Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.315
Filtrar
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298894

RESUMO

(1) The high-fat diet (HFD) of western countries has dramatic effect on the health of several organs, including the digestive tract, leading to the accumulation of fats that can also trigger a chronic inflammatory process, such as that which occurs in non-alcohol steatohepatitis. The effects of a HFD on the small intestine, the organ involved in the absorption of this class of nutrients, are still poorly investigated. (2) To address this aspect, we administered a combined HFD with sucrose (HFD w/Suc, fat: 58% Kcal) regimen (18 months) to mice and investigated the morphological and molecular changes that occurred in the wall of proximal tract of the small intestine compared to the intestine of mice fed with a standard diet (SD) (fat: 18% Kcal). (3) We found an accumulation of lipid droplets in the mucosa of HFD w/Suc-fed mice that led to a disarrangement of mucosa architecture. Furthermore, we assessed the expression of several key players involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation, such as perilipin, leptin, leptin receptor, PI3K, p-mTOR, p-Akt, and TNF-α. All these molecules were increased in HFD mice compared to the SD group. We also evaluated anti-inflammatory molecules like adiponectin, adiponectin receptor, and PPAR-γ, and observed their significant reduction in the HFD w/Suc group compared to the control. Our data are in line with the knowledge that improper eating habits present a primary harmful assault on the bowel and the entire body's health. (4) These results represent a promising starting point for future studies, helping to better understand the complex and not fully elucidated spectrum of intestinal alterations induced by the overconsumption of fat.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Receptores para Leptina/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3377, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099716

RESUMO

Animal models of human diseases are classically fed purified diets that contain casein as the unique protein source. We show that provision of a mixed protein source mirroring that found in the western diet exacerbates diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance by potentiating hepatic mTORC1/S6K1 signaling as compared to casein alone. These effects involve alterations in gut microbiota as shown by fecal microbiota transplantation studies. The detrimental impact of the mixed protein source is also linked with early changes in microbial production of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) and elevated plasma and hepatic acylcarnitines, indicative of aberrant mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We further show that the BCFA, isobutyric and isovaleric acid, increase glucose production and activate mTORC1/S6K1 in hepatocytes. Our findings demonstrate that alteration of dietary protein source exerts a rapid and robust impact on gut microbiota and BCFA with significant consequences for the development of obesity and insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/etiologia , Ração Animal/efeitos adversos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Vida Livre de Germes , Gluconeogênese , Hepatócitos , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Ratos , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 90-kDa/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
3.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251700, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test if sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) and sugar sweetened solids (SSSs) have differential effects on body weight and reward processing in the brain. METHODS: In a single blind randomized controlled pilot trial (RCT), twenty participants with BMI between 20 and 40 kg/m2 were randomized to consume a 20 fluid ounce soda (SSB, 248 kcal) or the equivalent in solid form (SSS; similar to thick gelatin or gummy candy) daily. At baseline and day 28, fasting body weight and fed-state BOLD fMRI of the brain were assessed. Differences in fMRI signals between views of low-fat (LF (<30%)) high sugar (HS (>30%)) food, and non-food images were calculated in brain regions implicated in energy homeostasis, taste, and reward. RESULTS: All participants in the SSB (6F 4M; 8 Caucasian; 36±14 y, 28.2±5.5 kg/m2; Mean±SD) and SSS (3F 7M; 6 Caucasian; 39±12; 26.3±4.4) groups completed the study. Weight change was 0.27±0.78 kg between SSB and SSS participants. Changes in the fMRI response to LF/HS foods in reward, homeostatic and taste regions tended to not be different between the groups over the four weeks. However, activation of the right substantia nigra increased following the SSB but decreased activation following the SSS in response to LF/HS foods over 28 days (-0.32±0.12). Ratings of wanting for LF/HS foods were correlated with activation in several brain regions, including the OFC. CONCLUSIONS: Change in weight was modest between the groups in this study. Daily consumption of a SSB over 28 days led to mixed responses to LF/HS foods in areas of the brain associated with reward. Ratings of wanting are correlated with fMRI activation inside an MRI scanner.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo , Sacarose na Dieta , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Método Simples-Cego
4.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 40, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion enhances exercise performance; however, the efficacy of CHO intake on repeated bouts of exercise simulating a taekwondo tournament is unknown. Therefore, the purpose was to compare the effects of two different doses of CHO on a sports-specific kicking test during a simulated taekwondo tournament compared to placebo (PLA). METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized-placebo controlled, cross-over trial, eleven junior male professional taekwondo athletes (age: 16 ± 0.8 years, body mass: 55.3 ± 7.3 kg) ingested one of three solutions: (i) high dose (C45): 45 g of CHO (60 g∙h- 1), (ii) low dose (C22.5): 22.5 g of CHO (30 g∙h- 1; both solutions containing 2:1 glucose:fructose), or a PLA immediately following each kicking test. The kicking test was repeated 5 times, separated by 45 mins of rest, simulating a typical taekwondo competition day. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and gastrointestinal discomfort (GI) scores were collected immediately after, and blood glucose before each test. RESULTS: The results revealed that C45 and C22.5 did not improve total, successful, or percentage of successful kicks compared to PLA (p > 0.05). Blood glucose was significantly higher following both CHO conditions compared with PLA across all five tests (p < 0.05). There were no differences between treatments or across tests for RPE (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: CHO intake, independent of the dose, did not alter taekwondo kick performance during a simulated taekwondo tournament.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Adolescente , Bebidas , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Azia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251789, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003845

