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1.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228860, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032383

RESUMO

Several diseases are associated with excess of adipose tissue, and obesity is considered an independent risk factor for the development of cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Dietary aspects have been studied to elucidate the mechanisms involved in these processes. Thus, the purpose was the development and characterization of an obesity experimental model from hypercaloric diets, which resulted in cardiac remodeling and predisposition to heart failure. Thirty- day-old male Wistar rats (n = 52) were randomized into four groups: control (C), high sucrose (HS), high-fat (HF) and high-fat and sucrose (HFHS) for 20 weeks. General characteristics, comorbidities, weights of the heart, left (LV) and right ventricles, atrium, and relationships with the tibia length were evaluated. The LV myocyte cross sectional area and fraction of interstitial collagen were assayed. Cardiac function was determined by hemodynamic analysis and the contractility by cardiomyocyte contractile function. Heart failure was analyzed by pulmonary congestion, right ventricular hypertrophy, and hemodynamic parameters. HF and HFHS models led to obesity by increase in adiposity index (C = 8.3 ± 0.2% vs. HF = 10.9 ± 0.5%, HFHS = 10.2 ± 0.3%). There was no change in the morphological parameters and heart failure signals. HF and HFHS caused a reduction in times to 50% relaxation without cardiomyocyte contractile damage. The HS model presented cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction visualized by lower shortening (C: 8.34 ± 0.32% vs. HS: 6.91 ± 0.28), as well as the Ca2+ transient amplitude was also increased when compared to HFHS. In conclusion, the experimental diets based on high amounts of sugar, lard or a combination of both did not promote cardiac remodeling with predisposition to heart failure under conditions of obesity or excess sucrose. Nevertheless, excess sucrose causes cardiomyocyte contractility dysfunction associated with alterations in the myocyte sensitivity to intracellular Ca2+.


Assuntos
Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Animais , Sinalização do Cálcio , Colágeno/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Energia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Contração Miocárdica , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112263, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580944

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cocoa extracts rich in polyphenols are used as potential agent for treating diabetes. Cocoa polyphenols have been proved to ameliorate important hallmarks of type-2 diabetes (T2D). They can regulate glucose levels by increasing insulin secretion, promoting ß-cell proliferation and a reduction of insulin resistance. In addition, epidemiological evidence indicates that consumption of flavonoid decreases the incidence of T2D. AIM OF THE STUDY: T2D is preceded by a prediabetic state in which the endocrine-metabolic changes described in T2D are already present. Since epidemiological evidence indicates that consumption of flavonoid decreases its incidence, we evaluated possible preventive effects of polyphenol-enriched cocoa extract on a model of prediabetes induced by sucrose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We determined circulating parameters and insulin sensitivity indexes, liver protein carbonyl groups and reduced glutathione, liver mRNA expression levels of lipogenic enzymes, expression of different pro-inflammatory mediators, fructokinase activity and liver glycogen content. For that, radioimmunoassay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, spectrophotometry, and immunohistochemistry were used. RESULTS: We demonstrated that sucrose administration triggered hypertriglyceridemia, insulin-resistance, and liver increased oxidative stress and inflammation markers compared to control rats. Additionally, we found an increase in glycogen deposit, fructokinase activity, and lipogenic genes expression (SREBP-1c, FAS and GPAT) together with a decrease in P-Akt and P-eNOS protein content (P < 0.05). Sucrose-induced insulin resistance, hepatic carbohydrate and lipid dysmetabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation were effectively disrupted by polyphenol-enriched cocoa extract (PECE) co-administration (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Dietary administration of cocoa flavanols may be an effective and complementary tool for preventing or reverting T2D at an early stage of its development (prediabetes).


Assuntos
Cacau/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/etiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Ratos , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
3.
Lancet ; 394(10194): 261-272, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327370

