumption among participants from different countries. The majority of added sugar (63 (SD = 74) g) was provided by sugar-sweetened beverages. Participants who reported consuming sugar-containing foods or beverages within an hour before bed were more likely to report having a fair/poor/very poor condition of teeth and gums and having felt dental pain (p < 0.05 for all). The amount of sugar intake was associated with being prescribed medication for oral or dental problems (p = 0.008) and dental pain (p = 0.003). Findings support the association between sugar containing food-related behaviors and dental problems among Hispanic immigrants to the U.S. Health promotion and preventive interventions for this population should consider these behaviors as modifiable contributors to adverse dental outcomes.


Assuntos
Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Hispano-Americanos , Saúde Bucal , Adulto , Bebidas , Estudos Transversais , El Salvador , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Honduras , Humanos , Seguro Odontológico , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Açúcares
11.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(2): 94-102, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Oral health can affect quality of life in all course of life, which is a key factor of general health. Dental caries, periodontitis and oral cancer are of the highest burden of oral diseases. Rising prevalence of soft drinks and alcoholic beverages consumption due to easy access and socio-demographic altering has increased the concerns on oral health. In this review our purpose was to show effects of the most consumed beverages on oral health in people older than 15 years. METHODS: The review was based on papers published in last 10 years, searched with combined key words related to types of drinks and specific oral health problems. We included 4 older studies due to lack of newer studies on subjected topics. RESULTS: Sugar-free soft drinks are found less cariogenic and erosive than regular versions in limited number of studies. Alcohol consumption is shown as one of the risk factors of prevalence and severity of periodontitis and is proven to have synergistic effects along with tobacco on oral cancer risk. Consumption of soft drinks and alcoholic beverages was related with tooth loss whether dental caries or periodontal diseases. CONCLUSION: There is good evidence for association between soft drinks and oral health problems, but still no clear answer exists about strength of association between sugar-free soft drinks and dental caries. Also the knowledge about influence of alcohol is inadequate. Since consuming style affects erosive potential of drinks manufacturers should be required to add some recommendations on labels about drinking style.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Saúde Bucal , Bebidas , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
12.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 319(2): E276-E290, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574112

RESUMO

Intake of sugars, especially the fructose component, is strongly associated with the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome, but the relative role of taste versus metabolism in driving preference, intake, and metabolic outcome is not fully understood. We aimed to evaluate the preference for sweet substances and the tendency to develop metabolic syndrome in response to these sugars in mice lacking functional taste signaling [P2X2 (P2X purinoreceptor 2)/P2X3 (P2X purinoreceptor 3) double knockout mice (DKO)] and mice unable to metabolize fructose (fructokinase knockout mice). Of interest, our data indicate that despite their inability to taste sweetness, P2X2/3 DKO mice still prefer caloric sugars (including fructose and glucose) to water in long-term testing, although with diminished preference compared with control mice. Despite reduced intake of caloric sugars by P2X2/3 DKO animals, the DKO mice still show increased levels of the sugar-dependent hormone FGF21 (fibroblast growth factor 21) in plasma and liver. Despite lower sugar intake, taste-blind mice develop severe features of metabolic syndrome due to reduced sensitivity to leptin, reduced ability to mobilize and oxidize fats, and increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In contrast to P2X2/3 DKO and wild-type mice, fructokinase knockout mice, which cannot metabolize fructose and are protected against fructose-induced metabolic syndrome, demonstrate reduced preference and intake for all fructose-containing sugars tested but not for glucose or artificial sweeteners. Based on these observations, we conclude that sugar can induce metabolic syndrome in mice independently of its sweet properties. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the metabolism of fructose is necessary for sugar to drive intake and preference in mice.


Assuntos
Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Animais , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X2/deficiência , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X2/fisiologia , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X3/deficiência , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X3/fisiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233364, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530969

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is among the most prevalent diseases in the world, affecting over 420 million people. The disease is marked by a poor metabolic effect of insulin leading to chronic hyperglycaemia, which can result in microvascular complications. It is widely known that postprandial glycaemia is reliant on the total carbohydrate content of a meal. However, the importance of the amount and the source of these carbohydrates remains controversial due to mechanisms other than insulin secretion. Oxidative stress, inflammation, pyruvate production and the quality of the intestinal microbiota, resulting in plasma lipopolysaccharides and short-chain fatty acids production, play an important role in blood sugar control and consequently in type 2 diabetes. Thus, we systematically reviewed the preclinical evidences on the impact of the amount and type of carbohydrate found in different diets and its influence on blood glucose levels in diabetic animals. We used a comprehensive and structured search in biomedical databases Medline (PubMed), Scopus and Web of Science, recovering and analyzing 27 original studies. Results showed that sucrose-rich diets deteriorated diabetic condition in animal models regardless of the total dietary carbohydrate content. On the other hand, fiber, particularly resistant starch, improved blood glucose parameters through direct and indirect mechanisms, such as delayed gastric emptying and improved gut microbiota. All studies used rodents as animal models and male animals were preferred over females. Improvements in T2DM parameters in animal models were more closely related to the type of dietary carbohydrate than to its content on a diet, i. e., resistant starch seems to be the most beneficial source for maintaining normoglycemia. Results show that current literature is at high risk of bias due to neglecting experimental methods.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta/métodos , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Sacarose na Dieta/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
14.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 319(1): E203-E216, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516027