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to assess the effect of different models of sucrose intake on carbohydrate-lipid metabolism and changes in oxidant balance in the ovaries and uterus of rats. Animals were divided into three groups: I-basic feed, II-feed contains 8% of sucrose, III-alternately every second week the basic feed and modified feed contains 16% of sucrose. The diet containing 8% of sucrose was found to result in an increased activity of antioxidant enzymes in the blood, with unchanged malonylodialdehyde concentration. Variable sucrose administration pattern intensified oxidative stress in the blood and led to disturbed redox equilibrium in the rat uterus, even at a comparable long-term sucrose uptake as in the group II. This was manifested as a reduced superoxide dismutase activity (in the blood and uterus) and a higher malonylodialdehyde concentration (in the uterus). The changes observed could have been a result of metabolic disorders (higher amount of visceral fat, higher glucose concentration, higher index of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and reduced HDL-cholesterol concentration) and endocrine disorders (higher oestrogen concentrations). Changes in the antioxidant status in the rats kept on the alternating diet, may underpin the failure of fertilised egg implantation in the uterine tissue and pregnancy completion.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Sacarose na Dieta , Ovário/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/farmacologia , Feminino , Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
6.
J Nutr Biochem ; 95: 108778, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004342

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a common metabolic disorder associated with insulin resistance and lacks a specific treatment. Our previous studies demonstrated that freeze-dried Saskatoon berry powder (SBp) reduced high fat-high sucrose (HFHS) diet-induced hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in mice. The present study examined the effect of SBp and one of its active components, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), on hepatic steatosis in mice fed with HFHS diet for 10 weeks. HFHS diet significantly increased fasting plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin resistance, inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, plasminogen activator inbitor-1), alanine aminotransferase activity, and monocyte adhesion compared to control diet. In the liver, HFHS diet increased steatosis, lipid accumulation, collagen deposition, and the abundance of patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3, CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, toll-like receptor-4, and macrophage marker. Supplementation with SBp (5%) or C3G in an amount corresponding to that in 5% SBp to HFHS diet had similar effects to reduced fasting plasma glucose, liver steatosis, enzyme activity, lipid, collagen and macrophage deposition, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, monocyte adhesion, markers related to liver steatosis, inflammation, oxidative or endoplasmic reticulum stress in the peripheral circulation and/or liver compared to mice fed with HFHS diet alone. No significant difference in the studied variables was detected between mice treated with HFHS+SBp and C3G diet. The results suggest that SBp or C3G administration attenuates HFHS diet-induced liver steatosis in addition to insulin resistance and chronic inflammation in mice. C3G may contribute to the beneficial effects of SBp.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Frutas/química , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Rosaceae/química , Adolescente , Animais , Glicemia , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Homeostase , Humanos , Insulina/genética , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Pós
7.
