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1.
J Insect Sci ; 20(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927595

RESUMO

Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a notorious insect pest that attacks diverse vegetables and fruits worldwide. The sterile insect technique has been developed as an environmentally friendly and effective control method that depends on the mass production of target flies. Because dietary yeast (protein) and sucrose (carbohydrate) are important in adult diets, yeast:sucrose (Y:S) mixtures are crucial for the mass-rearing of B. dorsalis. In this study, we found adult diets with different ratios of yeast to sucrose-influenced fecundity, and an extremely high or low Y:S ratios significantly decreased egg production of B. dorsalis. Additionally, the maximum oviposition efficiency was realized at dietary yeast to sucrose ratios of 1:1 and 1:3, suggesting their potential use to produce more eggs for the mass production of B. dorsalis. Here, new gel diets having different yeast concentrations (g/L water) were also assessed for rearing B. dorsalis larvae. Gel diets containing 20 g/L yeast led to a higher pupation, pupal weight and adult eclosion rate, and a shorter developmental time than other yeast concentrations. Moreover, the present gel diet also resulted in greater pupal production and adult emergence rates than previously used liquid and solid artificial diets, revealing that it is suitable for rearing B. dorsalis larvae. This research provides a useful reference on artificial diets mixtures for mass rearing B. dorsalis, which is critical for employing the sterile insect technique.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Oviposição , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/fisiologia , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Tephritidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Tephritidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fermento Seco/administração & dosagem
2.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(12): 2399-2414, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of total and added fructose-containing sugars on cardiovascular (CVD) incidence and mortality. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched from January 1, 1980, to July 31, 2018. Prospective cohort studies assessing the association of reported intakes of total, sucrose, fructose and added sugars with CVD incidence and mortality in individuals free from disease at baseline were included. Risk estimates were pooled using the inverse variance method, and dose-response analysis was modeled. RESULTS: Eligibility criteria were met by 24 prospective cohort comparisons (624,128 unique individuals; 11,856 CVD incidence cases and 12,224 CVD mortality cases). Total sugars, sucrose, and fructose were not associated with CVD incidence. Total sugars (risk ratio, 1.09 [95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.17]) and fructose (1.08 [1.01 to 1.15]) showed a harmful association for CVD mortality, there was no association for added sugars and a beneficial association for sucrose (0.94 [0.89 to 0.99]). Dose-response analyses showed a beneficial linear dose-response gradient for sucrose and nonlinear dose-response thresholds for harm for total sugars (133 grams, 26% energy), fructose (58 grams, 11% energy) and added sugars (65 grams, 13% energy) in relation to CVD mortality (P<.05). The certainty of the evidence using GRADE was very low for CVD incidence and low for CVD mortality for all sugar types. CONCLUSION: Current evidence supports a threshold of harm for intakes of total sugars, added sugars, and fructose at higher exposures and lack of harm for sucrose independent of food form for CVD mortality. Further research of different food sources of sugars is needed to define better the relationship between sugars and CVD. REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01608620.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Açúcares/administração & dosagem , Edulcorantes/administração & dosagem , Humanos
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(20)2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614552

RESUMO

The incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing rapidly and is associated with changes in dietary habits. Although restrictions in the use of sweeteners may prevent the development of DM, this might reduce the quality of life of patients with DM. Therefore, there has been a great deal of research into alternative sweeteners. In the search for such sweeteners, we analyzed the carbohydrate content of maple syrup and identified a novel oligosaccharide composed of fructose and glucose, linked at the C-4 of glucose and the C-6 of fructose. This oligosaccharide inhibited the release of fructose from sucrose by invertase (IC50: 1.17 mmol/L) and the decomposition of maltose by α-(1-4) glucosidase (IC50: 1.72 mmol/L). In addition, when orally administered together with sucrose to rats with DM, the subsequent plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lower than if the rats had been administered sucrose alone, without having any effect on the insulin concentration. These findings suggest that this novel oligosaccharide might represent a useful alternative sweetener for inclusion in the diet of patients with DM and may also have therapeutic benefits.


