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1.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(3): 691-697, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reduced motivation is one of the main symptomatic features of inflammation-induced depression. However, the exact nature of inflammation-induced alterations in motivation remains to be fully defined. As inflammation has been shown to increase sensitivity to negative stimuli, the present series of experiments was initiated to determine whether systemic inflammation induced by infra-septic doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice influences consummatory and instrumental responding to successive negative contrast. METHODS: Successive negative contrast was operationally defined by a shift to a lower value reward than the one mice were trained with. Mice were trained to drink a high sucrose concentration solution and exposed to an acute shift to a lower concentration of sucrose. In another series of experiments, mice were trained to nose poke for chocolate pellets according to a fixed reinforcement schedule 10 (10 nose pokes for the food reinforcement) and exposed to a shift to a lower reward value (decreased number of chocolate pellets or replacement of chocolate pellets by less preferred grain pellets). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered at the dose of 0.33 1 mg/kg 24 h before the shift. RESULTS: Mice trained to drink a high sucrose concentration responded to the shift in reward value by a reduction in the volume of sucrose consumed and a decrease in lick numbers and bout durations. Mice trained to nose poke for chocolate pellets responded to the shift by alterations in their total number of nose pokes. In both conditions, LPS had no consistent effect on the response to the shift in reward value. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate a high variability in the effects of LPS on successive negative contrast and fail to provide evidence in favor of the hypothesis that LPS increases sensitivity to decreases in expected rewards.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Operante/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Consumatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/psicologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Reforço Psicológico , Sacarose/farmacologia , Animais , Chocolate , Alimentos , Masculino , Camundongos , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquema de Reforço , Recompensa , Sacarose/administração & dosagem
2.
Life Sci ; 267: 118944, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359749

RESUMO

AIMS: Liver cirrhosis is the main chronic liver disease and is considered a catabolic disease. Cirrhotic patients have a low energy intake and high energy expenditure at rest, leading to metabolic disorders. Malnutrition is associated with complications of cirrhosis and has been shown that a nutritional intervention with increase of energy intake improves the survival of cirrhotic patients. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the effect of a high sucrose diet in the liver of animals with cirrhosis induced by thioacetamide and investigate the mechanism involved. MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Control; Thioacetamide; and Thioacetamide + high sucrose diet. The thioacetamide was administrated (100 mg kg-1) intraperitoneally and the sucrose was offered in drinking water (300 g L-1). KEY FINDINGS: The administration of thioacetamide was associated with fibrosis and inflammatory infiltrate in the liver and increased levels of transaminases enzymes. The high sucrose diet promoted a reduction of theses parameters in cirrhotic rats. The malnutrition observed in cirrhotic rats was attenuated by the high sucrose diet shown by the improvements in weight loss, subcutaneous fat, and caloric intake. The high sucrose diet also attenuated the oxidative stress present in the liver of animals with thioacetamide-induced cirrhosis. SIGNIFICANCE: The high sucrose diet had anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in the liver of animals with thioacetamide-induced cirrhosis. In addition, the high sucrose diet also improved malnutrition and catabolism present in cirrhosis. Thus, a high sucrose diet may be a therapeutic option for cirrhotic patients in a catabolic state.


Assuntos
Sacarose na Dieta/farmacologia , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Dieta , Sacarose na Dieta/metabolismo , Inflamação , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sacarose/metabolismo , Sacarose/farmacologia , Tioacetamida/efeitos adversos , Tioacetamida/farmacologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238573, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877463

