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1.
Diabetes ; 68(12): 2223-2234, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578192

RESUMO

Obesity is taking on worldwide epidemic proportions, yet effective pharmacological agents with long-term efficacy remain unavailable. Previously, we designed the iminosugar N-adamantine-methyloxypentyl-deoxynojirimycin (AMP-DNM), which potently improves glucose homeostasis by lowering excessive glycosphingolipids. Here we show that AMP-DNM promotes satiety and activates brown adipose tissue (BAT) in obese rodents. Moreover, we demonstrate that the mechanism mediating these favorable actions depends on oral, but not central, administration of AMP-DNM, which ultimately stimulates systemic glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) secretion. We evidence an essential role of brain GLP1 receptors (GLP1r), as AMP-DNM fails to promote satiety and activate BAT in mice lacking the brain GLP1r as well as in mice treated intracerebroventricularly with GLP1r antagonist exendin-9. In conclusion, AMP-DNM markedly ameliorates metabolic abnormalities in obese rodents by restoring satiety and activating BAT through central GLP1r, while improving glucose homeostasis by mechanisms independent of central GLP1r.


Assuntos
1-Desoxinojirimicina/análogos & derivados , Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/fisiologia , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , 1-Desoxinojirimicina/farmacologia , Adamantano/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(8): 677-684, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599605

RESUMO

Attentional bias to alcohol is a well-documented effect whereby drinkers allocate greater visual attention toward alcohol-related stimuli rather than nonappetitive, neutral stimuli. Some recent research has shown that acute administration of alcohol temporarily reduces attentional bias to alcohol cues, possibly because alcohol consumption satiates the motivation to drink. However, the specificity of this effect has not been tested, and so it is unclear whether reduced attentional bias following alcohol is specific to alcohol-related stimuli or whether attention to other appetitive stimuli is also reduced (e.g., food). This study tested the degree to which acute alcohol administration selectively reduced attentional bias to alcohol-related but not to food-related cues in a group of 23 healthy young adults who reported consuming alcohol roughly twice per week. Attentional bias to alcohol-related and food-related cues was tested using visual dot probe tasks following 2 active doses of alcohol, .30 g/kg and .65 g/kg, and a placebo. Results showed that attentional bias, measured as fixation time to stimuli on the visual probe tasks, to alcohol cues declined in a dose-dependent manner, whereas attentional bias to food cues was unaffected by the doses. The evidence suggests that alcohol consumption specifically reduces attentional bias to alcohol-related stimuli whereas bias to other appetitive stimuli remains intact. Evidence that alcohol consumption reduces attentional bias specifically to alcohol cues lends further credibility to the satiation theory and to the utility of attentional bias as an indicator of acute and transient changes in an individual's motivation to use alcohol. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinais (Psicologia) , Etanol/farmacologia , Alimentos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(25): 7040-7049, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199141