Assuntos
Acer/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Oligossacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Sacarose/farmacologia
4.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 15(9): 697-703, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382802

RESUMO

Background: D-chiro-inositol (DCI) and glucose transporter inhibitors may inhibit myo-inositol (MI) transporters, and the aim is to clinically evaluate their effect on MI absorption. Research design and methods: Fasting 18 healthy volunteers received orally 6000 mg MI, 6000 mg MI with 1000 mg DCI, and 6000 mg MI with SelectSIEVE® Apple PCQ and Sorbitol, Maltodextrin and Sucralose (PCQ-SMS), in three different phases with a washout period of 7 days. At each phase, blood samples were collected before administration, and every 60 minutes until 540 minutes after administration. MI plasma levels (µmol/L) were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), time to reach it (Tmax), and the area under the time-concentration curve of MI (AUC 0-540) were evaluated. Results: The Cmax of MI alone (Tmax = 180min) was 1.29-fold higher than those of MI with DCI (Tmax = 180min) (p < 0.001) and 1.69-fold higher than those of MI with PCQ-SMS (Tmax = 240min) (p < 0.001). The AUC 0-540 was reduced by 19.09% in MI plus DCI (p = 0.0118) and by 31.8% in MI plus PCQ-SMS (p < 0.001) as compared to MI alone. Conclusions: DCI, glucose transporter inhibitors and sugars, such as sorbitol and maltodextrin, seem to inhibit MI absorption, decreasing MI plasma concentration as compared to MI alone.


Assuntos
Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/antagonistas & inibidores , Inositol/administração & dosagem , Absorção Intestinal , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Transporte Biológico , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Inositol/farmacocinética , Masculino , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Sorbitol/administração & dosagem , Sorbitol/farmacologia , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Sacarose/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int J Pharm ; 569: 118615, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415872

RESUMO

This work demonstrates that an HSV-2 candidate vaccine can be thermostabilized by spray drying to reduce cold chain demands. This work is also to optimize the process responses by varying spray dry parameters for pre-screened suitable excipients; and to determine the validity of current prescreening techniques. Vaccine activity losses were measured by in vitro plaque forming assay with Vero cell line. An accelerated storage condition of 45 °C for 10 days was used to determine spray dried sample stability. Prescreening studies demonstrated that trehalose and sucrose were superior to other tested excipients spray dry thermal stabilization of HSV-2. Subsequent optimization by design of experiments (DOE) of activity responses to spray dry parameter changes demonstrated significant differences between trehalose and sucrose for stability of the viral vaccine. Model parameters included the drying conditions inlet temperature, spray gas flow rate, and solids concentration for the model responses of vaccine stabilization. Trehalose was an effective and robust stabilizing excipient for spray drying HSV-2 vaccine. In contrast, stabilization by sucrose was greatly dependent on the spray dry process parameters. These DOE differences indicated inadequate excipient selection by prescreening methods and the variability demonstrated current prescreening techniques may not be adequate for determining optimal excipients.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 2/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Dessecação , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Excipientes/administração & dosagem , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Trealose/administração & dosagem , Células Vero
6.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In light of obesity, replacing sugar with non-nutritive sweeteners is commonly used to reduce sugar content of food products. This study aimed to compare human energy expenditure (EE), carbohydrate oxidation and food intake after the ingestion of test foods sweetened with sucrose or a non-nutritive sweetener. METHODS: This was an acute crossover feeding study that entailed consumption of three test foods: jelly sweetened with 50 g sucrose (SUCROSE), with 120 mg of sucralose only (NNS), or 120 mg sucralose but matched in carbohydrate with 50 g maltodextrin (MALT). On test days, participants arrived at the research facility after an overnight fast. Resting energy expenditure (indirect calorimeter) was measured for 30 min followed by jelly consumption. Participants' EE and substrate oxidation were measured for 90 min subsequently. After EE assessment, participants completed a meal challenge before leaving the research facility, and recorded food intake for the remaining day. Subjective appetite ratings were assessed before and after test foods and meal challenge. RESULTS: Eleven participants completed the study. EE was higher in SUCROSE and MALT than NNS, but not statistically significant. Carbohydrate oxidation was SUCROSE > MALT > NNS (p < 0.001). Earlier and bigger rise in carbohydrate oxidation was observed in SUCROSE than MALT, although both were carbohydrate-matched. NNS did not promote energy expenditure, carbohydrate oxidation or stimulate appetite. CONCLUSIONS: Foods sweetened with sucrose or non-nutritive sweeteners but matched in carbohydrate content have different effects on human EE and carbohydrate oxidation. Sucralose alone did not affect EE, but lower energy in the test food from sugar replacement was eventually fully compensated. Findings from this pilot study should be verified with bigger clinical studies in the future to establish clinical relevance.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Adoçantes não Calóricos/administração & dosagem , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adoçantes não Calóricos/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Projetos Piloto , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Sacarose/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461917