RESUMO

Oral diseases are a major global public health problem affecting over 3·5 billion people. However, dentistry has so far been unable to tackle this problem. A fundamentally different approach is now needed. In this second of two papers in a Series on oral health, we present a critique of dentistry, highlighting its key limitations and the urgent need for system reform. In high-income countries, the current treatment-dominated, increasingly high-technology, interventionist, and specialised approach is not tackling the underlying causes of disease and is not addressing inequalities in oral health. In low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), the limitations of so-called westernised dentistry are at their most acute; dentistry is often unavailable, unaffordable, and inappropriate for the majority of these populations, but particularly the rural poor. Rather than being isolated and separated from the mainstream health-care system, dentistry needs to be more integrated, in particular with primary care services. The global drive for universal health coverage provides an ideal opportunity for this integration. Dental care systems should focus more on promoting and maintaining oral health and achieving greater oral health equity. Sugar, alcohol, and tobacco consumption, and their underlying social and commercial determinants, are common risk factors shared with a range of other non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Coherent and comprehensive regulation and legislation are needed to tackle these shared risk factors. In this Series paper, we focus on the need to reduce sugar consumption and describe how this can be achieved through the adoption of a range of upstream policies designed to combat the corporate strategies used by the global sugar industry to promote sugar consumption and profits. At present, the sugar industry is influencing dental research, oral health policy, and professional organisations through its well developed corporate strategies. The development of clearer and more transparent conflict of interest policies and procedures to limit and clarify the influence of the sugar industry on research, policy, and practice is needed. Combating the commercial determinants of oral diseases and other NCDs should be a major policy priority.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica/organização & administração , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Doenças da Boca/terapia , Saúde Bucal , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Indústria Alimentícia , Saúde Global , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Doenças da Boca/etiologia , Odontologia Preventiva/organização & administração , Saúde Pública
4.
Food Funct ; 10(6): 3696-3705, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168538

RESUMO

The consumption of diets rich in fat and refined sugars is recognized to be one of the causes of lifestyle disorders, and dietary fibres are being advocated to ameliorate the complications associated with these disorders. In the present study, the effects of two soluble fermentable fibres, viz., gum acacia and inulin on the progression of adiposity, insulin resistance, and the expression of genes related to metabolism were examined in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat and sucrose diet for 18 weeks. The feeding of either type of fibre resulted in decrease in body weight, epididymal fat mass, adipocyte size, hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinemia. In the fibre-fed groups, the expressions of adiponectin and glucose transporter 4 in the epididymal fat increased significantly, while the expressions of leptin, interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha decreased significantly. Moreover, the expressions of genes related to beta-oxidation, viz., carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1ß, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in the liver tissue of the fibre-fed groups enhanced significantly. Furthermore, due to the feeding of either type of fibre, the expressions of zonula occludens 1 and fasting-induced adipose factor in the distal ileum and proglucagon in the colon increased significantly. From the results of the present study, it can be concluded that the beneficial effects of the fibres are mediated due to enhanced energy expenditure, improved intestinal integrity, and reduced inflammation.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Goma Arábica/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Inulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Adiponectina/genética , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Animais , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Leptina/genética , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064116

RESUMO

Hypercholesterolemia may be causally related to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We aimed to establish a HFpEF model associated with hypercholesterolemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus by feeding a high-sucrose/high-fat (HSHF) diet to C57BL/6J low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr)-/- mice. Secondly, we evaluated whether cholesterol-lowering adeno-associated viral serotype 8 (AAV8)-mediated LDLr gene transfer prevents HFpEF. AAV8-LDLr gene transfer strongly (p < 0.001) decreased plasma cholesterol in standard chow (SC) mice (66.8 ± 2.5 mg/dl versus 213 ± 12 mg/dl) and in HSHF mice (84.6 ± 4.4 mg/dl versus 464 ± 25 mg/dl). The HSHF diet induced cardiac hypertrophy and pathological remodeling, which were potently counteracted by AAV8-LDLr gene transfer. Wet lung weight was 19.0% (p < 0.001) higher in AAV8-null HSHF mice than in AAV8-null SC mice, whereas lung weight was normal in AAV8-LDLr HSHF mice. Pressure-volume loop analysis was consistent with HFpEF in AAV8-null HSHF mice and showed a completely normal cardiac function in AAV8-LDLr HSHF mice. Treadmill exercise testing demonstrated reduced exercise capacity in AAV8-null HSHF mice but a normal capacity in AAV8-LDLr HSHF mice. Reduced oxidative stress and decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α may mediate the beneficial effects of cholesterol lowering. In conclusion, AAV8-LDLr gene therapy prevents HFpEF.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Terapia Genética/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Hipercolesterolemia/terapia , Receptores de LDL/genética , Animais , Colesterol/sangue , Dependovirus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Hipercolesterolemia/etiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Volume Sistólico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
6.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052523