J Nutr ; 151(5): 1175-1189, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholecalciferol (D3) may improve inflammation, and thus provide protection from cardiometabolic diseases (CMD), although controversy remains. Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3FA) may also prevent the development of CMD, but the combined effects of ω-3FA and D3 are not fully understood. OBJECTIVES: We determined the chronic independent and combined effects of D3 and ω-3FA on body weight, glucose homeostasis, and markers of inflammation in obese mice. METHODS: We gave 8-week-old male C57BL/6J mice, which had been fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HF) diet (65.5% kcal fat, 19.8% kcal carbohydrate, and 14% kcal protein) for 12 weeks, either a standard D3 dose (+SD3; 1400 IU D3/kg diet) or a high D3 dose (+HD3; 15,000 IU D3/kg diet). We fed 1 +SD3 group and 1 +HD3 group with 4.36% (w/w) fish oil (+ω-3FA; 44% eicosapentaenoic acid, 25% docosahexaenoic acid), and fed the other 2 groups with corn oil [+omega-6 fatty acids (ω-6FA)]. A fifth group was fed a low-fat (LF; 15.5% kcal) diet. LF and HF+ω-6+SD3 differences were tested by a Student's t-test and HF treatment differences were tested by a 2-way ANOVA. RESULTS: D3 supplementation in the +HD3 groups did not significantly increase plasma total 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] versus the +SD3 groups, but it increased 3-epi-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels by 3.4 ng/mL in the HF+ω-6+HD3 group and 4.0 ng/mL in the HF+ω-3+HD3 group, representing 30% and 70%, respectively, of the total 25(OH)D3 increase. Energy expenditure increased in those mice fed diets +ω-3FA, by 3.9% in the HF+ω-3+SD3 group and 7.4% in the HF+ω-3+HD3 group, but it did not translate into lower body weight. The glucose tolerance curves of the HF+ω-3+SD3 and HF+ω-3+HD3 groups were improved by 11% and 17%, respectively, as compared to the respective +ω-6FA groups. D3 supplementation, within the ω-3FA groups, altered the gut microbiota by increasing the abundance of S24-7 and Lachnospiraceae taxa compared to the standard dose, while within the ω-6FA groups, D3 supplementation did not modulate specific taxa. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, D3 supplementation does not prevent CMD or enhance the beneficial effects of ω-3FA in vitamin D-sufficient obese mice.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Intolerância à Glucose , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/complicações , Distribuição Aleatória
8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(8): 10891-10919, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864446

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is frequently accompanied by progressing weight loss, correlating with mortality. Counter-intuitively, weight loss in old age might predict AD onset but obesity in midlife increases AD risk. Furthermore, AD is associated with diabetes-like alterations in glucose metabolism. Here, we investigated metabolic features of amyloid precursor protein overexpressing APP23 female mice modeling AD upon long-term challenge with high-sucrose (HSD) or high-fat diet (HFD). Compared to wild type littermates (WT), APP23 females were less prone to mild HSD-induced and considerable HFD-induced glucose tolerance deterioration, despite unaltered glucose tolerance during normal-control diet. Indirect calorimetry revealed increased energy expenditure and hyperactivity in APP23 females. Dietary interventions, especially HFD, had weaker effects on lean and fat mass gain, steatosis and adipocyte hypertrophy of APP23 than WT mice, as shown by 1H-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy, histological and biochemical analyses. Proteome analysis revealed differentially regulated expression of mitochondrial proteins in APP23 livers and brains. In conclusion, hyperactivity, increased metabolic rate, and global mitochondrial dysfunction potentially add up to the development of AD-related body weight changes in APP23 females, becoming especially evident during diet-induced metabolic challenge. These findings emphasize the importance of translating this metabolic phenotyping into human research to decode the metabolic component in AD pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico , Intolerância à Glucose/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/etiologia , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose/patologia , Humanos , Hipertrofia/diagnóstico , Hipertrofia/etiologia , Hipertrofia/metabolismo , Hipertrofia/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
J Nutr Biochem ; 93: 108621, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705945

