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1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(7): 3413-3421, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212668

RESUMO

In this study, three sequence batch reactors were selected to evaluate the effects of salt-tolerant activated sludge acclimation. The effect of salinity increase rate on pollutant removal, physicochemical characteristics of activated sludge, and microbial community were investigated. The results showed that a rapid salinity increase to 30‰ (within 30 d) reduced removal efficiencies of COD and NH4+-N from 85.5% and 98.5% (18 d) to 72.2% and 81.7% (51 d), respectively. In comparison, a slower salinity increases to 30‰ (within 90 d) had a minor effect on COD and NH4+-N removal. During the rapid salinity increase, a stable shortcut nitrification occurred under 20‰ salinity, in which the effluent NO2--N reached 11.13 mg·L-1 and NO3--N decreased to 0.56 mg·L-1. When salinity increased to 30‰, the nitrite accumulation rate was about 90%, and the removal efficiency of total nitrogen increased to approximately 75%. The contents of polysaccharide and protein in extracellular polymer substances increased as salinity increased, and the polysaccharide content increased significantly when the salinity was higher than 15‰. High-throughput sequencing results illustrated that microbial diversity reduced as salinity increased, following the Shannon index decrease from 8.06 (0‰ salinity) to 4.34 (rapid salinity increase) and 6.17 (slower salinity increase). As salinity increased, Micropruina, Denitromonas, TM7a, and Marinicella exhibited good salt tolerance. The relative abundance of Denitratisoma, Defluviimonas, Arenimonas, and Denitromonas decreased more significantly following the rapid salinity increase compared with that after the slower salinity increase.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Salinidade , Reatores Biológicos , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
2.
Planta ; 254(2): 24, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224010

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: An overview is presented of recent advances in our knowledge of responses and mechanisms rendering adaptation to saline conditions in sorghum. Different strategies deployed to enhance salinity stress tolerance in sorghum are also pointed out. Salinity stress is a growing problem worldwide. Sorghum is the fifth key crop among cereals. Understanding responses and tolerance strategies in sorghum would be therefore helpful effort for providing biomarkers for designing greatest salinity-tolerant sorghum genotypes. When sorghum exposed to salinity, salinity-tolerant genotypes most probably reprogram their gene expression to activate adaptive biochemical and physiological responses for survival. The review thus discusses the possible physiological and biochemical responses that confer salinity tolerance to sorghum under saline conditions. Although it is not characterized in sorghum, salinity perceiving and transmitting signals to downstream responses via signaling transduction pathways most likely are essential strategy for sorghum adaptation to salinity stress. Sorghum has also shown to withstand moderate saline environments and retain the germination, growth, and photosynthetic activities. Salinity-tolerant sorghum genotypes show the ability to exclude excessive Na+ from reaching shoots and induce ion homeostasis. Osmotic homeostasis and ROS detoxification are also evident as salinity tolerance strategies in sorghum. These above mechanisms lead to re-establishment of cellular ionic, osmotic, and redox homeostasis as well as photosynthesis efficiency. It is noteworthy that these mechanisms act individually or co-operatively to minimize the salinity hazards and enhance acclimation in sorghum. We conclude, however, that although these responses contribute to sorghum tolerance to salinity stress, they seem to be not adequate at higher concentrations of salinity, which agrees with sorghum ranking as moderately salinity-tolerant crop. Also, some of these tolerance strategies reported in other crops are not well studied and documented in sorghum, but most probably have roles in sorghum. Further improvement in sorghum salinity tolerance using different approaches is definitely necessary to meet the requirements of its harsh production environments, and therefore, these approaches are addressed.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Grão Comestível , Salinidade , Estresse Salino , Tolerância ao Sal , Sorghum/genética
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203629

RESUMO

Drought and salinity are major constraints to agriculture. In this review, we present an overview of the global situation and the consequences of drought and salt stress connected to climatic changes. We provide a list of possible genetic resources as sources of resistance or tolerant traits, together with the previous studies that focused on transferring genes from the germplasm to cultivated varieties. We explained the morphological and physiological aspects connected to hydric stresses, described the mechanisms that induce tolerance, and discussed the results of the main studies. Finally, we described more than 100 genes associated with tolerance to hydric stresses in the Triticeae. These were divided in agreement with their main function into osmotic adjustment and ionic and redox homeostasis. The understanding of a given gene function and expression pattern according to hydric stress is particularly important for the efficient selection of new tolerant genotypes in classical breeding. For this reason, the current review provides a crucial reference for future studies on the mechanism involved in hydric stress tolerance and the use of these genes in mark assistance selection (MAS) to select the wheat germplasm to face the climatic changes.