RESUMO

Short sleep duration increases preferences for high-carbohydrate and high-fat foods. It is unclear if insufficient sleep-induced changes in food preference are mediated by changes in taste perception and if these changes are related to sweetener type (sucrose or sucralose) or sweet liking phenotype. The primary objective of this study was to determine if sleep curtailment results in changes in sweet taste perception after sleep curtailment. Forty participants used a single-channel electroencephalograph to record both a habitual and curtailed night (33% reduction) of sleep at home. The following morning, multiple dimensions of sweet taste perception were measured, including preferred sweetener concentrations, patterns of sweet liking, and intensity perception over a range of concentrations. After curtailment, a significant increase in preferred concentration for both sucrose and sucralose (p < 0.001 for both) was observed. The slope of sucrose sweet liking increased after curtailment (p = 0.001). The slope of sucralose liking also increased, but this was not significant (p = 0.129). Intensity perception of the sweeteners was not altered by curtailment. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to classify participants by sweet liking phenotype. Phenotypes were found to predict preferred sweetener concentration. These findings illustrate a possible need to control for sleep in food sensory studies and suggest a potential mechanism by which insufficient sleep can lead to excess energy intake.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono , Percepção Gustatória , Paladar , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Distribuição Aleatória , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(11): 3197-3208, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Negative affective states, e.g., anhedonia, may be linked to the long-lasting motivational processes associated with relapse. Here, this study investigated whether, and how, anhedonic states are influenced by stressful events that contribute to craving and relapse. METHODS: All male rats were pretreated with a binge-like morphine paradigm for five days. After 12 to 16 days of withdrawal, rats were subjected to a one-hour free consumption test or three operant tasks with increasing cost/benefit ratio, i.e., fixed ratio 1 (FR1), progressive ratio (PR), and PR-punishment procedure of reinforcement, with sucrose solutions of three concentrations (4%, 15%, and 60%) as rewards. The consumption and operant responses under FR1 and PR procedures were measured following exposure to acute foot-shock stress (intermittent foot shock, 0.5 mA × 0.5 s × 10 min; mean intershock interval, 40 s), and the operant responses for 60% sucrose solution under PR-punishment procedure was measured following a forced-swim stress (5 minutes). RESULT: Foot-shock stress increased water consumption in a subpopulation of rats and decreased consumption of sucrose solutions, while it did not influence the operant responses for sucrose solutions under either FR1 or PR procedure. The forced-swim stress reduced operant responses for 60% sucrose solution under PR-punishment procedure, but did not influence responding for 60% sucrose solution under PR procedure. In addition, the forced-swim stress also elevated anxiety level of rats in an open area test. CONCLUSIONS: Acute stress induced hedonic but not motivational deficit for sucrose reward in protracted drug-abstinent animals. Additional negative emotional states besides anhedonia were evoked by acute stress.