RESUMO

Free sugars overconsumption is associated with an increased prevalence of risk factors for metabolic diseases such as the alteration of the blood lipid levels. Natural fruit juices have a free sugar composition quite similar to that of sugar-sweetened beverages. Thus, could fruit juice consumption lead to the same adverse effects on health as sweetened beverages? We attempted to answer this question by reviewing the available evidence on the health effects of both sugar-sweetened beverages and natural fruit juices. We determined that, despite the similarity of fruits juices to sugar-sweetened beverages in terms of free sugars content, it remains unclear whether they lead to the same metabolic consequences if consumed in equal dose. Important discrepancies between studies, such as type of fruit juice, dose, duration, study design, and measured outcomes, make it impossible to provide evidence-based public recommendations as to whether the consumption of fruit juices alters the blood lipid profile. More randomized controlled trials comparing the metabolic effects of fruit juice and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption are needed to shape accurate public health guidelines on the variety and quantity of free sugars in our diet that would help to prevent the development of obesity and related health problems.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Edulcorantes/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Frutose/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/etiologia , Xarope de Milho Rico em Frutose/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrientes , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
7.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 47(4): 316-323, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033019

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate risk indicators for untreated dental decay among Indigenous Australian children using a national representative sample. METHODS: Data were from the National Child Oral Health Study 2012-2014, which included a nationally representative sample of Indigenous Australian children aged 5-14 years. Outcomes were the prevalence (% ds/DS >0) and severity (mean ds/DS) of untreated dental decay at the tooth surface level. Caries of the primary dentition was estimated among 5- to 10-year-olds, while that of the permanent dentition was among 8- to 14-year-olds. Independent variables included residential location, household income, frequency and age commencement of toothbrushing, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) consumption, dental visiting and residential fluoridation status. Multivariable log-Poisson regression models with robust standard error estimation were used to identify risk indicators for untreated decay. The complex sampling design was taken into account in all analyses. RESULTS: There were 720 5- to 10-year-old and 736 8- to 14-year-old Indigenous children. Indigenous children experienced significant amount of untreated dental caries. Among 5- to 10-year-olds, % ds >0 was 43.1 (95% CI: 36.8-49.6) and mean ds was 3.4 (95% CI: 2.4-4.4). Among 8- to 14-year-olds, % DS >0 was 27.3 (22.3-32.9), while mean DS was 0.8 (0.6-1.0). In multivariable modelling, risk indicators for % ds >0 among 5- to 10-year-olds were low household income, commencing toothbrushing after 30 months of age, consuming 2+ cups of SSB per day and not residing in fluoridated areas. Risk indicators for mean ds among 5- to 10-year-olds included infrequent toothbrushing and consuming 2+ cups of SSB per day. Risk indicators for % DS >0 among 8- to 14-year-olds were low household income, while risk indicators for mean DS among 8- to 14-year-olds were residing in non-capital city, low household income, consuming 2+ cups of SSB per day and not residing in fluoridated areas. CONCLUSION: Indigenous Australian children experienced significant amount of untreated dental caries. Risk indicators for untreated decay included demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, oral hygiene behaviours, dietary behaviours and environmental factors.


Assuntos
Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Fluoretação/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Austrália/epidemiologia , Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0212796, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865648

RESUMO

While there is a burgeoning interest in the effects of nutrition on systemic inflammatory diseases, how dietary macronutrient balance impacts local chronic inflammatory diseases in the mouth has been largely overlooked. Here, we used the Geometric Framework for Nutrition to test how the amounts of dietary macronutrients and their interactions, as well as carbohydrate type (starch vs sucrose vs resistant starch) influenced periodontitis-associated alveolar bone height in mice. Increasing intake of carbohydrates reduced alveolar bone height, while dietary protein had no effect. Whether carbohydrate came from sugar or starch did not influence the extent of alveolar bone height. In summary, the amount of carbohydrate in the diet modulated periodontitis-associated alveolar bone height independent of the source of carbohydrates.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar/etiologia , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Periodontite/etiologia , Amido/efeitos adversos , Perda do Osso Alveolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Perda do Osso Alveolar/patologia , Processo Alveolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Processo Alveolar/patologia , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tamanho do Órgão , Amido/administração & dosagem
9.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 70(1): 59-67, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837747