RESUMO

Studies suggest the gut microbiota contributes to the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Exercise alters microbiota composition and diversity and is protective of these maladies. We tested whether the protective metabolic effects of exercise are mediated through fecal components through assessment of body composition and metabolism in recipients of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from exercise-trained (ET) mice fed normal or high-energy diets. Donor C57BL/6J mice were fed a chow or high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHS) for 4 wk to induce obesity and glucose intolerance. Mice were divided into sedentary (Sed) or ET groups (6 wk treadmill-based ET) while maintaining their diets, resulting in four donor groups: chow sedentary (NC-Sed) or ET (NC-ET) and HFHS sedentary (HFHS-Sed) or ET (HFHS-ET). Chow-fed recipient mice were gavaged with feces from the respective donor groups weekly, creating four groups (NC-Sed-R, NC-ET-R, HFHS-Sed-R, HFHS-ET-R), and body composition and metabolism were assessed. The HFHS diet led to glucose intolerance and obesity in the donors, whereas exercise training (ET) restrained adiposity and improved glucose tolerance. No donor group FMT altered recipient body composition. Despite unaltered adiposity, glucose levels were disrupted when challenged in mice receiving feces from HFHS-fed donors, irrespective of donor-ET status, with a decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose clearance into white adipose tissue and large intestine and specific changes in the recipient's microbiota composition observed. FMT can transmit HFHS-induced disrupted glucose metabolism to recipient mice independently of any change in adiposity. However, the protective metabolic effect of ET on glucose metabolism is not mediated through fecal factors.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Sacarose na Dieta , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Intolerância à Glucose/microbiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Comportamento Sedentário , Adiposidade , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glucose/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória
15.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 318(6): E965-E980, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228321

RESUMO

Blueberry consumption can prevent obesity-linked metabolic diseases, and it has been proposed that the polyphenol content of blueberries may contribute to these effects. Polyphenols have been shown to favorably impact metabolic health, but the role of specific polyphenol classes and whether the gut microbiota is linked to these effects remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate the impact of whole blueberry powder and blueberry polyphenols on the development of obesity and insulin resistance and to determine the potential role of gut microbes in these effects by using fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Sixty-eight C57BL/6 male mice were assigned to one of the following diets for 12 wk: balanced diet (Chow); high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHS); or HFHS supplemented with whole blueberry powder (BB), anthocyanidin (ANT)-rich extract, or proanthocyanidin (PAC)-rich extract. After 8 wk, mice were housed in metabolic cages, and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Sixty germ-free mice fed HFHS diet received FMT from one of the above groups biweekly for 8 wk, followed by an OGTT. PAC-treated mice were leaner than HFHS controls although they had the same energy intake and were more physically active. This observation was reproduced in germ-free mice receiving FMT from PAC-treated mice. PAC- and ANT-treated mice showed improved insulin responses during OGTT, and this finding was also reproduced in germ-free mice following FMT. These results show that blueberry PAC and ANT polyphenols can reduce diet-induced body weight and improve insulin sensitivity and that at least part of these beneficial effects are explained by modulation of the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Frutas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Sacarose na Dieta , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/microbiologia
16.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 318(6): E856-E865, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315211

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with several chronic comorbidities, one of which is type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The pathogenesis of obesity and T2DM is influenced by alterations in diet macronutrient composition, which regulate energy expenditure, metabolic function, glucose homeostasis, and pancreatic islet cell biology. Recent studies suggest that increased intake of dietary carbohydrates plays a previously underappreciated role in the promotion of obesity and consequent metabolic dysfunction. Thus, in this study, we utilized mouse models to test the hypothesis that dietary carbohydrates modulate energetic, metabolic, and islet adaptions to high-fat diets. To address this, we exposed C57BL/6J mice to 12 wk of 3 eucaloric high-fat diets (>60% calories from fat) with varying total carbohydrate (1-20%) and sucrose (0-20%) content. Our results show that severe restriction of dietary carbohydrates characteristic of ketogenic diets reduces body fat accumulation, enhances energy expenditure, and reduces prevailing glycemia and insulin resistance compared with carbohydrate-rich, high-fat diets. Moreover, severe restriction of dietary carbohydrates also results in functional, morphological, and molecular changes in pancreatic islets highlighted by restricted capacity for ß-cell mass expansion and alterations in insulin secretory response. These studies support the hypothesis that low-carbohydrate/high-fat diets provide antiobesogenic benefits and suggest further evaluation of the effects of these diets on ß-cell biology in humans.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Dieta Cetogênica , Carboidratos da Dieta , Metabolismo Energético , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Sacarose na Dieta , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Secreção de Insulina , Camundongos
17.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252302