Assuntos
Morfina/administração & dosagem , Morfina/efeitos adversos , Motivação/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/psicologia , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Animais , Condicionamento Operante/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Masculino , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Autoadministração , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(8): 2527-2541, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286156

RESUMO

RATIONALE: In conflict-based anxiety tests, rodents decide between actions with simultaneous rewarding and aversive outcomes. In humans, computerised operant conflict tests have identified response choice, latency, and vigour as distinct behavioural components. Animal operant conflict tests for measurement of these components would facilitate translational study. OBJECTIVES: In C57BL/6 mice, two operant conflict tests for measurement of response choice, latency, and vigour were established, and effects of chlordiazepoxide (CDZ) thereon investigated. METHODS: Mice were moderately diet-restricted to increase sucrose reward salience. A 1-lever test required responding under medium-effort reward/threat conditions of variable ratio 2-10 resulting in sucrose at p = 0.7 and footshock at p = 0.3. A 2-lever test mandated a choice between low-effort reward/threat with a fixed-ratio (FR) 2 lever yielding sucrose at p = 0.7 and footshock at p = 0.3 versus high-effort reward/no threat with a FR 20 lever yielding sucrose at p = 1. RESULTS: In the 1-lever test, CDZ (7.5 or 15 mg/kg i.p.) reduced post-trial pause (response latency) following either sucrose or footshock and reduced inter-response interval (increased response vigour) after footshock. In the 2-lever test, mice favoured the FR2 lever and particularly at post-reward trials. CDZ increased choice of FR2 and FR20 responding after footshock, reduced response latency overall, and increased response vigour at the FR2 lever and after footshock specifically. CONCLUSIONS: Mouse operant conflict tests, especially 2-lever choice, allow for the translational study of distinct anxiety components. CDZ influences each component by ameliorating the impact of both previous punishment and potential future punishment.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Recompensa , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Animais , Ansiolíticos/administração & dosagem , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Condicionamento Operante/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Punição/psicologia , Sacarose/administração & dosagem
10.
Int J Pharm ; 567: 118489, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276760

RESUMO

This study systematically demonstrated the antigenicity kinetics of HBV vaccine microneedles (MNs) during the fabrication, application and storage. To improve the stability of HBsAg in a microneedle patch, several selected saccharides were added to the MN formulations as stabilizers. According to the experimental data, no significant decrease of the bio-activity of HBsAg antigen was found during the microneedle fabrication process. And then immune effects of HBsAg added with different sugars were tested. Chitosan and trehalose loaded HBsAg MNs enhanced the antibody levels to approximately 1.5-fold and 2-fold of the plain HBsAg MNs respectively while sucrose and glucose were not obviously beneficial. During the short-term storage under 60 °C, the antigenicity of HBsAg MNs encapsulated with glucose and chitosan declined sharply in 24 h and hardly left after 7 days. As for the groups of HBsAg MNs added with sucrose and trehalose, approximately 90% of HBsAg initial antigenicity maintained, which could be attributed to the protective function of non-reductive disaccharides. As for the long-term storage experiments, the pharmacological activity of HBsAg antigen protected by sucrose and trehalose slightly reduced in 3 months except for the samples under 60 °C. In extreme condition, trehalose performed even better protection function than sucrose, of which the antigenicity of HBsAg in MNs left approximately 81% and 63% of its initial, respectively. These results confirmed that trehalose loaded HBsAg MNs enabled stable encapsulation and storage of HBsAg antigen and realized reasonable enhancement of immune effect in a relatively painless, safe, and convenient manner.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Trealose/administração & dosagem , Animais , Quitosana/administração & dosagem , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Cinética , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microinjeções , Agulhas , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Adesivo Transdérmico
11.
J Diabetes Res ; 2019: 3791061, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355292

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes is a disease with a high global prevalence, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria, and changes in body weight. Animal models have been very useful for the study of this disease and to search for new therapeutic targets that delay, attenuate, or avoid diabetic complications. The purpose of this work was to establish a model of type 2 diabetes and exhibit the majority of the characteristics of the disease. Two-day-old male and female Wistar rats were treated once with streptozotocin (70 or 90 mg/kg body weight). After weaning, they were given a sucrose-sweetened beverage (SSB; sucrose at 10 or 30%) during 7 or 11 weeks; their body weight and food intake were measured daily. With the rats at 14 weeks of age, we determined the following: (a) fasting blood glucose, (b) oral glucose tolerance, and (c) insulin tolerance. We found that the supplementation of sucrose at 10% for 7 weeks in male rats which had previously been given streptozotocin (70 mg/kg) at neonatal stage leads to the appearance of the signs and symptoms of the characteristic of type 2 diabetes in adulthood.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estreptozocina/administração & dosagem , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Animais , Glicemia , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Insulina/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 132: 110692, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351100