Assuntos
Secas , Estudos de Associação Genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Triticum/genética , Osmose , Salinidade
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203768

RESUMO

Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (common ice plant) is a halophyte species that has adapted to extreme conditions. In this study, we cloned a McHB7 transcription factor gene from the ice plant. The expression of McHB7 was significantly induced by 500 mM NaCl and it reached the peak under salt treatment for 7 days. The McHB7 protein was targeted to the nucleus. McHB7-overexpressing in ice plant leaves through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation led to 25 times more McHB7 transcripts than the non-transformed wild type (WT). After 500 mM NaCl treatment for 7 days, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) and water content of the transgenic plants were higher than the WT, while malondialdehyde (MDA) was decreased in the transgenic plants. A total of 1082 and 1072 proteins were profiled by proteomics under control and salt treatment, respectively, with 22 and 11 proteins uniquely identified under control and salt stress, respectively. Among the 11 proteins, 7 were increased and 4 were decreased after salt treatment. Most of the proteins whose expression increased in the McHB7 overexpression (OE) ice plants under high salinity were involved in transport regulation, catalytic activities, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and response to stimulus. The results demonstrate that the McHB7 transcription factor plays a positive role in improving plant salt tolerance.


Assuntos
Mesembryanthemum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ontologia Genética , Mesembryanthemum/efeitos dos fármacos , Mesembryanthemum/genética , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Transporte Proteico/efeitos dos fármacos , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232854

RESUMO

A novel Gram-stain-positive, facultatively aerobic, slightly halophilic, endospore-forming bacterium, designated G6-18T, was isolated from saline soil collected in Yingkou, Liaoning, PR China. Cells of strain G6-18T grew at 10-37 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 8.0) and in the presence of 2-15 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 5 %). The strain could be clearly distinguished from the related species of the genus Paraliobacillus by its phylogenetic position and biochemical characteristics. It presented MK-7 as the major quinone and the dominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol as the major components. The G+C content of strain G6-18T genome was 35.3 mol%. 16S rRNA analysis showed that strain G6-18T had the highest similarity to Paraliobacillus ryukyuensis DSM 15140T, reaching 97.0 %, followed by Paraliobacillus quinghaiensis CGMCC 1.6333T with a value of 96.3 %. The average nucleotide identity values between strain G6-18T and Paraliobacillus ryukyuensis DSM 15140T, Paraliobacillus sedimins KCTC 33762T, Paraliobacillus quinghaiensis CGMCC 1.6333T and Paraliobacillus zengyii DSM 107811T were 74.3, 72.0, 73.2 and 72.8 %, respectively, and the digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain G6-18T and the neighbouring strains were 15.6, 13.8, 14.2 and 14.2 %, respectively. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic inferences, strain G6-18T represents a novel species of the genus Paraliobacillus, for which the name Paraliobacillus salinarum sp. nov. (=CGMCC 1.12058T=DSM 25428T) is proposed.


Assuntos
Bacillaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Salinidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Bacillaceae/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 319, 2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PTI1 (Pto-interacting 1) protein kinase belongs to the receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase (RLCK) group of receptor-like protein kinases (RLK), but lack extracellular and transmembrane domains. PTI1 was first identified in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and named SlPTI1, which has been reported to interact with bacterial effector Pto, a serine/threonine protein kinase involved in plant resistance to bacterial disease. Briefly, the host PTI1 specifically recognizes and interacts with the bacterial effector AvrPto, which triggers hypersensitive cell death to inhibit the pathogen growth in the local infection site. Previous studies have demonstrated that PTI1 is associated with oxidative stress and hypersensitivity. RESULTS: We identified 12 putative PTI1 genes from the genome of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) in this study. Gene replication analysis indicated that both segmental replication events played an important role in the expansion of PTI1 gene family in foxtail millet. The PTI1 family members of model plants, i.e. S. italica, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), S. lycopersicum, and soybean (Glycine max), were classified into six major categories according to the phylogenetic analysis, among which the PTI1 family members in foxtail millet showed higher degree of homology with those of rice and maize. The analysis of a complete set of SiPTI1 genes/proteins including classification, chromosomal location, orthologous relationships and duplication. The tissue expression characteristics revealed that SiPTI1 genes are mainly expressed in stems and leaves. Experimental qRT-PCR results demonstrated that 12 SiPTI1 genes were induced by multiple stresses. Subcellular localization visualized that all of foxtail millet SiPTI1s were localized to the plasma membrane. Additionally, heterologous expression of SiPTI1-5 in yeast and E. coli enhanced their tolerance to salt stress. CONCLUSIONS: Our results contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the roles of PTI1 protein kinases and will be useful in prioritizing particular PTI1 for future functional validation studies in foxtail millet.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Salinidade , Setaria (Planta)/genética , Setaria (Planta)/fisiologia , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Motivos de Nucleotídeos/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Sintenia/genética
7.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 106: 39-46, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210438