RESUMO

Background: Over the past 50 years, the average consumption of sugar worldwide has tripled, also the type of consumed sugar has changed. Due to high price of sucrose and its technological disadvantages, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has become one of the most commonly used substitutes. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare, on the animal model, the effect of sugar type (sucrose vs high fructose corn syrup 55% of fructose) and the sugar form (solid vs fluid and solid) on the chosen parameters of carbohydrate-lipid metabolism. Material and methods: The experiment was carried out on 40 Wistar male rats aged 5 months, fed four isocaloric diets, containing: group I (SUC 15%) fodder with 15% sucrose, group II (HFCS 15%) fodder with 15% HFCS-55%, group III (SUC 7.5%+7.5%) ­ 7.5% sucrose in solid fodder and 7.5% sucrose water solution, group IV (HFCS 7.5%+7.5%) ­ 7.5% HFCS-55% in solid fodder and 7.5% HFCS water solution. Results: The effect of HFCS-55 on the parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism was not equivalent of the effect of sucrose. Dietary use of HFCS-55 instead of sucrose causes adverse changes in blood parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, particularly when provided in beverages, as at comparable weight gains to that of sucrose. More intense changes, manifesting in increased blood levels of glucose, triglycerides and uric acid, as well as increased liver fat content, were observed at simultaneous intake of sweeteners in solid foods and fluids, even with less sugar consumption, compared to solid food only. Conclusions: Dietary use of HFCS-55 causes adverse changes in blood parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as at comparable weight gains to that of sucrose. But liquid form of sugar intake is more important insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease risk factor than the sugar type.


Assuntos
Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Xarope de Milho Rico em Frutose/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Sacarose na Dieta/farmacocinética , Xarope de Milho Rico em Frutose/farmacologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Ganho de Peso
10.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(7): 837-847, 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent condition. It is diagnosed on the basis of chronic symptoms after the clinical and/or investigative exclusion of organic diseases that can cause similar symptoms. There is no reproducible non-invasive test for the diagnosis of IBS, and this raises diagnostic uncertainty among physicians and hinders acceptance of the diagnosis by patients. Functional gastrointestinal (GI) syndromes often present with overlapping upper and lower GI tract symptoms, now believed to be generated by visceral hypersensitivity. This study examines the possibility that, in IBS, a nutrient drink test (NDT) provokes GI symptoms that allow a positive differentiation of these patients from healthy subjects. AIM: To evaluate the NDT for the diagnosis of IBS. METHODS: This prospective case-control study compared the effect of two different nutrient drinks on GI symptoms in 10 IBS patients (patients) and 10 healthy controls (controls). The 500 kcal high nutrient drink and the low nutrient 250 kcal drink were given in randomized order on separate days. Symptoms were assessed just before and at several time points after drink ingestion. Global dyspepsia and abdominal scores were derived from individual symptom data recorded by two questionnaires designed by our group, the upper and the general GI symptom questionnaires, respectively. Psycho-social morbidity and quality of life were also formally assessed. The scores of patients and controls were compared using single factor analysis of variance test. RESULTS: At baseline, IBS patients compared to controls had significantly higher levels of GI symptoms such as gastro-esophageal reflux (P = 0.05), abdominal pain (P = 0.001), dyspepsia (P = 0.001), diarrhea (P = 0.001), and constipation (P = 0.001) as well as higher psycho-social morbidity and lower quality of life. The very low incidence of GI symptoms reported by control subjects did not differ significantly for the two test drinks. Compared with the low nutrient drink, IBS patients with the high nutrient drink had significantly more dyspeptic symptoms at 30 (P = 0.014), 45 (P = 0.002), 60 (P = 0.001), and 120 min (P = 0.011). Dyspeptic symptoms triggered by the high nutrient drink during the first 120 min gave the best differentiation between healthy controls and patients (area under receiver operating curve of 0.915 at 45 min for the dyspepsia score). Continued symptom monitoring for 24 h did not enhance separation of patients from controls. CONCLUSION: A high NDT merits further evaluation as a diagnostic tool for IBS.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/induzido quimicamente , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dispepsia/induzido quimicamente , Alimentos Formulados/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/complicações , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida
11.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(1): 17-28, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615104