RESUMO

Sugars are commonly supplemented into vitrification solution to dehydrate cells in order to reduce the formation of fatal intracellular ice crystals. Natural honey is a mixture of 25 sugars (mainly fructose and glucose) that have different biological and pharmacological benefits. The present study was designed to determine if honey can be used as a nonpermeating cryoprotectant in vitrification of bovine oocytes. In the first experiment, denuded-MII oocytes were exposed to 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 M of honey or sucrose. Natural honey and sucrose caused similar ooplasm dehydration. A significant relationship existed between time and ooplasm volume change (P < 0.05), during dehydration and rehydration phases, in both honey and sucrose solutions. In the second experiment, the immature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were vitrified in an EG/DMSO-based vitrification solution containing honey (0.5, 1 or 1.5 M) or sucrose (0.5 M) as a gold standard. The vitrified-warmed COCs were matured in vitro and evaluated for nuclear maturation. The maturation (MII) rate was greater in nonvitrified control (81%) than vitrified groups (54%, P < 0.05). In the third experiment, COCs were either remained nonvitrified (control) or vitrified in 1.0 M honey or 0.5 M sucrose, followed by IVM, IVF and IVC (for 9 days). Cleavage rate was greater in control (74%) than in vitrified groups (47%, P < 0.05), without significant difference between sugars. Blastocyst rate was 34, 13 and 3% in control, honey and sucrose groups respectively (P < 0.05). In conclusion, natural honey acted as a nonpermeating cryoprotectant in vitrification solution and improved the embryonic development in vitrified bovine COCs.


Assuntos
Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Mel , Oócitos/citologia , Vitrificação , Animais , Blastocisto/citologia , Bovinos , Desidratação , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração Osmolar , Análise de Regressão , Soluções , Sacarose/farmacologia
4.
Hautarzt ; 71(10): 791-801, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638031

RESUMO

Patients with chronic wounds should receive wound treatment in addition to causative therapy. In this context, the lack of adequate evidence for wound healing products has been repeatedly discussed. Using the example of TLC-sucrose octasulfate (TLC: technology lipido-colloid), the present review shows that there is significant data with good evidence and comparability in this area. One therapeutic approach to promote wound healing is the inhibition of matrix-metalloproteinases, for example by sucrose octasulfate. For wound products containing TLC-sucrose octasulfate, several sequential clinical studies have been conducted in recent years. The WHAT study was an open randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 117 patients with venous leg ulcers (VLU). The CHALLENGE study was a double-blind RCT with 187 patients with VLU. The SPID study was a pilot study with 33 patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). The two prospective, multicenter clinical pilot studies NEREIDES and CASSIOPEE examined a total of 88 patients with VLU in different phases of healing. In the REALITY study, a pooled data analysis was performed on eight observational studies with 10,220 patients with chronic wounds of different genesis. In the double-blind, two-armed EXPLORER RCT, 240 patients with neuro-ischemic DFU were followed from first presentation until complete healing. In all studies, a significant promotion of wound healing could be shown by the use of wound healing products with TLC-sucrose octasulfate.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Úlcera Varicosa/tratamento farmacológico , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Humanos , Sacarose/farmacologia , Sacarose/uso terapêutico , Cicatrização
5.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 21, 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of saliva composition and dietary sugar in development of infundibular caries in equine cheek teeth is not fully understood. This study analysed electrolyte and urea concentrations in saliva in relation to different forage and measured pH changes after sucrose application in vivo in sound and carious cheek teeth. RESULTS: Forage type had no effect on the equine saliva electrolyte concentrations, which varied considerably both intra- and inter-individually. Chewing resulted in increased values for all electrolytes except bicarbonate. Compared with stimulated human saliva, horse saliva after mastication, contained higher amounts of potassium, calcium and bicarbonate, and less phosphate. The in vivo pH measurements showed a lower resting pH and a more pronounced pH drop after sucrose application in carious teeth compared to sound teeth. CONCLUSIONS: No large differences were found between the composition of equine saliva and human saliva. A more pronounced acidogenicity was found for the carious than sound teeth. Thus, the caries process in equine cheek teeth seems to follow the same pattern as in human teeth, caused by acid production by oral microorganisms after sugar consumption.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Cavalos/fisiologia , Mastigação/fisiologia , Saliva/química , Sacarose/farmacologia , Dente/microbiologia , Animais , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 21(12): 1224-1231, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Probiotics are the most widely consumed functional food. Consumers demand the production of foods also in low-calorie forms. OBJECTIVE: In this study, Lactobacillus casei 431 and various sweeteners were used in milk chocolate as probiotic and bulking agents, respectively. METHODS: Samples were prepared by using sucrose or optimum polyols combination. Chocolate samples were stored at two temperatures (4°C and 20°C) for 180 days and the viability of probiotic cells was controlled with the purpose of specifying the presented storage temperature. RESULTS: The highest probiotic viability was determined in the samples produced with sucrose and stored at 4°C. The cell counts were retained at the functional amount after maintenance for 6 months. Probiotic sucrose-free chocolate was more viscous than control chocolate, although displayed satisfactory sensory attributes. CONCLUSION: As a result, the sugared and sugar-free probiotic milk chocolates could be stored at room temperature. Due to the acceptable number of probiotic cells, the sucrose-free chocolates containing probiotics were considered as functional foods.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Lactobacillus casei/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite , Probióticos , Sacarose/farmacologia , Edulcorantes/farmacologia , Animais , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Lactobacillus casei/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/química , Leite/microbiologia , Reologia , Sacarose/análise , Edulcorantes/análise , Temperatura
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4146, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139791