RESUMO

Salinization in estuarine wetlands significantly alters the balance between their nitrogen (N) removal and retention abilities but these processes have not yet been characterized effectively. In the present study, the potential rates of sediment denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) were mapped using N isotope tracing methods along salinity gradients across the Yellow River Delta wetland (YRDW) in China. The contribution of anammox to total dissimilatory N transformations in YRDW was merely 6.8%, whereas denitrification and DNRA contributed 52.3% and 40.9%, respectively. The potential rate of denitrification (5.82 µmol/kg/h) decreased significantly along salinity gradients and markedly exceeded DNRA potential rate (2.7 µmol/kg/h) in fresh wetlands, but was lower than that of DNRA in oligohaline wetlands (3.06 and 3.18 µmol/kg/h, respectively). Moreover, a significantly positive relationship between salinity and DNRA/denitrification was obeserved, indicating that increased salinity may favor DNRA over denitrification. Furthermore, total sulfur (TS) content and ratio of total organic carbon to total nitrogen (C/N) increased with the salinity gradient and showed evident positive relationships with the DNRA/denitrification ratio. In this study, we proved that increased salinization resulted in the dominance of DNRA over denitrification, possible through the addition of S and alteration of the C/N in estuarine wetlands, leading to increased N retention in estuarine wetlands during salinization, which would enhance the eutrophication potential within wetlands and in downstream ecosystems.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , China , Desnitrificação , Ecossistema , Nitratos/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Oxirredução , Salinidade , Áreas Alagadas
8.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073991

RESUMO

Although axenic microbial cultures form the basis of many large successful industrial biotechnologies, the production of single commercial microbial strains for use in large environmental biotechnologies such as wastewater treatment has proved less successful. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of the co-culture of two halophilic bacteria, Marinirhabdus sp. and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus for enhanced protease activity. The co-culture was significantly more productive than monoculture (1.6-2.0 times more growth), with Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus being predominant (64%). In terms of protease activity, enhanced total activity (1.8-2.4 times) was observed in the co-culture. Importantly, protease activity in the co-culture was found to remain active over a much broader range of environmental conditions (temperature 25 °C to 60 °C, pH 4-12, and 10-30% salinity, respectively). This study confirms that the co-culturing of halophilic bacteria represents an economical approach as it resulted in both increased biomass and protease production, the latter which showed activity over arange of environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Flavobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Marinobacter/enzimologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/biossíntese , Técnicas de Cocultura , Flavobacteriaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Marinobacter/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salinidade , Temperatura
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112402, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090105

RESUMO

High levels of soil salinity can cause substantial decline in growth and productivity of crops worldwide, thus representing a major threat to global agriculture. In recent years, engineered nanoparticles (NPs) have been deemed as a promising alternative in combating abiotic stress factors, such as salinity. In this context, the present study was designed to explore the potential of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs) in alleviating salt stress in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Flame Seedless) cuttings. Specifically, the interaction between CeO2 NPs (25, 50 and 100 mg L-1) and salinity (25 and 75 mM NaCl) was evaluated by assaying an array of agronomic, physiological, analytical and biochemical parameters. Treatments with CeO2 NPs, in general, alleviated the adverse impacts of salt stress (75 mM NaCl) significantly improving relevant agronomic traits of grapevine. CeO2 NPs significantly ameliorated chlorophyll damage under high levels of salinity. Furthermore, the presence of CeO2 NPs attenuated salinity-induced damages in grapevine as indicated by lower levels of proline, MDA and EL; however, H2O2 content was not ameliorated by the presence of CeO2 NPs under salt stress. Additionally, salinity caused substantial increases in enzymatic activities of GP, APX and SOD, compared with control plants. Similar to stress conditions, all concentrations of CeO2 NPs triggered APX activity, while the highest concentration of CeO2 NPs significantly increased GP activity. However, CeO2 NPs did not significantly modify SOD activity. Considering mineral nutrient profile, salinity increased Na and Cl content as well as Na/K ratio, while it decreased K, P and Ca contents. Nevertheless, the presence of CeO2 NPs did not lead to significant alterations in Na, K and P content of salt-stressed plants. Taken together, current findings suggest that CeO2 NPs could be employed as promising salt-stress alleviating agents in grapevine.