RESUMO

Background: Overconsumption of energy-dense foods and sleep restriction are both associated with the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, but their combined effects remain poorly evaluated. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether sleep restriction potentiates the effects of a short-term overfeeding on intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL) concentrations and on glucose homeostasis. Design: Ten healthy subjects were exposed to a 6-d overfeeding period (130% daily energy needs, with 15% extra energy as sucrose and 15% as fat), with normal sleep (8 h sleep opportunity time) or sleep restriction (4 h sleep opportunity time), according to a randomized, crossover design. At baseline and after intervention, IHCL concentrations were measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and a dual intravenous [6,6-2H2]-, oral 13C-labeled glucose tolerance test and a polysomnographic recording were performed. Results: Overfeeding significantly increased IHCL concentrations (Poverfeeding < 0.001; overfeeding + normal sleep: +53% ± 16%). During the oral glucose tolerance test, overfeeding significantly increased endogenous glucose production (Poverfeeding = 0.034) and the oxidation of 13C-labeled glucose load (Poverfeeding = 0.038). Sleep restriction significantly decreased total sleep time, and the duration of stages 1 and 2 and rapid eye movement sleep (all P < 0.001), whereas slow-wave sleep duration was preserved (Poverfeeding × sleep = 0.809). Compared with overfeeding, overfeeding + sleep restriction did not change IHCL concentrations (Poverfeeding × sleep = 0.541; +83% ± 33%), endogenous glucose production (Poverfeeding × sleep = 0.567), or exogenous glucose oxidation (Poverfeeding × sleep = 0.118). Sleep restriction did not significantly alter blood pressure, heart rate, or plasma cortisol concentrations (all Poverfeeding × sleep = NS). Conclusions: Six days of a high-sucrose, high-fat overfeeding diet significantly increased IHCL concentrations and increased endogenous glucose production, suggesting hepatic insulin resistance. These effects of overfeeding were not altered by sleep restriction. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02075723. Other study ID numbers: SleepDep 02/14.


Assuntos
Hipernutrição/metabolismo , Privação do Sono/metabolismo , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Homeostase , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/análise , Fígado/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Hipernutrição/complicações , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Ganho de Peso , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2019 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669704

RESUMO

Sucrose overfeeding increases intrahepatocellular (IHCL) and intramyocellular (IMCL) lipid concentrations in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that these effects would be modulated by diet protein/fat content. Twelve healthy men and women were studied on two occasions in a randomized, cross-over trial. On each occasion, they received a 3-day 12% protein weight maintenance diet (WM) followed by a 6-day hypercaloric high sucrose diet (150% energy requirements). On one occasion the hypercaloric diet contained 5% protein and 25% fat (low protein-high fat, LP-HF), on the other occasion it contained 20% protein and 10% fat (high protein-low fat, HP-LF). IHCL and IMCL concentrations (magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry) were measured after WM, and again after HP-LF/LP-HF. IHCL increased from 25.0 ± 3.6 after WM to 147.1 ± 26.9 mmol/kg wet weight (ww) after LP-HF and from 30.3 ± 7.7 to 57.8 ± 14.8 after HP-LF (two-way ANOVA with interaction: p < 0.001 overfeeding x protein/fat content). IMCL increased from 7.1 ± 0.6 to 8.8 ± 0.7 mmol/kg ww after LP-HF and from 6.2 ± 0.6 to 6.9 ± 0.6 after HP-LF, (p < 0.002). These results indicate that liver and muscle fat deposition is enhanced when sucrose overfeeding is associated with a low protein, high fat diet compared to a high protein, low fat diet.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(3): 409-419, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rats were exposed to free-choice diets (fat plus one of two different sugar solutions, glucose or sucrose), and the metabolic consequences and impact on locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior were explored. METHODS: For 3 weeks, 7-week-old male rats were offered either chow only or free-choice high-fat diets differing in their added sugar: no sugar, sucrose, or glucose. In a second experiment, after 2 weeks on the diets, rats were switched from high sucrose to high glucose for two additional weeks. Metabolic end points included body weight, food intake, food choice, glycemic control, metabolic hormones, fat pad weight, brown adipose tissue weight, and gene expression. Behavioral analysis included locomotor and anxiety-like activity in the open field and elevated plus maze. RESULTS: Both sugar diets enhanced adiposity and induced hyperphagia, favoring unhealthier dietary selection above that of the control diets (chow or free-choice high-fat with no sugar). Despite isocaloric intake in the sugar-containing diets, offering glucose instead of sucrose was associated with improved insulin sensitivity. The sugar-containing diets reduced activity (but with movements of increased velocity) and induced an anxiety-like phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: Although free-choice diets negatively impacted on metabolism and anxiety-like behavior, replacing sucrose with glucose improved insulin sensitivity and may therefore be better for health.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/métodos , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 454(1-2): 191-202, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446908