RESUMO

Obesity is a metabolic syndrome worldwide that causes many chronic diseases. Recently, we found an antiobesity effect of flaxseed polysaccharide (FP), but the mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, rats were first induced to develop obesity by being fed a high-fat diet. The obese rats were then fed a control diet, AIN-93M (group HFD), or a 10% FP diet (group FPD). The body weight, body fat, adipose tissue and liver sections, serous total triglycerides, levels of fasting blood glucose in serum, serous insulin, inflammatory cytokines in serum, and serous proteins within the leptin-neuropeptide Y (NPY) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway were determined and analyzed. FP intervention significantly reduced body weight and abdominal fat from 530 ± 16 g and 2.15% ± 0.30% in group HFD to 478 ± 10 g and 1.38% ± 0.48% in group FPD, respectively. This effect was achieved by removing leptin resistance possibly by inhibiting inflammation and recovering satiety through the significant downregulation of NPY and the upregulation of glucagon-like peptide 1. Adiponectin was then significantly upregulated probably via the gut-brain axis and further activated the AMPK signaling pathway to improve lipid metabolism including the improvement of lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation and the suppression of lipogenesis. This is the first report of the proposed antiobesity mechanism of FP, thereby providing a comprehensive understanding of nonstarch polysaccharides and obesity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Linho/química , Leptina/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/psicologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Diabetes Care ; 42(7): 1162-1169, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the postprandial and overnight glycemic response using a novel green aquatic plant thought to provide a dietary source for high-quality protein, with an iso-carbohydrate/protein/caloric dairy shake. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a randomized controlled crossover trial among 20 abdominally obese participants (age 51.4 years; fasting plasma glucose 110.9 mg/dL), who were allocated to replace dinner with either, first, a green shake containing Wolffia globosa duckweed (Mankai: specific-strain) or an iso-carbohydrate/protein/calorie yogurt shake. A 2-week flash glucose-monitoring system was used to assess postmeal glucose dynamics (6 net administration days; 97 observation days in total). We further obtained from each participant dietary/daily activity/satiety scale/sleep logs. Participants were recruited from the green-Mediterranean diet arm of the 18-month Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial-Polyphenols Unprocessed (DIRECT-PLUS) study. RESULTS: Wolffia globosa Mankai elicited a lower postprandial glucose peak compared with yogurt (∆peak = 13.4 ± 9.2 vs. 19.3 ± 15.1 mg/dL; P = 0.044), which occurred later (77.5 ± 29.2 vs. 59.2 ± 28.4 min; P = 0.037) and returned faster to baseline glucose levels (135.8 ± 53.1 vs. 197.5 ± 70.2 min; P = 0.012). The mean post-net incremental area under the curve (netAUC) was lower with Wolffia globosa up to 60 and 180 min (netAUC 60 min: 185.1 ± 340.1 vs. 441.4 ± 336.5 mg/dL/min, P = 0.005; netAUC 180 min: 707.9 ± 1,428.5 vs. 1,576.6 ± 1,810.1 mg/dL/min, P = 0.037). A Wolffia globosa-based shake replacing dinner resulted in lower next-morning fasting glucose levels (83.2 ± 0.8 vs. 86.6 ± 13 mg/dL; P = 0.041). Overall, postprandial glucose levels from the shake administration until the next morning were lower in the Wolffia globosa Mankai green shake compared with the yogurt shake (P < 0.001). Overnight sleep duration was similar (378.2 ± 22.4 vs. 375.9 ± 28.4 min; P = 0.72), and satiety rank was slightly higher for the Wolffia globosa shake compared with the yogurt shake (7.5 vs. 6.5; P = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Wolffia globosa Mankai duckweed may serve as an emerging alternative plant protein source with potential beneficial postprandial glycemic effects.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade Abdominal/dietoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Período Pós-Prandial/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/sangue , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Iogurte
5.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813412