RESUMO

This study sought to explore if the effect of 20% sucrose rinse (SR) on the salivary electrolytic concentration of calcium (Ca2+), phosphate (Pi) and fluoride (F-) in children with Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is different from healthy children. Here, fifty-eight  preschoolers aged 3 to 5 years were divided into 2 groups: caries-free (CF) and with ECC. Changes in saliva flow rate, pH and buffering capacity (BC), as well as in concentrations of Ca2+, Pi, and F-, and the degree of saturation in relation to hydroxyapatite (DSS HAp) and fluorapatite (DSS FAp) were evaluated. The pre-rinse [Ca2+] was higher in the ECC group in the CF group. A significant increase in [Ca2+] was demonstrated after SR in the CF group (p = 0.05). The [Pi] was reduced by 18% after SR in the ECC group (p = 0.007). The [F-] reduced in both groups after SR (p < 0.000). There was a moderate positive correlation between [Ca2+] and the DSS HAp and DSS FAp. Multivariate analysis showed that children with a higher [Ca2+] in pre-rinse saliva are more likely to have ECC. In conclusion, the effect of a 20% sucrose rinse on the electrolytic concentration of Ca2+, Pi and F- was different when children with ECC were compared with CF children.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/metabolismo , Eletrólitos/análise , Saliva/química , Sacarose/farmacologia , Cálcio/análise , Fluoretos/análise , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Análise Multivariada , Fosfatos/análise , Saliva/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Food Chem ; 317: 126407, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078996

RESUMO

In this study, we compared the chemical composition of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruits that were ripened in vivo (attached to plant) to those ripened during postharvest storage. The effects of the application of abscisic acid (ABA) and sucrose on the postharvest ripening were also evaluated. The results suggested that the postharvest ripening process was dependent on the signal triggered by ABA and differed from in vivo ripening, resulting in fruits with altered chemical composition and firmness. The application of sucrose in unripe strawberries resulted in the induction of ripening, which is dependent on ABA and its derivatives. This induction was more pronounced during the first days of storage and associated with the application of mannitol rather than water, suggesting that mannitol negatively regulated the postharvest strawberry ripening. These results provide further insights into the role of ABA and sucrose in the regulation of postharvest ripening of strawberry.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Fragaria/fisiologia , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sacarose/farmacologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Fragaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/fisiologia , Manitol/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise
9.
Planta ; 251(3): 65, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060652