RESUMO

We aimed to explore whether specific high-sucrose intake in older female rats affects myocardial electrical coupling protein, connexin-43 (Cx43), protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, miR-1 and miR-30a expression, and susceptibility of the heart to malignant arrhythmias. Possible benefit of the supplementation with melatonin (40 µg/ml/day) and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (Omacor, 25 g/kg of rat chow) was examined as well. Results have shown that 8 weeks lasting intake of 30% sucrose solution increased serum cholesterol, triglycerides, body weight, heart weight, and retroperitoneal adipose tissues. It was accompanied by downregulation of cardiac Cx43 and PKCε signaling along with an upregulation of myocardial PKCδ and miR-30a rendering the heart prone to ventricular arrhythmias. There was a clear benefit of melatonin or omega-3 PUFA supplementation due to their antiarrhythmic effects associated with the attenuation of myocardial Cx43, PKC, and miR-30a abnormalities as well as adiposity. The potential impact of these findings may be considerable, and suggests that high-sucrose intake impairs myocardial signaling mediated by Cx43 and PKC contributing to increased susceptibility of the older obese female rat hearts to malignant arrhythmias.


Assuntos
Conexina 43/metabolismo , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antiarrítmicos/metabolismo , Antiarrítmicos/farmacologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Feminino , Melatonina/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C-delta/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C-épsilon/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
15.
J Affect Disord ; 245: 348-355, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains inconsistent whether sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) consumption increases the risk of depression. Thus, we carried out a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between SSBs consumption and the risk of depression. METHODS: PubMed and Web of Science were searched for relevant articles published up to June 2018. Pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by the fixed-effects model or random effect model based on heterogeneity test. RESULTS: 10 observational studies involving 37,131 depression cases among 365,289 participants were included. The combined risk of depression for the highest versus lowest consumption of SSBs was 1.31 (95% CI 1.24-1.39). The findings were consistent in the cross-sectional studies (RR = 1.38; 95% CI 1.26-1.52) as well as in the cohort studies (RR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.19-1.41) A nonlinear dose-response relationship was found (Pnonlinearity = 0.0103) for depression risk and SSBs consumption. Compared with SSBs nondrinkers, those who drank the equivalent of 2 cups/day of cola might increase the risk of depression by 5% (RR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09). And the equivalent of 3cans/day of cola might have approximately 25% higher risk of depression. LIMITATIONS: 10 studies were included in this meta-analysis, of which only 4 were cohort studies, and more cohort studies need to be performed in the future. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis indicates that SSBs consumption might be associated with a modestly higher risk of depression. The results need to be further confirmed in the future.


Assuntos
Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Açúcares , Edulcorantes , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Risco , Medição de Risco
16.
Physiol Res ; 68(1): 75-87, 2019 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30433796

RESUMO

Adiposis is reputed as a twin disease of type 2 diabetes and greatly harmful to human health. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms of adiposis, the changes of physiological, pathological, epigenetic and correlative gene expression were investigated during the adiposis development of C57BL/6J mice induced by long time (9 months) high-fat and high-sucrose diet (HFSD) sustainably. The results showed that mRNA transcription level of the Leptin, Glut4 and Glut2 genes have been obviously changed, which exhibit a negative correlation with methylation on their promoter DNA. The results also revealed that HFSD induced higher level of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in fat tissue might play important role in regulating the changes of methylation pattern on Glut4 and Leptin genes, and which might be one of the molecular mechanisms for the adiposis development.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fígado/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/tendências , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Dent Clin North Am ; 63(1): 17-33, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447790

RESUMO

Excess added sugars, particularly in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages, is a leading cause of tooth decay in US children. Although added sugar intake is rooted in behavioral and social factors, few evidence-based, theory-driven socio-behavioral strategies are currently available to address added sugar intake. Dental health professionals are in a position to help identify and address problematic sugar-related behaviors in pediatric patients and advocate for broader upstream approaches, including taxes, warning labels, and policy changes, that can help reduce added sugar intake, prevent tooth decay, and improve health outcomes in vulnerable child populations.