RESUMO

Intraduodenal activity of taste receptors reduces food intake. Taste receptors are expressed throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract. Currently, there are no data available on the effects of distal taste receptor activation. In this study, we investigate the effect of intraduodenal and/or intraileal activation of taste receptors on food intake and satiety. In a single-blind randomized crossover trial, fourteen participants were intubated with a naso-duodenal-ileal catheter and received four infusion regimens: duodenal placebo and ileal placebo (DPIP), duodenal tastants and ileal placebo (DTIP), duodenal placebo and ileal tastants (DPIT), duodenal tastants and ileal tastants (DTIT). Fifteen minutes after cessation of infusion, subjects received an ad libitum meal to measure food intake. Visual analog scale scores for satiety feelings were collected at regular intervals. No differences in food intake were observed between the various interventions (DPIP: 786.6 ± 79.2 Kcal, DTIP: 803.3 ± 69.0 Kcal, DPIT: 814.7 ± 77.3 Kcal, DTIT: 834.8 ± 59.2 Kcal, p = 0.59). No differences in satiety feelings were observed. Intestinal infusion of tastants using a naso-duodenal-ileal catheter did not influence food intake or satiety feelings. Possibly, the burden of the four-day naso-duodenal-ileal intubation masked a small effect that tastants might have on food intake and satiety.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/administração & dosagem , Aromatizantes/farmacologia , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Percepção Gustatória/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Duodeno , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Íleo , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nutrition ; 61: 179-186, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of animal-based protein (whey; WP) compared with plant-based protein (soy; SP) and carbohydrate (CHO) liquid breakfast on appetite, energy metabolism, and subsequent energy intake. METHODS: Seventeen healthy individuals consumed three isocaloric breakfast smoothies with whey, soy, or carbohydrate (no protein) in a double-blind, randomized crossover design. Participants completed an 11-point rating scale of appetite profile (before, 0, 60, 120, and 180 min). Indirect calorimetry was used to determine the thermic effect of a meal (TEM; at 45-60, 105-120, and 165-180 min). An ad libitum lunch was offered at 180 min after breakfast and energy intake was assessed. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in hunger (P = 0.033), fullness (P = 0.002), satiety (P = 0.001), desire to eat (P = 0.024), and prospective food consumption (P = 0.021) between the three breakfast meals. Fullness and SP compared with CHO. A higher (P < 0.001) TEM and lower (P < 0.05) respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was observed after WP and SP compared with CHO. In addition, a higher (P = 0.022) energy intake at lunch was observed after CHO (769 ± 259 kcal) compared with WP (654 ± 252 kcal) and SP (664 ± 296 kcal), with no difference (P = 0.966) between WP and SP. Consuming SP at breakfast exerts comparable effects to WP on appetite profile, energy metabolism, and subsequent energy intake, suggesting that SP is a reasonable alternative to WP as a protein supplement source to aid in body weight control.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Soja/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Bebidas , Desjejum , Calorimetria Indireta , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Fome/efeitos dos fármacos , Almoço , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial/efeitos dos fármacos , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 316(4): R406-R416, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726118

RESUMO

Neuropeptide Y (NPY), peptide YY (PYY), and their cognate receptors (YR) are expressed by subpopulations of central and peripheral nervous system neurons. Intracerebroventricular injections of NPY or PYY increase food intake, and intrahypothalamic NPY1 or NPY5 receptor agonist injections also increase food intake. In contrast, injection of PYY in the periphery reduces food intake, apparently by activating peripheral Y2R. The dorsal vagal complex (DVC) of the hindbrain is the site where vagal afferents relay gut satiation signals to the brain. While contributions of the DVC are increasingly investigated, a role for DVC YR in control of food intake has not been examined systematically. We used in situ hybridization to confirm expression of Y1R and Y2R, but not Y5R, in the DVC and vagal afferent neurons. We found that nanoinjections of a Y2R agonist, PYY-(3-36), into the DVC significantly increased food intake over a 4-h period in satiated male rats. PYY-(3-36)-evoked food intake was prevented by injection of a selective Y2R antagonist. Injection of a Y1R/Y5R-preferring agonist into the DVC failed to increase food intake at doses reported to increase food intake following hypothalamic injection. Finally, injection of PYY-(3-36) into the DVC prevented reduction of 30-min food intake following intraperitoneal injection of cholecystokinin (CCK). Our results indicate that activation of DVC Y2R, unlike hypothalamic or peripheral Y2R, increases food intake. Furthermore, in the context of available electrophysiological observations, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that DVC Y2R control food intake by dampening vagally mediated satiation signals in the DVC.


Assuntos
Colecistocinina/farmacologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Neuropeptídeo Y/agonistas , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervo Vago/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Injeções , Masculino , Peptídeo YY/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Neuropeptídeo Y/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Neuropeptídeo Y/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(2): 335-344, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722001