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Swelling of sweet cherry cell walls is a physical process counterbalanced by turgor. Cell turgor prevents swelling in intact cells, whereas loss of turgor allows cell walls to swell. Swelling of epidermal cell walls precedes skin failure in sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cracking. Swollen cell walls lead to diminished cell:cell adhesions. We identify the mechanism of cell wall swelling. Swelling was quantified microscopically on epidermal sections following freeze/thaw treatment or by determining swelling pressure or swelling capacity of cell wall extracts. Releasing turgor by a freeze/thaw treatment increased cell wall thickness 1.6-fold within 2 h. Pressurizing cell wall extracts at > 12 kPa prevented swelling in water, while releasing the pressure increased swelling. The effect was fully reversible. Across cultivars, cell wall thickness before and after turgor release in two subsequent seasons was significantly correlated (before release of turgor: r = 0.71**, n = 14; after release of turgor: r = 0.73**, n = 14) as was the swelling of cell walls upon turgor release (r = 0.71**, n = 14). Close relationships were also identified for cell wall thickness of fruit of the same cultivars grown in the greenhouse and the field (before release of turgor: r = 0.60, n = 10; after release of turgor: r = 0.78**, n = 10). Release of turgor by heating, plasmolysis, incubation in solvents or surfactants resulted in similar swelling (range 2.0-3.1 µm). Cell wall swelling increased from 1.4 to 3.0 µm as pH increased from pH 2.0 to 5.0 but remained nearly constant between pH 5.0 and 8.0. Increasing ethanol concentration decreased swelling. Swelling of sweet cherry cell walls is a physical process counterbalanced by turgor.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Frutas/citologia , Prunus avium/citologia , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Osmose , Epiderme Vegetal/citologia , Epiderme Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Pressão , Prunus avium/efeitos dos fármacos , Sacarose/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 873: 173004, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045603

RESUMO

In our previous study, we have shown that ß-sitosterol (SIT) enhances glycemic control by increasing the activation of insulin receptor (IR) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) proteins in adipose tissue. However, the possible role of SIT on the regulation of post-receptor insulin signal transduction is not known. Hence, the study was aimed to assess the effects of SIT on IRS-1/Akt mediated insulin signaling molecules in high-fat diet and sucrose induced type-2 diabetic rats. An oral effective dose of SIT (20 mg/kg b.wt) was given for 30 days to high fat-fed type-2 diabetic rats to find out whether SIT regulates IRS-1/Akt pathway of insulin signaling. The results showed that SIT attenuated the insulin receptor substrate-1 serine phosphorylation (p-IRS-1Ser636) (P = 0.0003). However, it up-regulated the mRNA expression of IR (P = 0.0036) and post-receptor insulin signaling molecules such as IRS-1 (P < 0.0001), ß-arrestin-2 (P < 0.0058), Akt (P = 0.0008), AS160 (P = 0.0030) and GLUT4 (P < 0.0001) with a concomitant increase in the levels of IRS-1(P < 0.0001), p-IRS1-1Tyr632 (P = 0.0014), Akt (P < 0.0001), p-AktSer473/Thr308 (P = 0.0006; P < 0.0001), AS160 and p-AS160Thr642 (P < 0.0001) compared with type-2 diabetic rats. In Silico analysis was also performed and it showed that SIT possesses the greater binding affinity with ß-arrestin-2, c-Src, and IRS-1 as well as Akt proteins and proved to attenuate insulin resistance as this study coincides with in vivo findings. Our present study clearly shows that SIT attenuates high fat diet-induced detrimental changes in adipose tissue. Therefore, it is concluded from the present findings that, SIT could be used as potential therapeutic phytomedicine for the management of type-2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sitosteroides/farmacologia , Sacarose/farmacologia , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , beta-Arrestina 2/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Arrestina 2/metabolismo , Quinases da Família src/antagonistas & inibidores
11.
Planta ; 251(3): 60, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030477