Assuntos
Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Cárie Dentária/induzido quimicamente , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Odontologia Baseada em Evidências , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Açúcares/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Odontólogos , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Educação em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Edulcorantes , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol ; 97(1): 23-36, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388378

RESUMO

The high intake of sweetened drinks is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. These pathologies are directly related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), considered a condition of metabolic syndrome (MS). Due to their increasing worldwide prevalence, experimental animal models have been developed to gain a better understanding of its physiopathology; notwithstanding, few studies have evaluated its progression in association with MS and ingestion of sweetened drinks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to understand the pathophysiologic characteristics of NAFLD related to sucrose concentration and time of ingestion in rats. Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups with free access to either tap water or 30% sucrose, and euthanized at 12, 16, or 20 weeks; and 2 additional groups were given free access to either 40% or 50% sucrose and were euthanized at 20 weeks. Biochemical parameters and levels of serum cytokines were measured, and histology was performed. Ingestion of 30% sucrose induced liver steatosis until 16 weeks (grade 2) and 20 weeks (grade 3). Meanwhile, during 20 weeks, 40% sucrose induced grade 5 of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and 50% sucrose induced grade 6 of NASH and fibrosis. This study demonstrated that increasing time of induction and concentration of sucrose ingestion resulted in a higher grade of NAFLD.


Assuntos
Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Citocinas/sangue , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(2): 411-423, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590448

RESUMO

Background: Although sugar consumption has been associated with several risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases, evidence for harmful long-term effects is lacking. In addition, most studies have focused on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), not sugar per se. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between added and free sugar intake, intake of different sugar sources, and mortality risk. Methods: Two prospective population-based cohorts were examined: the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS; n = 24,272), which collected dietary data by combining a food diary, interview, and food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and the Northern Swedish Health and Disease Study (NSHDS; n = 24,475), which assessed diet with an FFQ. Sugar intakes defined as both added and free sugar and different sugar sources were examined. The associations with mortality were examined using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Higher sugar consumption was associated with a less favorable lifestyle in general. The lowest mortality risk was found with added sugar intakes between 7.5% and 10% of energy (E%) intake in both cohorts. Intakes >20E% were associated with a 30% increased mortality risk, but increased risks were also found at intakes <5E% [23% in the MDCS and 9% (nonsignificant) in the NSHDS]. Similar U-shaped associations were found for both cardiovascular and cancer mortality in the MDCS. By separately analyzing the different sugar sources, the intake of SSBs was positively associated with mortality, whereas the intake of treats was inversely associated. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that a high sugar intake is associated with an increased mortality risk. However, the risk is also increased among low sugar consumers, although they have a more favorable lifestyle in general. In addition, the associations are dependent on the type of sugar source.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Dieta , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Açúcares/efeitos adversos , Suécia/epidemiologia , Paladar
20.
FASEB J ; 33(1): 204-218, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29957055

RESUMO

Although convincing in genetic models, the relevance of ß-cell insulin resistance in diet-induced type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remains unclear. Exemplified by diabetes-prone, male, C57B1/6J mice being fed different combinations of Western-style diet, we show that ß-cell insulin resistance occurs early during T2DM progression and is due to a combination of lipotoxicity and increased ß-cell workload. Within 8 wk of being fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet, mice became obese, developed impaired insulin and glucose tolerances, and displayed noncompensatory insulin release, due, at least in part, to reduced expression of syntaxin-1A. Through reporter islets transplanted to the anterior chamber of the eye, we demonstrated a concomitant loss of functional ß-cell mass. When mice were changed from diabetogenic diet to normal chow diet, the diabetes phenotype was reversed, suggesting a remarkable plasticity of functional ß-cell mass in the early phase of T2DM development. Our data reinforce the relevance of diet composition as an environmental factor determining different routes of diabetes progression in a given genetic background. Employing the in vivo reporter islet-monitoring approach will allow researchers to define key times in the dynamics of reversible loss of functional ß-cell mass and, thus, to investigate the underlying, molecular mechanisms involved in the progression toward T2DM manifestation.-Paschen, M., Moede, T., Valladolid-Acebes, I., Leibiger, B., Moruzzi, N., Jacob, S., García-Prieto, C. F., Brismar, K., Leibiger, I. B., Berggren, P.-O. Diet-induced ß-cell insulin resistance results in reversible loss of functional ß-cell mass.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Resistência à Insulina , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
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