RESUMO

Excess sucrose intake has been found to be a major factor in the development of metabolic syndrome, especially in promoting nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The excess fructose is believed to targets the liver to promote de novo lipogenesis, as described in major biochemistry textbooks. On the contrary, in this study, we explored the possible involvement of gut microbiota in excess sucrose-induced lipid metabolic disorders, to validate a novel mechanism by which excess sucrose causes hepatic lipid metabolic disorders via alterations to the gut microbial community structure. Wistar male rats were fed either a control starch diet or a high-sucrose diet for 4 weeks. Half of the rats in each group were treated with an antibiotic cocktail delivered via drinking water for the entire experimental period. After 4 weeks, rats fed with the high-sucrose diet showed symptoms of fatty liver and hyperlipidemia. The architecture of cecal microbiota was altered in rats fed with high-sucrose diet as compared to the control group, with traits including increased ratios of the phyla Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes, reduced α-diversity, and diurnal oscillations changes. Antibiotic administration rescued high-sucrose diet-induced lipid accumulation in the both blood and liver. Levels of two microbial metabolites, formate and butyrate, were reduced in rats fed with the high-sucrose diet. These volatile short-chain fatty acids might be responsible for the sucrose-induced fatty liver and hyperlipidemia. Our results indicate that changes in the gut microbiota induced by a high-sucrose diet would promote the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease via its metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids.


Assuntos
Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperlipidemias/induzido quimicamente , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ratos
10.
J Nutr ; 151(5): 1139-1149, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fructose consumption has been linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children. However, the effect of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) compared with sucrose in pediatric NAFLD has not been investigated. OBJECTIVES: We tested whether the isocaloric substitution of dietary sucrose by HFCS would increase the severity of NAFLD in juvenile pigs, and whether this effect would be associated with changes in gut histology, SCFA production, and microbial diversity. METHODS: Iberian pigs, 53-d-old and pair-housed in pens balanced for weight and sex, were randomly assigned to receive a mash diet top-dressed with increasing amounts of sucrose (SUC; n = 3 pens; 281.6-486.8 g/kg diet) or HFCS (n = 4; 444.3-724.8 g/kg diet) during 16 wk. Diets exceeded the animal's energy requirements by providing sugars in excess, but met the requirements for all other nutrients. Animals were killed at 165 d of age after blood sampling, and liver, muscle, and gut were collected for histology, metabolome, and microbiome analyses. Data were analyzed by multivariate and univariate statistics. RESULTS: Compared with SUC, HFCS increased subcutaneous fat, triacylglycerides in plasma, and butyrate in colon (P ≤ 0.05). In addition, HFCS decreased UMP and short-chain acyl carnitines in liver, and urea nitrogen and creatinine in serum (P ≤ 0.05). Microbiome analysis showed a 24.8% average dissimilarity between HFCS and SUC associated with changes in SCFA-producing bacteria. Body weight gain, intramuscular fat, histological and serum markers of liver injury, and circulating hormones, glucose, and proinflammatory cytokines did not differ between diets. CONCLUSIONS: Fructose consumption derived from HFCS promoted butyrate synthesis, triglyceridemia, and subcutaneous lipid deposition in juvenile Iberian pigs, but did not increase serum and histological markers of NAFLD compared with a sucrose-enriched diet. Longer studies could be needed to observe differences in liver injury among sugar types.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Xarope de Milho Rico em Frutose/efeitos adversos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Animais , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/anatomia & histologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Xarope de Milho Rico em Frutose/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos
11.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(5): 166036, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508421

RESUMO

High consumption of fructose has paralleled an explosion in metabolic disorders including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Even more problematic, sustained consumption of fructose is perceived as a threat for brain function and development of neurological disorders. The action of fructose on peripheral organs is an excellent model to understand how systemic physiology impacts the brain. Given the recognized action of fructose on liver metabolism, here we discuss mechanisms by which fructose can impact the brain by interacting with liver and other organs. The interaction between peripheral and central mechanisms is a suitable target to reduce the pathophysiological consequences of neurological disorders.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/etiologia , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Doenças Metabólicas/patologia , Plasticidade Neuronal , Encefalopatias/patologia , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/induzido quimicamente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso , Edulcorantes/farmacologia
12.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e21, 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251999