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The phosphorylation status of MYB75 at T-131 affects protein stability, flavonoid profiles, and patterns of gene expression. The Arabidopsis transcription factor Myeloblastosis protein 75 (MYB75, AT1G56650) is known to act as a positive transcriptional regulator of genes required for flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis. MYB75 was also shown to negatively regulate lignin and other secondary cell wall biosynthetic genes (Bhargava et al. in Plant Physiol 154(3):1428-1438, 2010). While transcriptional regulation of MYB75 has been described in numerous publications, little is known about post-translational control of MYB75 protein function. In a recent publication, light-induced activation of a MAP kinase (MPK4, AT4G01370) in Arabidopsis was reported to lead to MYB75 phosphorylation at two canonical MPK target sites, threonines, T-126 and T-131. This double phosphorylation event positively influenced MYB75 protein stability (Li et al. in Plant Cell 28(11):2866-2883, 2016). We have examined this phenomenon through use of phosphomutant forms of MYB75 and found that MYB75 is phosphorylated primarily at T-131, and that the phosphorylation of MYB75 recombinant protein in vitro can be catalyzed by multiple MAP kinases, including MPK3 (AT3G45640), MPK6 (AT2G43790), MPK4 and MPK11 (AT1G01560). We also demonstrate that MYB75 can bind to a large number of Arabidopsis MPK's in vitro, suggesting it could be a target of multiple signalling pathways. The impact of MYB75 phosphorylation at T-131 on the function of this transcription factor, in terms of localization, stability, and protein-protein interactions with known binding partners was examined in transgenic lines expressing phosphomimic and phosphonull versions of MYB75, to capture the behaviour of permanently phosphorylated and unphosphorylated MYB75 protein, respectively. In addition, we describe how ectopic over-expression of different phosphovariant forms of MYB75 (MYB75WT, MYB75T131A, and MYB75T131E) affects flavonoid biochemical profiles and global changes of gene expression in the corresponding transgenic Arabidopsis plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Antocianinas/química , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Genes de Plantas , Luz , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/efeitos da radiação , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica/efeitos da radiação , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos da radiação , Sacarose/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
12.
Cryobiology ; 92: 208-214, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004575

RESUMO

The freeze-thaw procedure causes irreversible structural and functional changes in human spermatozoa. In order to decrease the detrimental effects of cryopreservation and improve the quality of post-thawed spermatozoa, the constituents of the freezing solution attracted considerable attention. In this study, for the first time, we evaluated the efficacy of knockout serum replacement (KSR) as a substitute for human serum albumin (HSA) for cryopreservation of human spermatozoa. Twenty semen samples were collected from normozoospermic men and divided them into five equal groups. One of the aliquots was diluted with glycerol-based medium as a control group (CON). The other four aliquots were diluted with the sucrose solution containing 5% HSA (H5), 10% HSA (H10), 5% KSR (K5), and 10% KSR (K10). The diluted samples were frozen and preserved in liquid nitrogen. Post thawed sperm parameters including motion characteristics, viability, membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity, acrosome integrity and DNA intactness in all of the sucrose-based groups were comparable with glycerol-based medium. The replacement of HSA by 10% KSR in the freezing medium resulted in significantly higher post-thawed viability, acrosome integrity and DNA intactness compared with other sucrose-based groups. In conclusion, the addition of 10% KSR to the sucrose-based freezing solution improves the quality of post-thawed human spermatozoa and may have potential to develop chemically defined freezing medium.


Assuntos
Criopreservação/métodos , Crioprotetores/química , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos , Soro/metabolismo , Acrossomo/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Animais , Congelamento , Glicerol/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Sacarose/farmacologia
13.
Carbohydr Res ; 489: 107957, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109775