RESUMO

Background: Reduced appetite and weight loss are common after esophagectomy (ES), and this cohort demonstrates an exaggerated postprandial satiety gut hormone response. Satiety gut hormones modulate food reward, resulting in reduced energy intake. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of satiety gut hormone modulation by measuring the effect of the somatostatin analog octreotide on appetitive behavior among patients after ES. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, patients ≥1 y after ES and matched controls received either 1 mL 0.9% saline or 1 mL (100 µg) octreotide subcutaneously before completing a progressive ratio task. A measure of appetitive behavior, this task requires subjects to undertake progressively increasing amounts of work to obtain a sweet-fat reinforcer; the final completed increment (breakpoint) represents reinforcer reward value. Separate cohorts were studied in the fasted or 1-h postprandial states. Results: Thirty-six subjects (ES, n = 18; matched controls, n = 18) were studied. The ES subjects were 2.5 ± 0.3 y postoperation and had a weight loss of 14.6% ± 2.6% and elevated postprandial glucagon-like peptide 1 compared with controls (49.2 ± 13.4 compared with 20.2 ± 2.3 pM; P = 0.04). Octreotide did not alter the breakpoint among ES or control subjects when tested in a fasting condition (ES: 980 ± 371 compared with 1700 ± 584 clicks; P = 0.16; controls: 1056 ± 274 compared with 1124 ± 273 clicks; P = 0.81). When tested 1 h postprandially, octreotide was associated with an increased breakpoint compared with placebo among ES subjects (322 ± 143 compared with 246 ± 149 clicks; P = 0.04) but not controls (248 ± 119 compared with 247 ± 120 clicks; P = 0.97). Conclusions: Attenuation of the exaggerated postprandial satiety gut hormone response is associated with increased appetitive behavior toward a sweet-fat stimulus among patients post-ES. Suppression of satiety gut hormones may be a novel target to increase appetite, food intake, and body weight among patients after ES. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02381249.


Assuntos
Apetite , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Esofagectomia/efeitos adversos , Esôfago/cirurgia , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Resposta de Saciedade , Somatostatina/farmacologia , Adulto , Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Período Pós-Prandial , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta de Saciedade/efeitos dos fármacos , Somatostatina/análogos & derivados , Somatostatina/metabolismo
9.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678029

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Proteins, particularly whey proteins, represent the most satiating macronutrient in animals and humans. A dietetic regimen based on proteins enriched preload before eating might be a strategy to counteract obesity. AIMS AND METHODS: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an isocaloric drink containing whey proteins or maltodextrins (preload) on appetite (satiety/hunger measured by a visual analogue scale or VAS), glucometabolic control (blood glucose/insulin), and anorexigenic gastrointestinal peptides (pancreatic polypeptide or PP, glucagon-like peptide 1 or GLP-1 and peptide YY or PYY) in a cohort of obese young women (n = 9; age: 18.1 ± 3.0 years; body mass index, BMI: 38.8 ± 4.5 kg/m²). After two and a half hours, they were administered with a mixed meal at a fixed dose; satiety and hunger were measured by VAS. RESULTS: Each drink significantly augmented satiety and reduced hunger, and the effects were more evident with whey proteins than maltodextrins. Similarly, there were significant increases in GLP-1 and PYY levels (but not PP) after the ingestion of each drink; these anorexigenic responses were higher with whey proteins than maltodextrins. While insulinemia identically increased after each drink, whey proteins induced a lower glycemic response than maltodextrins. No differences in satiety and hunger were found after the meal, which is presumably due to the late administration of the meal test, when the hypophagic effect of whey proteins was disappearing. CONCLUSIONS: While whey proteins actually reduce appetite, stimulate anorexigenic gastrointestinal peptides, and improve glucometabolic homeostasis in young obese women, further additional studies are mandatory to demonstrate their hypophagic effects in obese subjects, when administered as preload before eating.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Polipeptídeo Pancreático/metabolismo , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Feminino , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Polipeptídeo Pancreático/sangue , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Peptídeo YY/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
10.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(4): 1303-1312, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536080

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The influence of the main dopaminergic brain regions controlling copulation, the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), on male rat sexual behavior expression has not been fully established. OBJECTIVE: This work analyzes the sexual effects of dopamine (DA) receptor activation in the mPOA or the NAcc of sexually active male rats, with an intact (sexually experienced) or a reduced (sexually exhausted) sexual motivation. METHODS: The non-specific DA receptor agonist apomorphine and the D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole were infused into the mPOA or the NAcc of sexually experienced or sexually exhausted male rats and their sexual behavior recorded. RESULTS: DA receptor activation neither in the mPOA nor in the NAcc modified the copulatory behavior of sexually experienced male rats. DA receptor stimulation in the NAcc, but not in the mPOA, reversed the characteristic sexual inhibition of sexually satiated rats, and D2-like receptors were found to participate in this effect. CONCLUSION: The optimal sexual performance of sexually experienced male rats cannot be further improved by DA receptor activation at either brain region. In sexually satiated rats, which are sexually inhibited and have a diminished sexual motivation, NAcc DA receptor stimulation appears to play a key role in their capacity to respond to a motivational significant stimulus, the receptive female, with the participation of D2-like receptors. Activation of DA receptors with the same drug, at the same dose and in the same brain region, produces different effects on copulatory behavior that depend on the animal's sexual motivational state.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Motivação/fisiologia , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Saciação/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Apomorfina/farmacologia , Copulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Copulação/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Masculino , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Accumbens/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimpirol/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 12(4): 208-215, 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088029