RESUMO

Over the last two decades, safety concerns about low/no-calorie sweeteners (LNCS) have been described in the archival scientific literature including elevated risk of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, excessive weight gain, cardiovascular disease, safety, and disruption of the gut microbiome. A recent review by Lobach, Roberts, and Roland in Food and Chemical Toxicology examined 17 research articles on modulation of gut bacteria by LNCS along with other selected publications. In the conclusions of their paper, they claim that LNCS 1) do not affect gut microbiota at use levels and 2) are safe at levels approved by regulatory agencies. Both of these claims are incorrect. The scientific literature on LNCS clearly indicates that it is inappropriate to draw generalized conclusions regarding effects on gut microbiota and safety issues for compounds that vary widely chemical structure and pharmacokinetics. Scientific studies on the sweetener sucralose, used here as a representative LNCS, indicate that this organochlorine compound unequivocally and irrefutably disrupts the gut microbiome at doses relevant to human use. Results of dozens of additional research publications added and reviewed here also raise significant and extensive concerns about the safety of sucralose for the human food supply.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Edulcorantes/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Sacarose/efeitos adversos , Sacarose/farmacologia , Edulcorantes/administração & dosagem , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos
13.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 184: 172744, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351907

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that providing rats with a non-drug alternative in a choice situation can reduce ethanol taking in rats. There is also evidence that brief experience with non-drug reinforcers can reduce the reinforcing effects of drugs like cocaine, even when those non-drug alternatives are not pitted against the drug in a choice procedure. The goal of the present experiment was to determine whether experience with sucrose - a high value non-drug reinforcer in rats - in a non-choice situation would reduce ethanol's reinforcing effects, as measured within a behavioral economic framework. In a first phase, separate groups of rats worked on fixed-ratio schedules for ethanol, sucrose, or ethanol plus sucrose (during separate components within a session). In a second phase, all rats worked for ethanol and sucrose during alternating components. The introduction of sucrose components in the second phase to the group that previously only had experience with ethanol caused a significant decrease in ethanol self-administration. There was also a significant interaction whereby the effect of phase on the elasticity of demand for ethanol differed between the group that only had ethanol and the group that had ethanol plus sucrose in the first phase. These results indicate that a high value non-drug alternative reinforcer can reduce ethanol's reinforcing effects even when that alternative is not available at the time when ethanol is available. These findings suggest that treatments aiming to increase exposure to non-alcohol sources of reinforcement might be beneficial in reducing alcohol drinking.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Etanol/farmacologia , Esquema de Reforço , Análise de Variância , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Operante/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Autoadministração , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Sacarose/farmacologia
14.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(4): 890-897, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192687

RESUMO

Introduction: Introduction: consumption of non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) has increased worldwide in the last 35 years. Objective: to determine the consumption of NCS among pregnant Chilean women and measure if consumption exceeded the acceptable daily intake. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional study of pregnant women from the two main cities in Chile. Women were interviewed to determine the consumption of NCS and socioeconomic level; anthropometry was measured. Results: six hundred and one pregnant women were interviewed; 98% of pregnant women surveyed consumed NCS. The most consumed sweetener was sucralose (95.6%), followed by acesulfame k (80.6%), stevia (78.3%), aspartame (75.1%), saccharin (14.8%), and cyclamate (10%). We observed that consumption closest to the acceptable daily intake was reported for stevia (82.5%), followed by acesulfame k (44%). However, except stevia, which reached 12%, average values were under 5% of the acceptable daily intake. No pregnant woman in the sample exceeded the acceptable daily intake and there were no differences in sweetener consumption by trimester of pregnancy or by socioeconomic level. Conclusions: a high prevalence of NCS consumption was observed, however, none of the pregnant women exceeded the acceptable daily intake.