RESUMO

Described are the development of a new synthetic method using ultrasonic irradiation and sodium methoxide as catalyst for a series of pyridinic sucrose esters (py-SEs), derived from transesterification of sucrose with picolinic, nicotinic and isonicotinic methyl esters. The reaction was optimized using a 32 x 2 experimental design, the reaction time, temperature and sucrose: methyl ester molar ratio being evaluated. The method proved to be efficient for obtaining monosubstituted esters (≥83%) with high methyl ester consumption (≥79%). The monosubstituted py-SEs were isolated by semipreparative HPLC, characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry, calorimetry, vibrational spectroscopy, and 1H and 13C NMR. The py-SEs were tested against E. coli, S. aureos, and P. aeruginosa bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration values equal or inferior to the reference drugs for both E. coli and P. aeruginosa.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ésteres/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Sacarose/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Ésteres/síntese química , Ésteres/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridinas/síntese química , Piridinas/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Sacarose/síntese química , Sacarose/química
14.
Food Chem ; 312: 126075, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893551

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated the effect of sucrose and CaCl2 on the growth profile, nutritional quality, and antioxidant capacity of sprouted buckwheat. Buckwheat seeds were germinated at 25 °C for 8 days and sprayed with four different solutions: distilled water, 3% sucrose, 7.5 mM CaCl2, and 3% sucrose plus 7.5 mM CaCl2. Our results showed that CaCl2 effectively improved sucrose-elicitation induced growth reduction in buckwheat sprouts. Elicitation with both sucrose and CaCl2 in buckwheat sprouts markedly enhanced the accumulation of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, flavonoids, γ-aminobutyric acid, vitamin C, and E, without negatively affecting sprout growth. Elicitation with both sucrose and CaCl2 not only significantly enhanced the antioxidant activities but also exerted cytoprotective effects against oxidative damage in HepG2 cells and fibroblasts. These findings suggested that simultaneous elicitation with 3% sucrose and 7.5 mM CaCl2 can potentially improve the nutritional value and potential health benefits of buckwheat sprouts.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Fagopyrum/efeitos dos fármacos , Sacarose/farmacologia , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Valor Nutritivo , Oxirredução , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Cryobiology ; 92: 215-230, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972153

RESUMO

Through enabling an efficient supply of cells and tissues in the health sector on demand, cryopreservation is increasingly becoming one of the mainstream technologies in rapid translation and commercialization of regenerative medicine research. Cryopreservation of tissue-engineered constructs (TECs) is an emerging trend that requires the development of practically competitive biobanking technologies. In our previous studies, we demonstrated that conventional slow-freezing using dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) does not provide sufficient protection of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) frozen in 3D collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffolds. After simple modifications to a cryopreservation protocol, we report on significantly improved cryopreservation of TECs. Porous 3D scaffolds were fabricated using freeze-drying of a mineralized collagen suspension and following chemical crosslinking. Amnion-derived MSCs from common marmoset monkey Callithrix jacchus were seeded onto scaffolds in static conditions. Cell-seeded scaffolds were subjected to 24 h pre-treatment with 100 mM sucrose and slow freezing in 10% Me2SO/20% FBS alone or supplemented with 300 mM sucrose. Scaffolds were frozen 'in air' and thawed using a two-step procedure. Diverse analytical methods were used for the interpretation of cryopreservation outcome for both cell-seeded and cell-free scaffolds. In both groups, cells exhibited their typical shape and well-preserved cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts after thawing. Moreover, viability test 24 h post-thaw demonstrated that application of sucrose in the cryoprotective solution preserves a significantly greater portion of sucrose-pretreated cells (more than 80%) in comparison to Me2SO alone (60%). No differences in overall protein structure and porosity of frozen scaffolds were revealed whereas their compressive stress was lower than in the control group. In conclusion, this approach holds promise for the cryopreservation of 'ready-to-use' TECs.