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Si bien, los edulcorantes no nutritivos (ENN) estevia y D-tagatosa han sido reportados como seguros, han demostrado tener algunos efectos metabólicos tras su ingesta. OBJETIVO: Describir los efectos de la ingesta de estevia y D-tagatosa sobre el metabolismo de la glucosa y ácido úrico, y del apetito-saciedad, a partir de la evidencia disponible. MÉTODOS: Revisión descriptiva. Se realizó búsqueda en PubMed utilizando los siguientes términos y palabras clave: "stevia rebaudiana", "tagatose", "D-tagatose", "blood glucose", "insulin", "metabolic processes", "uric acid", "hyperuricemia", "appetite" o "satiety". El análisis de los estudios seleccionados fue discrecional. RESULTADOS: Existen estudios que demuestran efectos beneficiosos tras el consumo de estevia o D-tagatosa sobre el control glicémico, apetito y saciedad tanto en sujetos sanos como con alteraciones en el metabolismo de la glucosa. Por otra parte, un número importante de estudios que evalúan la ingesta de estevia reportan efectos nulos sobre dichos parámetros. En relación al ácido úrico, solo un estudio en sujetos con enfermedad renal crónica reporta aumento en la concentración de ácido úrico plasmático tras la ingesta de 500 mg/día de estevia. Pocos estudios han evaluado el efecto de la ingesta de D-tagatosa sobre uricemia, en sujetos sanos y diabéticos, reportando un aumento transitorio y significativo en los niveles de ácido úrico sérico, sin embargo, no se ha logrado demostrar un efecto hiperuricémico asociado. Es importante destacar que la metodología de los estudios revisados es heterogénea, especialmente en relación al tamaño muestral, tiempo, dosis y vía de adminitración del edulcorante. CONCLUSIÓN: La ingesta de estevia y D-tagatosa ha demostrado efectos beneficiosos sobre el metabolismo de la glucosa, el apetito y la saciedad. El efecto del consumo de D-tagatosa sobre ácido úrico sérico requiere mayor evidencia para demostrar su significancia clínica.


INTRODUCTION: No-nutritive sweeteners stevia and D-tagatose have been reported as safe according to their acceptable daily intake, however, they have been shown to have metabolic effects after their ingestion. OBJECTIVE: To describe the effects of stevia and D-tagatose intake on parameters associated to glucose, uric acid metabolism and on appetite-satiety, considering the available evidence. METHODS: Descriptive review. PubMed search was carried out to identify the totality of the published articles. The following terms and key words were used: "stevia rebaudiana", "tagatose", "D-tagatose", "blood glucose", "insulin", "metabolic processes", "uric acid", "hyperuricemia", "appetite" o "satiety". The analysis of the selected studies was discretionary. RESULTS: studies have shown beneficial effects of stevia and D-tagatose consumption on glycemic control, appetite and satiety in healthy subjects as well as subjects with impairment glucose metabolism. On the other hand, a significant number of studies evaluating estevia intake report null effects on these parameters. In relation to uric acid, only one study in subjects with chronic kidney disease reported an increase in plasmatic uric acid concentration after the intake of 500 mg/day of stevia. Several studies have evaluated the effect of D-tagatose intake on plasmatic uric acid, in healthy and diabetic subjects, reporting a transient and significant increase in serum uric acid levels, however, has not been able to demonstrate an associated hyperuricemic effect. It is important to highlight that the methodology of the studies reviewed is heterogeneous, especially in relation to sample size, dose administered, time and route of exposure to the sweetener. CONCLUSION: Stevia and D-tagatose intake has shown beneficial effects on glucose metabolism, appetite and satiety. The effects of the consumption of both sweeteners on uric acid require further study to demonstrate their clinic significance.