Assuntos
Adoçantes não Calóricos/administração & dosagem , Recomendações Nutricionais , Adulto , Aspartame/administração & dosagem , Chile , Estudos Transversais , Ciclamatos/administração & dosagem , Diterpenos de Caurano/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Glucosídeos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes , Sacarina/administração & dosagem , Classe Social , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Tiazinas/administração & dosagem
15.
Pediatr Int ; 61(8): 797-801, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Procedural pain is one of the most significant problems in neonates, especially in premature babies. Harmless and effective pain relief modalities in newborns should thus be applied. Although sucrose is the most commonly used agent, the most effective dose and concentration of sucrose is not clear. In this study, we compared the efficacy of two different doses of sucrose during venepuncture in neonates. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. The study was conducted during venous sampling. Oral 24% sucrose (Tool sweet™ Natus Medical, San Carlos, CA, USA) was given by sterile syringe onto the anterior part of the tongue. Group 1 (n = 65) received 0.2 mL/kg 24% sucrose and group 2 (n = 64) received 0.5 mL/kg 24% sucrose. The Bernese Pain Scale for Neonates (BPSN) was used to assess the pain scores before, during and after the procedure. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-nine premature infants were enrolled in the study, consisting of 67 girls (51.9%) and 62 boys (48.1%) aged 1-24 days (mean age, 8.34 ± 6.25 days). There was no significant difference in BPSN score between the groups (P > 0.05). There was also no statistically significant difference in BPSN subscale scores between the groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Twenty-four percent sucrose 0.2 mL/kg may be the minimum effective dose to relieve pain during venepuncture procedures in premature babies.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/métodos , Dor Processual/prevenção & controle , Flebotomia/efeitos adversos , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Medição da Dor , Dor Processual/diagnóstico , Dor Processual/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sacarose/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Immunol Res ; 2019: 6105059, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183389

RESUMO

Sucralose is a noncaloric artificial sweetener that is widely consumed worldwide and has been associated with alteration in glucose and insulin homeostasis. Unbalance in monocyte subpopulations expressing CD11c and CD206 hallmarks metabolic dysfunction but has not yet been studied in response to sucralose. Our goal was to examine the effect of a single sucralose sip on serum insulin and blood glucose and the percentages of classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocytes in healthy young adults subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). This study was a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Volunteers randomly received 60 mL water as placebo (n = 20) or 48 mg sucralose dissolved in 60 mL water (n = 25), fifteen minutes prior to an OGTT. Blood samples were individually drawn every 15 minutes for 180 minutes for quantifying glucose and insulin concentrations. Monocyte subsets expressing CD11c and CD206 were measured at -15 and 180 minutes by flow cytometry. As compared to controls, volunteers receiving sucralose exhibited significant increases in serum insulin at 30, 45, and 180 minutes, whereas blood glucose values showed no significant differences. Sucralose consumption caused a significant 7% increase in classical monocytes and 63% decrease in nonclassical monocytes with respect to placebo controls. Pearson's correlation models revealed a strong association of insulin with sucralose-induced monocyte subpopulation unbalance whereas glucose values did not show significant correlations. Sucralose ingestion decreased CD11c expression in all monocyte subsets and reduced CD206 expression in nonclassical monocytes suggesting that sucralose does not only unbalance monocyte subpopulations but also alter their expression pattern of cell surface molecules. This work demonstrates for the first time that a 48 mg sucralose sip increases serum insulin and unbalances monocyte subpopulations expressing CD11c and CD206 in noninsulin-resistant healthy young adults subjected to an OGTT. The apparently innocuous consumption of sucralose should be reexamined in light of these results.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Monócitos/fisiologia , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Glicemia , Antígeno CD11c/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Masculino , Lectinas de Ligação a Manose/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
17.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 30(3): 732-737, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249243
18.
Endocrinology ; 160(8): 1907-1925, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237608