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective. To characterize the design of excise taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in Latin America and the Caribbean and assess opportunities to increase their impact on SSB consumption and health. Methods. A comprehensive search and review of the legislation in effect as of March 2019, collected through existing Pan American Health Organization and World Health Organization monitoring tools, secondary sources, and surveying ministries of finance. The analysis focused on the type of products taxed, and the structure and base of these excise taxes. Results. Out of the 33 countries analyzed, 21 apply excise taxes on SSBs. Seven countries also apply excise taxes on bottled water and at least four include sugar-sweetened milk drinks. Ten of these excise taxes are ad valorem with some tax bases set early in the value chain, seven are amount-specific, and four have either a combined or mixed structure. Three countries apply excise taxes based on sugar concentration. Conclusions. While the number of countries applying excise taxes on SSBs is promising, there is great heterogeneity in design in terms of structure, tax base, and products taxed. Existing excise taxes could be further leveraged to improve their impact on SSB consumption and health by including all categories of SSBs, excluding bottled water, and relying more on amount-specific taxes regularly adjusted for inflation and possibly based on sugar concentration. All countries would benefit from additional guidance. Future research should aim to address this gap.


RESUMEN Objetivo. Caracterizar el diseño de los impuestos selectivos al consumo de bebidas azucaradas en América Latina y el Caribe, y evaluar las oportunidades de aumentar su impacto en el consumo y la salud. Métodos. Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda y una evaluación exhaustivas de legislaciones vigentes a marzo del 2019, recopilada mediante las herramientas de seguimiento ya existentes de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, fuentes secundarias, así como mediante una encuesta a ministerios de finanzas. El análisis se centró en el tipo de productos gravados y la estructura y la base de estos impuestos selectivos. Resultados. De los 33 países evaluados, en 21 se aplican impuestos selectivos al consumo de bebidas azucaradas. En siete países también se aplican impuestos selectivos al consumo de agua embotellada y en al menos cuatro, se incluyen las bebidas lácteas azucaradas. Diez de estos impuestos selectivos al consumo son de tipo ad valorem con algunas bases imponibles fijadas al principio de la cadena de valor, siete son de tipo específico y cuatro son de estructura combinada o mixta. En tres países se aplican impuestos selectivos al consumo en función de la concentración de azúcares del producto. Conclusiones. Si bien el número de países en que se aplican impuestos selectivos al consumo de bebidas azucaradas es prometedor, existe una gran heterogeneidad en su diseño en cuanto a la estructura, la base imponible y los productos gravados. Se podrían aprovechar aún más los impuestos selectivos existentes a fin de que tengan un mayor impacto sobre la salud y el consumo si se incluyen todas las categorías de bebidas azucaradas, excluyendo el agua embotellada, y recurriendo más a impuestos de tipo específico ajustados frecuentemente según la inflación y basados posiblemente en la concentración de azúcares del producto. Todos los países se beneficiarían si hubiera mayor orientación. Las próximas investigaciones deberían abordar esta brecha.


RESUMO Objetivo. Caracterizar o modelo dos impostos especiais de consumo sobre bebidas açucaradas na América Latina e no Caribe e avaliar oportunidades para aumentar o impacto desses impostos no consumo de bebidas açucaradas e na saúde. Métodos. Realizou-se uma pesquisa ampla e a análise de legislações vigentes em março de 2019, com informações obtidas por meio de instrumentos de monitoramento da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) e da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) já existentes, fontes secundárias e levantamento junto aos ministérios da Fazenda. A análise centrou-se no tipo de produtos tributados e na estrutura e base desses impostos especiais de consumo. Resultados. Dos 33 países analisados, 21 aplicam impostos especiais de consumo sobre bebidas açucaradas. Em sete países os impostos especiais de consumo incidem também sobre água engarrafada e, em pelo menos quatro, incluem bebidas lácteas açucaradas. Dez desses tributos especiais são ad valorem com algumas bases tributárias estabelecidas no início da cadeia de valor, sete são de tipo específico e quatro têm uma estrutura combinada ou mista. Em três países os impostos especiais são estabelecidos com base na concentração de açúcares do produto. Conclusões. Apesar do número promissor de países com impostos especiais de consumo sobre bebidas açucaradas, verifica-se grande heterogeneidade nos modelos de tributação em termos de estrutura, base tributária e produtos tributados. Os impostos especiais de consumo vigentes poderiam ser mais bem aproveitados para aumentar o impacto no consumo de bebidas açucaradas e na saúde: incluir todas as categorias de bebidas açucaradas, excluir água engarrafada e recorrer mais a impostos de tipo específico com a correção periódica pela inflação e, possivelmente, com base na concentração de açúcares do produto. Todos os países se beneficiariam em receber mais orientação. Pesquisas futuras devem ter como objetivo abordar essa lacuna.