Assuntos
Humanos , Edulcorantes/farmacologia , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Stevia/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Hexoses/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo
12.
Nutrients ; 10(12)2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558330

RESUMO

Several studies have linked increased intake of dietary fibre to improvement in the management of body weight. Dietary fibre from resistant starch (RS) has been shown to have an impact on food intake in normal weight individuals, but its role in obesity is unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the short-term effects of RS on appetite, satiety and postprandial metabolism in overweight/obese subjects. In this single-blind randomized crossover study, overweight/obese healthy males consumed a test breakfast and lunch containing either 48 g RS or a placebo. Postprandial qualitative appetite, glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 were measured every 30 min for 7 h. Energy intake values from an ad libitum dinner and for a 24-h period were assessed. Acute consumption of RS at breakfast/lunch significantly reduced the energy intake at the ad libitum dinner (p = 0.017). No significant effect over 24 h or qualitative feelings of satiety were observed. Significant treatment × time effects were found for postprandial glucose (p = 0.004) for RS compared to placebo, with a trend for higher C-peptide concentrations following RS. The postprandial insulin and GLP-1 responses were not significantly different. RS may indeed have short-term beneficial effects in obese individuals.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Amido/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peptídeo C/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Refeições , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso , Período Pós-Prandial , Método Simples-Cego , Amido/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutrients ; 10(11)2018 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453597

RESUMO

Activation of the intestinal brake by infusing nutrients into the distal small intestine with catheters inhibits food intake and enhances satiety. Encapsulation of macronutrients, which protects against digestion in the proximal gastrointestinal tract, can be a non-invasive alternative to activate this brake. In this study, we investigate the effect of oral ingestion of an encapsulated casein and sucrose mixture (active) targeting the distal small intestine versus a control product designed to be released in the stomach on food intake, satiety, and plasma glucose concentrations. Fifty-nine volunteers received the active and control product on two separate test days. Food intake was determined during an ad libitum meal 90 min after ingestion of the test product. Visual analogue scale scores for satiety and blood samples for glucose analysis were collected at regular intervals. Ingestion of the active product decreased food intake compared to the control product (655 kcal compared with 699 kcal, respectively, p < 0.05). The area under the curve (AUC) for hunger was decreased (p < 0.05) and AUC for satiety was increased (p < 0.01) after ingestion of the active product compared to the control product. Ingestion of an encapsulated protein-carbohydrate mixture resulted in inhibition of food intake compared to a non-encapsulated control product.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Glicemia/análise , Cápsulas , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Fome/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Prandial/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Escala Visual Analógica , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 38(6): 622-626, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are commonly used to treat children with mental health conditions (MHCs) but are associated with adverse effects including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these complications are unknown, but it has been suggested that SGAs increase appetite leading to weight gain. The present objective was to perform a pilot study to investigate appetite and satiety hormones in SGA-treated (risperidone or quetiapine) and SGA-naive children with similar mental health conditions. METHODS: Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were conducted in SGA-naive (n = 18), risperidone-treated (n = 20), and quetiapine-treated (n = 16) children recruited from the British Columbia Children's Hospital Psychiatry Department. Over 5 time-points during the OGTT, appetite questionnaires using a visual analogue scale were administered, and blood was collected to measure ghrelin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like protein 1, leptin, and adiponectin. Mixed model analyses were conducted to examine between-group differences. RESULTS: The children were similar in age, psychiatric diagnosis, and global assessment of functioning scores. Body mass index z-scores were also similar between groups. Appetite was increased during the OGTT in the risperidone-treated compared with the SGA-naive group for 2 questions ("How strong is your desire to eat"; P = 0.003 and "How much food do you think you can eat"; P = 0.028). No differences in satiety hormones were observed between the 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Risperidone treatment in youth is associated with elevated appetite during an OGTT, with no differences in gut peptides or adipocytokines to explain risperidone's effect on appetite. Further research is needed to explore other mediators of weight gain and metabolic dysfunction in SGA-treated youth.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Hormônios Peptídicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumarato de Quetiapina/efeitos adversos , Risperidona/efeitos adversos , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/sangue , Hormônios Peptídicos/sangue , Projetos Piloto
15.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 82(11): 1992-1999, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096043