RESUMO

Fetal exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and poor postnatal diet are strong risk factors for type 2 diabetes development later in life, but the mechanisms connecting GDM exposure to offspring metabolic health remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine how GDM interacts with the postnatal diet to affect islet function in the offspring as well as characterize the gene expression changes in the islets. GDM was induced in female rats using a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFS) diet, and litters from lean or GDM dams were weaned onto a low-fat (LF) or HFS diet. Compared with the lean control offspring, GDM exposure reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in islets isolated from 15-week-old offspring, which was additively worsened when GDM exposure was combined with postnatal HFS diet consumption. In the HFS diet-fed offspring of lean dams, islet size and number increased, an adaptation that was not observed in the HFS diet-fed offspring of GDM dams. Islet gene expression in the offspring of GDM dams was altered in such categories as inflammation (e.g., Il1b, Ccl2), mitochondrial function/oxidative stress resistance (e.g., Atp5f1, Sod2), and ribosomal proteins (e.g., Rps6, Rps14). These results demonstrate that GDM exposure induced marked changes in gene expression in the male young adult rat offspring that cumulatively interact to worsen islet function, whole-body glucose homeostasis, and adaptations to HFS diets.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/fisiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Glucose/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/patologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sacarose/administração & dosagem
19.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(11): 3095-3110, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073738

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Sugar has addictive potential owing to increase in monoaminergic-transmission at pleasure and reward centers of brain. Insulin dysfunction triggered synaptic monoamine deficit is associated with sugar overeating and craving-related psychological changes in diabetic patients. Sugar-substitute (saccharin) is non-caloric artificial sweetener that may alleviate brain disorders in diabetes. OBJECTIVES: In present study, effects of sucrose and sugar-substitute (saccharin) exposures and withdrawal on depression and anxiety-like behavior in type 2 diabetic mice were assessed. METHODS: Swiss albino mice were injected with streptozotocin (135 mg/kg). After induction of diabetes, mice were exposed to a two-bottle water-water, 10% sucrose-water, or 10% saccharin-water choice paradigm for 28 days. Separate groups were employed to assess withdrawal effect of sucrose or saccharin in diabetic mice. Monoamine oxidase (MAO), corticosterone, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and reduced glutathione (GSH) were quantified after behavioral tests. RESULTS: Diabetic mice manifested preference towards 10% sucrose or saccharin over water. Sucrose-overeating by diabetic mice amplified symptoms of depression and anxiety; however, withdrawal further exaggerated these behavioral abnormalities. Substitution of sucrose by 10% saccharin attenuated the depressive and anxiety-like behavior in comparison to diabetic mice that were exposed separately to water-water or sucrose-water alone, and with respect to normal mice. Although withdrawal from saccharin resurfaced behavioral anomalies in diabetic mice, however, these were significantly low in comparison with withdrawal from sucrose or normal group. Reinstatement of exposure to saccharin mitigated symptoms of depression and anxiety in diabetic mice. CONCLUSION: Preference of sucrose overeating augments while saccharin mitigates depressive and anxiety behavior during diabetes.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Sacarina/administração & dosagem , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Animais , Ansiedade/psicologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Recompensa , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/psicologia
20.
Int J Pharm ; 566: 400-409, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136777

RESUMO

Live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), marketed as Bacille Calmette-Guérin is the only FDA-approved vaccine against tuberculosis. The prerequisite of cold chain storage between 2 and 8 °C hinders the global vaccination effort. The study aims to investigate the effect of trehalose, sucrose and glycerol combinations in enhancing the stability of M. bovis. The bacilli were formulated in various ratios of trehalose-glycerol, sucrose-glycerol, trehalose-sucrose-glycerol systems (test samples) and sodium glutamate (control), freeze-dried and stored for 28 days at 4 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C. Bacteria viability at pre-, post-freeze-drying and after storage were quantified by its density in colony-forming unit per milliliter (CFU/mL) as obtained through the pour plate method. Formulations were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry. Structural collapsed cakes were found on all freeze-dried formulations because of the low Tg'. Comparing between binary and ternary formulations, trehalose-sucrose-glycerol was found to be a superior lyoprotectant. Upon storage, the viability of bacteria in disaccharide-polyol formulations was highest when stored at 4 °C followed by 25 °C. The lowest viability was found after storage at 37 °C. While the ternary disaccharide-polyol system may be used as a thermoprotectant up to 25 °C, sodium glutamate has a superior thermoprotective effect at temperature above 25 °C.


Assuntos
Excipientes/administração & dosagem , Glicerol/administração & dosagem , Mycobacterium bovis/efeitos dos fármacos , Polímeros/administração & dosagem , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Trealose/administração & dosagem , Vacina BCG , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Liofilização
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