Assuntos
Humanos , Impostos , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/economia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/legislação & jurisprudência , Edulcorantes , Região do Caribe , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , América Latina
13.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 13: 1436-1441, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1341934

RESUMO

Objetivo: Identificar o perfil sociodemográfico, clínico e os diagnósticos de enfermagem pessoas com diabetes mellitus estabelecidos em consultas de enfermagem à beira do leito. Método: Estudo observacional descritivo, realizado em 2017 com 37 participantes, amostra não probabilística, em unidade de clínica médica ou cirúrgica de um hospital escola do sul do Brasil. Variáveis do estudo: dados sociodemográficos, clínicos e diagnósticos de enfermagem da North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, submetidos à estatística descritiva simples. Resultados: 89,21% dos participantes diabéticos tipo 2; tempo médio de diagnóstico de 9,6 anos; 70,2% hipertensos; 56,7% tabagistas; 16,2% insulinodependentes; 32,4% faziam uso de açúcar refinado; 59,45% associavam dois ou mais carboidratos na mesma refeição. Os diagnósticos mais frequentes: Risco de glicemia instável (97,37%), Risco de infecção (97,37%), Conhecimento deficiente (81,58%), Estilo de vida sedentário (60,53%), Controle ineficaz da saúde (60,53%). Conclusão: A identificação do perfil e dos diagnósticos de enfermagem possibilita melhor planejamento de enfermagem


Objective: To identify the sociodemographic, clinical profile and nursing diagnoses established through bedside nursing consultation in people with diabetes mellitus. Method: Descriptive observational study, conducted in 2017 with 37 participants (non-probabilistic sample), in a medical or surgical clinic unit of a school hospital in southern Brazil. Study variables: sociodemographic, clinical and nursing diagnoses according to the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, submitted to simple descriptive statistics. Results: 89.21% type 2 diabetic; mean time of diagnosis of 9.6 years; 70.2% hypertensive; 56.7% smokers; 16.2% insulin-dependent; 32.4% used refined sugar; 59.45% associated two or more carbohydrates in the same meal. The most frequent diagnoses: Risk for unstable blood glucose level(97.37%), Risk for infection (97.37%), Deficient knowledge (81.58%), Sedentary lifestyle (60.53%), Ineffective health management (60.53%). Conclusion: The identification of profile and nursind diagnoses enables better nursing planning


Objetivo: Identificar el perfil sociodemográfico, clínico y diagnósticos de enfermería establecidos en la consulta de enfermería a la beira del lechoen personas con diabetes mellitus. Método: Estudio observacional descriptivo, realizado en 2017 con 37 participantes (muestra no probabilística), en unidad de clínica médica o quirúrgica de un hospital escuela del sur de Brasil. Variables del estudio: datos sociodemográficos, clínicos y diagnósticos de enfermería según la North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, sometidas a la estadística descriptiva simple. Resultados:89,21% diabéticos tipo 2; tiempo promedio de diagnóstico de 9,6 años; 70,2% hipertensos; 56,7% fumadores; 16,2% insulinodependientes; 32,4% hacía uso de azúcar refinado; 59,45% asociaba dos o más carbohidratos en la misma comida. Diagnósticos más frecuentes: Riesgo de glucemia inestable (97,37%), Riesgo de infección (97,37%), Conocimiento deficiente (81,58%), Estilo de vida sedentario (60,53%), Control ineficaz de la salud (60,53%). Conclusión: La identificación del perfil y de los diagnósticos de enfermería posibilita mejor planificación de enfermería