RESUMO

The study was aimed to compare the satiating effect of various protein hydrolysates in rats and examine the underlying mechanism associated with the satiety hormones. Food intake and portal satiety hormone levels were measured in rats. Enteroendocrine cell-lines were employed to study the direct effect of protein hydrolysates on gut hormone secretions. The results showed that oral preload of wheat gluten hydrolysate (WGH) suppressed food intake greater and longer than other hydrolysates. The portal peptide-YY levels in WGH-treated rats at 2 h and 3 h were higher than those in control- and lactalbumin hydrolysate (LAH)-treated rats. In a distal enteroendocrine cell model, WGH more potently stimulated glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion than LAH, and the effect was largely enhanced by pepsin/pancreatin digestion of WGH. These results suggest WGH is potent in activating enteroendocrine cells to release satiety hormones leading to the prolonged suppression of food intake.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutens/farmacologia , Peptídeo YY/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células Enteroendócrinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/sangue , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Glutens/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Masculino , Camundongos , Pancreatina/metabolismo , Pepsina A/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 62(17): e1701038, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133134

RESUMO

SCOPE: Cinnamon is associated with anti-obesity effects, regulating food intake, improving plasma glucose levels and lipid profiles in vivo. In the present study, the impact of cinnamyl isobutyrate (CIB), one constituent of cinnamon, on ad libitum food intake from a standardized breakfast and outcome measures of hormonal regulation of appetite were investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this randomized, short-term crossover intervention study, a 75 g per 300 mL glucose solution solely (control) or supplemented with 0.45 mg CIB was administered to 26 healthy volunteers. Prior to and 2 h after receiving control or CIB treatment, subjective hunger perceptions were rated using a visual analog scale. Food intake from a standardized breakfast was assessed 2 h after treatments. Plasma peptide YY3-36 , glucagon-like-peptide1, ghrelin, and serotonin as well as plasma glucose and insulin were measured in blood samples drawn at fasting and 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after treatment. CIB administration decreased total energy intake and delta area under curve plasma glucose by 4.64 ± 3.51% and 49.3 ± 18.5% compared to control treatment, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: CIB, administered at a 0.45 mg bolus in 75 g glucose-water solution, decreased ad libitum energy intake from a standardized breakfast and postprandial plasma glucose levels.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Desjejum , Suplementos Nutricionais , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Insulina , Masculino , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Sobrepeso/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Serotonina/sangue
17.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 21(5): 377-380, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939970

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention through reduction of body weight and control of appetite, however, not all fibers are created equally, and characteristics of fiber such as viscosity, fermentability and solubility may affect appetite differently. RECENT FINDINGS: Although early studies supported that fructan fibers, including inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and oligofructose affected satiety, more recent studies are less supportive. We found that a higher dose of fiber such as oligofructose (16 g/day) is needed and for a longer duration (12-16 weeks) to detect differences in appetite and subsequent energy intake, whereas, practical amounts of fructooligosaccharides, less than 10 g/day, generally do not affect satiety or food intake. It should be noted that there are many sources of fructan fibers, both in native foods, chicory roots, agave, and Jerusalem artichokes and isolated forms that vary in chain length. SUMMARY: Fructan fibers, which include fructooligosaccharides, oligofructose, and inulin, provided in low doses (<10 g/day), generally do not affect measures of human appetite including satiety or food intake and should not be recommended as a fiber with sole satiating power.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Frutanos/administração & dosagem , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutanos/química , Humanos , Inulina/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Appetite ; 128: 197-204, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29920323