Assuntos
Colágeno/farmacologia , Criopreservação/métodos , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Durapatita/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Animais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Callithrix , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dimetil Sulfóxido/farmacologia , Congelamento , Sacarose/farmacologia , Engenharia Tecidual
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 143: 305-313, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816378

RESUMO

Weissella confusa is a commonly found species in boza, a highly viscous beverage obtained from fermented cereals. Exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Weissella confusa C19 was characterized and the role of different cereals on its rheological characteristics were studied. Thus, the effect of the type of cereals on textural characteristics of boza for standard boza production and the fate of W. confusa during fermentation were assessed. W. confusa C19 EPS consisted of glucose, sucrose and 1.7 mg/kg protein. Structural characterization of water-soluble dextran was determined by 1H NMR, functional groups were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and the crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). After EPS characterization, different cereal-based media including maize, oat, rice and wheat were used for the growth and EPS production of the bacterium. The rheologial properties of EPS obtained from different cereal-based media showed that the steady shear behavior of EPS was pseudoplastic. W. confusa C19 is a unique strain that can adapt to the environment containing high sugar to produce high amounts of polysaccharides. Besides new information on EPS from W. confusa origin, this study showed that the amount of dextran increased using solid media fortified with different cereals.


Assuntos
Dextranos/farmacologia , Grão Comestível/química , Reologia/métodos , Weissella/química , Dextranos/biossíntese , Dextranos/química , Fermentação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Polissacarídeos/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Sacarose/química , Sacarose/farmacologia , Triticum/química
17.
J Appl Microbiol ; 128(5): 1524-1531, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883170

RESUMO

AIMS: As cell-adapted foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) with H56R mutation in VP3 has reduced thermostability, this study aimed to investigate the effect of thermostabilizers on cell-adapted FMDV for vaccine production. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the effect of 3% sucrose, 10% (or 25%) glycerol or 10% FBS on cell-adapted FMDV O/SKR/JC/2014, containing H56R mutation in VP3, as vaccine seed virus at -80, 4, 25 or 37°C for 2, 4 or 7 days. The stabilizing effect of 3% sucrose on O/SKR/JC/2014 was observed at 25, 37°C, and after repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Additionally, we tested the effect of 3% sucrose on the growth of FMDV or cells and did not observe any decrease in either viral growth or cell viability. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed the protective effect of 3% sucrose on FMDV infectivity at various temperatures; this virus stock in 3% sucrose could be used for infecting cells without the removal of sucrose. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: We suggest that 3% sucrose-containing medium could be beneficial for the stable storage and transport of cell-adapted FMDV.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Aftosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sacarose/análise , Excipientes de Vacinas/análise , Vacinas Virais/química , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Mutação , Sacarose/farmacologia , Temperatura , Excipientes de Vacinas/farmacologia , Potência de Vacina
18.
Cryobiology ; 92: 62-66, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669434

RESUMO

This study was designed to determine the effects of the combined addition of different levels of certain sugars (trehalose, sucrose and raffinose) and antioxidants (vitamin E, C and taurine), in Tris-egg yolk extender on frozen-thawed ram semen parameters. Semen samples were collected from five healthy, mature and fertile Iranian Afshari rams, twice a week for 8 weeks. Selected samples were pooled and diluted with a Tris-egg yolk extender containing different levels of sugars and antioxidants. In Experiment 1, different levels of trehalose (0, 50 and 100 mM) were tested with different levels of taurine (0, 25 and 50 mM), vitamin E and C (0, 1 and 2 mM). In Experiment 2, different levels of sucrose (0, 60 and 80 mM) were tested with different levels of taurine (0, 25 and 50 mM), vitamin E and C (0, 1 and 2 mM). In Experiment 3, different levels of raffinose (0, 5, 10 mM) were tested with different levels of taurine (0, 25 and 50 mM), and vitamin E and C (0, 1 and 2 mM). In Experiment 4, the selected extenders of experiments 1, 2 and 3 were compared statistically with control (no selected sugar and antioxidant) extender. The results of experiments 1, 2 and 3 revealed that the highest frozen-thawed sperm parameters were recorded for the selected extenders containing 100 mM trehalose +2 mM vitamin E (T100E2), 60 mM sucrose + 2 mM vitamin E (S60E2) and 10 mM raffinose + 2 mM vitamin E (R10E2), respectively. The results of experiment 4 revealed that the post-thaw sperm total motility in T100E2 (62.41 ± 2.41%), S60E2 (59.52 ± 1.91%) and R10E2 (58.33 ± 2.00%) was higher than that of the control extender (46.00 ± 1.79%; P ≤ 0.05). Similarly, the progressive sperm motility in T100E2 (57.18 ± 1.96%), S60E2 (57.49 ± 1.94%) and R10E2 (55.03 ± 2.99%) was also higher than that of the control extender (41.20 ± 1.70%; P ≤ 0.05). Post-thaw sperm viability in selected extenders of T100E2 (65.20 ± 2.67%), S60E2 (62.00 ± 2.07%) and R10E2 (61.80 ± 2.46%) was higher than that of control extender (51.00 ± 1.88%; P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the addition of 100 mM trehalose, 60 mM sucrose and 10 mM raffinose combined with 2 mM vitamin E in Tris-egg yolk extender significantly improved frozen-thawed ram semen parameters.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Criopreservação/métodos , Gema de Ovo/química , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Rafinose/farmacologia , Sêmen/fisiologia , Análise do Sêmen , Ovinos , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Sacarose/farmacologia , Açúcares , Taurina/farmacologia , Trealose/farmacologia , Trometamina/farmacologia , Vitamina E/farmacologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1101301