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Perfil de Saúde , Diagnóstico de Enfermagem/métodos , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus/enfermagem , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida
14.
J Sports Sci ; 39(10): 1144-1152, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320051

RESUMO

This study assessed the effects of glucose-fructose co-ingestion during recovery from high-intensity rugby training on subsequent performance. Nine professional, senior academy Rugby Union players performed two trials in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Identical rugby training sessions were separated by a 3-hour recovery period, during which participants ingested protein (0.3 g×kg BM×h-1) and carbohydrate-containing (0.8 g×kg BM×h-1) recovery drinks, comprised of glucose polymers (GLUCOSE ONLY) or a glucose-fructose mixture (GLUCOSE+FRUCTOSE). Performance outcomes were determined from global positioning systems combined with accelerometry and heart rate monitoring. Mean speed during sessions 1 (am) and 2 (pm) of GLUCOSE ONLY was (mean±SD) 118±6 and 117±4 m×min-1, respectively. During GLUCOSE+FRUCTOSE, mean speed during session 1 and 2 was 117±4 and 116±5 m×min-1, respectively (time x trial interaction, p = 0.61). Blood lactate concentrations were higher throughout recovery in GLUCOSE+FRUCTOSE (mean ±SD: 1-h 3.2 ±2.0 mmol×L-1; 3-h 2.1 ±1.2 mmol×L-1) compared to GLUCOSE ONLY (1-h 2.0 ±1.0 mmol×L-1; 3-h 1.4 ±1.0 mmol×L-1; trial effect p = 0.05). Gastrointestinal discomfort low in both conditions. These data suggest glucose-fructose mixtures consumed as protein-carbohydrate recovery drinks following rugby training do not enhance subsequent performance compared to glucose-based recovery drinks.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Acelerometria/métodos , Estudos Cross-Over , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Dispepsia/induzido quimicamente , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos
15.
Eur J Oral Sci ; 128(6): 467-475, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156952

RESUMO

The relationship between high dietary intakes of sugar (sucrose) and dental caries is well established. Processed sugars and starches have been associated with greater dental caries experience in retrospective studies. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the relationship between the consumption of processed sugar- and starch-containing foods, the frequency of consumption of these foods, and dental caries. Prospective studies were identified in databases searched from 1970 to July 2020, and relevant retrieved papers that examined associations between the consumption of sugar- and starch-containing foods by human participants and dental caries were eligible for inclusion. Five cohort studies were identified for inclusion, all of which evaluated caries risk in young children or pre-adolescents. The between-meal consumption of processed sugar- and starch-containing foods was consistently found to be associated with greater caries experience. There were mixed findings on total consumption of processed sugar- and starch-containing foods, owing to a range of confounding factors, including the simultaneous consumption of caries-protective foods at mealtimes. Although there is a paucity of research of the dietary effects of frequent consumption of processed sugar- and starch-containing foods on dental caries, there is some evidence of plausible associations between this dietary behaviour and dental caries. Future research should investigate the effectiveness of interventions to change the dietary behaviour of high-frequency consumption of processed sugar- and starch-containing foods to decrease the risk of dental caries.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Amido , Açúcares
16.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(12): 2347-2356, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate both the long-term and short-term impacts of high-fat diets (HFD) or high-sucrose diets (HSD) on the normal diurnal pattern of cognitive function, protein expression, and the molecular clock in mice. METHODS: This study used both 6-month and 4-week feeding strategies by providing male C57BL/6J mice access to either a standard chow, HFD, or HSD. Spatial working memory and synaptic plasticity were assessed both day and night, and hippocampal tissue was measured for changes in NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits (GluN2B, GluA1), as well as molecular clock gene expression. RESULTS: HFD and HSD both disrupted normal day/night fluctuations in spatial working memory and synaptic plasticity. Mice fed HFD altered their food intake to consume more calories during the day. Both diets disrupted normal hippocampal clock gene expression, and HFD reduced GluN2B levels in hippocampal tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that both HFD and HSD induce a loss of day/night performance in spatial working memory and synaptic plasticity as well as trigger a cascade of changes that include disruption to the hippocampal molecular clock.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
17.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066385