RESUMO

There is evidence that oat ß-glucan lowers appetite and ad libitum eating; however, not all studies are consistent, and the underpinning mechanisms are not entirely understood. We investigated the effects of 4 g high molecular weight (MW) oat ß-glucan on ad libitum eating, subjective appetite, glycemia, insulinemia and plasma GLP-1 responses in 33 normal-weight subjects (22 female/11 male, mean age (y): 26.9 ±â€¯1.0, BMI (kg/m2): 23.5 ±â€¯0.4). The study followed a randomised double-blind, cross-over design with subjects fed two test breakfasts with and without oat ß-glucan followed by an ad libitum test meal on two different days. Blood samples and ratings for subjective appetite were collected postprandially at regular time intervals. Oat ß-glucan increased feelings of fullness (p = 0.048) and satiety (p = 0.034), but did not affect energy and amount eaten at the ad libitum test meal. There was a treatment by time interaction for plasma GLP-1, plasma insulin and blood glucose. GLP-1 was significantly reduced at 90 min (p = 0.021), blood glucose at 30 min (p = 0.008) and plasma insulin at 30 and 60 min (p = 0.002 and 0.017, respectively) following the oat ß-glucan breakfast when compared with the control breakfast. Four grams of high MW oat ß-glucan lowers appetite but not ad libitum eating and beneficially modulates postprandial glycaemia, it does however, not increase plasma GLP-1 secretion.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Avena , Desjejum/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Appetite ; 128: 44-49, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29787831

RESUMO

Obesity is a crucial public health problem worldwide and is considered as the main cause of many chronic diseases. The present study evaluated the effects of Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) supplementation on proximal proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) gene expression, appetite sensations, and anthropometric measurements in obese people. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out on 60 healthy obese people in Tabriz, Iran, in 2016. The eligible subjects were divided into an intervention group (who received two 125 mg OEA capsules daily) and a placebo group (who received the same amount of starches) and treated for 60 days. Anthropometric measurements and body composition were assessed in a fasting state at baseline and at the end of the study. The visual analogue scales (VAS) were used to assess appetite sensations. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene of PPAR-α was done. Analysis was done on 56 participants who continued intervention until the end of the study. A significant increase in PPAR-α gene expression was observed in the intervention group (p < 0.001). Weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and fat percent decreased significantly at the end of the study in the intervention group (all p < 0.01). Hunger, the desire to eat, and cravings for sweet foods decreased significantly and fullness increased significantly by the end of study in the intervention group at the end of study (all p < 0.01). The fullness item increased significantly by the end of study in the intervention group (p < 0.001). Use of OEA as a complementary approach could be effective in suppressing appetite and modulating energy balance in obese people.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Endocanabinoides/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/terapia , Ácidos Oleicos/administração & dosagem , PPAR alfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Dieta Redutora/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
20.
Physiol Behav ; 189: 86-91, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29524451

RESUMO

Overweight and obesity in schizophrenia are prevalent, affecting half to three-quarters of people with schizophrenia. Hyperphagia and increased meal size have also been implicated as significant contributors to the weight gain problem. Oxytocin has shown to play a role in appetite control in humans and is considered an anorexigenic peptide. This two-day, within-subjects, challenge study involved the examination of satiety after administration of 24 IU oxytocin (intranasal) vs. placebo in participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia (N = 16). Self reported satiety along with a preload-test meal paradigm were utilized as well as related laboratory measures (insulin, glucose, and leptin), and measures of taste and smell. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups on self-reported satiety or test meal consumption, insulin or glucose levels, or sensory measures. A significant treatment difference was found (F = 5.22, df = 1,97.6, p = 0.025), with a decrease in leptin in the oxytocin group post-administration, but no time effect (F = 1.67, df = 6,95.1, p = 0.180) or treatment by time interaction (F = 1.36. df = 3,4.16, p = 0.261). Despite the small sample and mostly negative findings, we encourage more work to use higher and repeated doses of oxytocin, and to further examine the effect of oxytocin on leptin in schizophrenia as this may be important for understanding both weight control and psychopathology.


Assuntos
Ocitocina/uso terapêutico , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intranasal , Adolescente , Adulto , Depressores do Apetite/administração & dosagem , Depressores do Apetite/sangue , Depressores do Apetite/farmacologia , Depressores do Apetite/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/sangue , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Olfato/efeitos dos fármacos , Paladar/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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