RESUMO

There is inconsistent evidence regarding the impact of added sugars consumption on micronutrient dilution of the diet. We examined the associations between added sugars intake deciles and nutrient adequacy for 17 micronutrients in U.S. adults 19+ (n = 13,949), 19-50 (n = 7424), and 51+ y (n = 6525) using two days of 24 hour dietary recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2014 and regression analysis. Added sugars intake deciles ranged from <3.8 to >23.3% of calories among adults 19+ y, with a median intake of 11.0% of calories. Significant associations (p ≤ 0.01) between added sugars intake deciles and percentage of the population below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) were found for magnesium, vitamin C, vitamin D, and vitamin E; only the association with magnesium remained significant after dropping the two highest and lowest deciles of intake, suggesting a threshold effect. Intakes below approximately 18% of calories from added sugars were generally not associated with micronutrient inadequacy. However, even at the lower deciles of added sugars, large percentages of the population were below the EAR for these four micronutrients, suggesting that adequate intakes are difficult to achieve regardless of added sugars intake.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adulto , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Estado Nutricional , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Endocrinol ; 245(2): 231-246, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112695

RESUMO

Sucrose consumption is associated with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cognitive deficits. Sucrose intake during pregnancy might have particularly prominent effects on metabolic, endocrine, and neural physiology. It remains unclear how consumption of sucrose affects parous females, especially in brain circuits that mediate food consumption and reward processing. Here, we examine whether a human-relevant level of sucrose before, during, and after pregnancy (17-18 weeks total) influences metabolic and neuroendocrine physiology in female rats. Females were fed either a control diet or a macronutrient-matched, isocaloric sucrose diet (25% of kcal from sucrose). Metabolically, sucrose impairs glucose tolerance, increases liver lipids, and increases a marker of adipose inflammation, but has no effect on body weight or overall visceral adiposity. Sucrose also decreases corticosterone levels in serum but not in the brain. Sucrose increases progesterone levels in serum and in the brain and increases the brain:serum ratio of progesterone in the mesocorticolimbic system and hypothalamus. These data suggest a dysregulation of systemic and local steroid signalling. Moreover, sucrose decreases tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a catecholamine-synthetic enzyme, in the medial prefrontal cortex. Finally, sucrose consumption alters the expression pattern of FOSB, a marker of phasic dopamine signalling, in the nucleus accumbens. Overall, chronic consumption of sucrose at a human-relevant level alters metabolism, steroid levels, and brain dopamine signalling in a female rat model.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Sacarose na Dieta/farmacologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Modelos Animais , Gravidez , Ratos
19.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 81, 2020 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened drinks (SSDs) are known to be cariogenic, but this association has not been well investigated in population-based repeated cross-sectional studies in recent years. Therefore, this study examined whether SSD intake is associated with higher caries experience in 10- and 15-year-olds. METHODS: The study sample included participants from the Munich study centre of two birth cohorts with data on non-cavitated caries lesions (NCCL/S), caries experience (DMF/S index), overall caries burden (DMF + NCCL/S) and SSD intake. In total, 915 and 996 children were included from the 10- and 15-year follow-ups, respectively. Intake (g/day) of SSDs, comprising cola, lemonade, ice-tea, sport/energy drinks, fruit squashes and nectars, was calculated from food frequency questionnaires. For analyses, the SSD intake was converted into portions (250 ml/day). Multiple logistic regression and prospective analysis models were performed to test associations between SSD intake and various definitions of caries, adjusting for sex, parental education, body mass index (BMI) categories, study cohort, plaque-affected sextants, mode of SSD consumption, energy content of SSDs, and total energy intake. RESULTS: The mean overall caries burden at 10 and 15 years of age was 1.81 (SD: 2.71) and 6.04 (SD: 8.13), respectively. The average consumption of SSDs at the 10- and 15-year follow-ups was 0.48 (SD: 0.85) and 0.83 (SD 1.40) portions/day, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, in 10-year-olds, SSD intake was significantly associated with higher caries experience based on the indices DMF/S (adjusted odds ratio: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.06-1.57), NCCL/S (1.24; 1.03-1.49) and DMF + NCCL/S (1.27; 1.05-1.55). At the 15-year follow-up, SSD consumption was significantly associated with increased DMF/S index (1.12; 1.01-1.25) only. Prospective model associating 10-year SSD intake with 15-year caries experience was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: SSD intake significantly increases the caries burden in 10-year-olds, with attenuated effects in 15-year-olds. To prevent caries, SSD consumption should be reduced, especially in children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/induzido quimicamente , Sacarose na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
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