RESUMO

Macronutrients represent risk factors for hyperlipidemia or diabetes. Lipid alterations and type 2 diabetes mellitus are global health problems. Overexpression of sterol regulatory element-binding factor (Srebf2) in transgenic animals is linked to elevated cholesterol levels and diabetes development. We investigated the impact of increased Srebf2 locus expression and the effects of control and high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diets on body weight, glucose and lipid metabolisms in transgenic mice (S-mice). Wild type (WT) and S-mice were fed with both diets for 16 weeks. Plasma glucose, insulin and lipids were assessed (n = 25). Immunostainings were performed in liver, pancreas and fat (N = 10). Expression of Ldlr and Hmgcr in liver was performed by RT-PCR (N = 8). Control diet: S-mice showed reduced weight, insulin, total and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides (TG). HFHS diet widened differences in weight, total and HDL cholesterol, insulin and HOMA index but increased TG in S-mice. In S-mice, adipocyte size was lower while HFHS diet produced lower increase, pancreatic ß-cell mass was lower with both diets and Srebf2, Ldlr and Hmgcr mRNA levels were higher while HFHS diet produced a rise in Srebf2 and Hmgcr levels. Srebf2 complete gene overexpression seems to have beneficial effects on metabolic parameters and to protect against HFHS diet effects.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Expressão Gênica , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Insulina/sangue , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4458, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895383

RESUMO

In rodent models of type 2 diabetes (T2D), sustained remission of hyperglycemia can be induced by a single intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1), and the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) was recently implicated as the brain area responsible for this effect. To better understand the cellular response to FGF1 in the MBH, we sequenced >79,000 single-cell transcriptomes from the hypothalamus of diabetic Lepob/ob mice obtained on Days 1 and 5 after icv injection of either FGF1 or vehicle. A wide range of transcriptional responses to FGF1 was observed across diverse hypothalamic cell types, with glial cell types responding much more robustly than neurons at both time points. Tanycytes and ependymal cells were the most FGF1-responsive cell type at Day 1, but astrocytes and oligodendrocyte lineage cells subsequently became more responsive. Based on histochemical and ultrastructural evidence of enhanced cell-cell interactions between astrocytes and Agrp neurons (key components of the melanocortin system), we performed a series of studies showing that intact melanocortin signaling is required for the sustained antidiabetic action of FGF1. These data collectively suggest that hypothalamic glial cells are leading targets for the effects of FGF1 and that sustained diabetes remission is dependent on intact melanocortin signaling.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Fator 1 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteína Relacionada com Agouti/metabolismo , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Glicemia/análise , Comunicação Celular , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipotálamo/citologia , Hipotálamo/patologia , Injeções Intraventriculares , Leptina/genética , Masculino , Melanocortinas/metabolismo , Hormônios Estimuladores de Melanócitos/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Oligodendroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligodendroglia/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Receptores de Melanocortina/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Melanocortina/metabolismo , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Célula Única , Técnicas Estereotáxicas , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(5): 410-418, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study focused on describing local trends in sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption, including variations between subgroups, to inform equitable health policy to curb soft drink consumption. METHODS: Weighted data were obtained from the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System, a state-based population health survey that monitors trends in health risk factors and chronic disease via computer-assisted telephone interviewing. From 2008 onwards, participants provided an estimate of the average amount of soft drink they consumed per day. RESULTS: From 2008-2017, there were significant decreases in the proportion of adults who consumed any SSBs, but the mean consumption per consumer increased. High-risk dietary and lifestyle behaviours are the strongest predictors for consumption of soft drink, but there is also a significant association with socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Population trends mask increasing inequity. There is a societal trend away from the consumption of SSBs across all subgroups, but at-risk groups who engage in clusters of unhealthy behaviours remain high consumers. Implications for public health: The identification of at-risk populations allows research to focus more precisely on the structural barriers, beliefs, attitudes and facilitators of ongoing consumption of SSB in order to inform future health promotion efforts.


Assuntos
Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos de Populações Continentais/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Austrália do Sul/epidemiologia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/estatística & dados numéricos , Edulcorantes/administração & dosagem , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...