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To study the adherence of Streptococcus mutans biofilm after induction with sucrose and xylitol. Material and Methods: Laboratory experimental study incorporating posttest-only control group design. S. mutans biofilm was generated for 24 hours at a temperature of 37°C using BHIB with 5% sucrose and BHIB with 1% xylitol. An adherence assay was conducted in accordance with the method applied previously. The quantity of adhered bacteria was measured by means of a spectrophotometer at 570 nm. The data were presented as mean and standard deviation. Results: A biofilm induced with sucrose has a higher adherence level (0.9294 ± 0.0431) compared with one induced with xylitol (0.5095 ± 0.0392). Sucrose induces adherence levels by increasing glucan binding protein and glucosyltransferase of the bacteria, whereas xylitol will inhibit the glycolysis process of the bacteria. Conclusion: The adherence of sucrose-induced S. mutans biofilm is higher than that of xylitol-induced S. mutans biofilm.


Assuntos
Streptococcus mutans/imunologia , Sacarose/farmacologia , Xilitol , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Indonésia
20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18237, 2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796784

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was modeling and optimizing medium compositions for shoot proliferation of chrysanthemum, as a case study, through radial basis function- non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (RBF-NSGAII). RBF as one of the artificial neural networks (ANNs) was used for modeling four outputs including proliferation rate (PR), shoot number (SN), shoot length (SL), and basal callus weight (BCW) based on four variables including 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), phloroglucinol (PG), and sucrose. Afterward, models were linked to the optimization algorithm. Also, sensitivity analysis was applied for evaluating the importance of each input. The R2 correlation values of 0.88, 0.91, 0.97, and 0.76 between observed and predicted data were obtained for PR, SN, SL, and BCW, respectively. According to RBF-NSGAII, optimal PR (98.85%), SN (13.32), SL (4.83 cm), and BCW (0.08 g) can be obtained from a medium containing 2.16 µM BAP, 0.14 µM IBA, 0.29 mM PG, and 87.63 mM sucrose. The results of sensitivity analysis indicated that PR, SN, and SL were more sensitive to BAP, followed by sucrose, PG, and IBA. Finally, the performance of predicted and optimized medium compositions were tested, and results showed that the difference between the validation data and RBF-NSGAII predicted and optimized data were negligible. Generally, RBF-NSGAII can be considered as an efficient computational strategy for modeling and optimizing in vitro organogenesis.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Algoritmos , Chrysanthemum/efeitos dos fármacos , Chrysanthemum/genética , Redes Neurais de Computação , Floroglucinol/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Sacarose/farmacologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
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