Assuntos
Cério/farmacologia , Nanopartículas , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cério/química , Clorofila/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Prolina/metabolismo , Salinidade , Solo/química , Vitis/metabolismo
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112412, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119925

RESUMO

In aquaculture, fish are stressed with several factors involved in impacting the growth rate and health status. Although Nile tilapia can resist brackish water conditions, hypoxia status may impair the health condition of fish. Nile tilapia were exposed to salinity water at 0, 10, and 20‰ for four weeks then the growth behavior was checked. The results showed meaningfully lowered growth rate, feed utilization, and survival rate when fish kept in 20‰ for four weeks. Then fish were subdivided into six groups (factorial design, 2 × 3) in normoxia (DO, 6 mg/L) and hypoxia (DO, 1 mg/L) conditions for 24 h. High salinity (10 and 20‰) combined with hypoxia stress-induced inflammatory features in the intestines, gills, and livers of fish. The activities of SOD, CAT, and GPX were increased in the intestines, gills, and livers of fish grown in 10 and 20‰ and exposed with hypoxia stress. Fish grown in 20‰ and stressed with hypoxia had the highest ALT, AST, and ALP levels (p < 0.05) among the groups. The highest transcription levels of Il-8, Il-1ß, Ifn-γ, Tnf-α, and Caspase-3 genes and the lowest level of Il-10 gene were observed in fish exposed with 20‰ and hypoxia. The outputs of Integrated Biomarker Response (IBR) showed marked differences between fish groups with varied values. The lowest IBR was observed in fish reared in fresh water and normoxia, while the highest IBR was seen in the group of fish reared in 20‰ and hypoxia conditions (p < 0.05). These results confirm that Nile tilapia can tolerate 10‰ in normoxia but 20‰ salinity combined with hypoxia results in oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammatory features in the intestines, gills, and livers. The obtained results indicate that hypoxia can affect the performances of Nile tilapia reared in brackish or high-water salinity leading to severe economic loss. Further future studies are required to understand the impact of different water salinities with hypoxia in the short term and long-term periods on the productivity of Nile tilapia.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Hipóxia/veterinária , Salinidade , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aquicultura , Ciclídeos/genética , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/metabolismo , Brânquias/metabolismo , Brânquias/patologia , Hipóxia/genética , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Hipóxia/patologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Intestinos/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Oxigênio/análise , Águas Salinas/química , Águas Salinas/toxicidade
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 221: 112431, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146980

RESUMO

Detailed characterization of new Pseudomonas strains that degrade toxic pollutants is required and utterly necessary before their potential use in environmental microbiology and biotechnology applications. Therefore, phenol degradation by Pseudomonas putida KB3 under suboptimal temperatures, pH, and salinity was examined in this study. Parallelly, adaptive mechanisms of bacteria to stressful growth conditions concerning changes in cell membrane properties during phenol exposure as well as the expression level of genes encoding catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (xylE) and cyclopropane fatty acid synthase (cfaB) were determined. It was found that high salinity and the low temperature had the most significant effect on the growth of bacteria and the rate of phenol utilization. Degradation of phenol (300 mg L-1) proceeded 12-fold and seven-fold longer at 10 °C and 5% NaCl compared to the optimal conditions. The ability of bacteria to degrade phenol was coupled with a relatively high activity of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase. The only factor that inhibited enzyme activity by approximately 80% compared to the control sample was salinity. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAMEs) profiling, membrane permeability measurements, and hydrophobicity tests indicated severe alterations in bacteria membrane properties during phenol degradation in suboptimal growth conditions. The highest values of pH, salinity, and temperature led to a decrease in membrane permeability. FAME analysis showed fatty acid saturation indices and cyclopropane fatty acid participation at high temperature and salinity. Genetic data showed that suboptimal growth conditions primarily resulted in down-regulation of xylE and cfaB gene expression.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Fenol/metabolismo , Pseudomonas putida/genética , Pseudomonas putida/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Catecol 2,3-Dioxigenase/genética , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metiltransferases/genética , Fenol/toxicidade , Pseudomonas putida/efeitos dos fármacos , Salinidade , Temperatura
12.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(7): 1101-1114, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100122

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: PePIP2;7, a leaf-specific aquaporin gene in bamboo, is upregulated under abiotic stresses. Overexpressing PePIP2;7 confers abiotic stresses tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plant and yeast. Aquaporins (AQPs) participate in the regulation of water balance in plants. However, the function of AQPs in bamboo remains unclear. Here, PePIP2;7 was identified as a leaf-specific aquaporin gene in moso bamboo based on the expression analysis of transcriptome data and PCR. In situ hybridization further indicated that PePIP2;7 was mainly expressed in mesophyll cells of mature leaves, while in immature leaves it was dominant in blade edge cells followed by mesophyll cells. Interestingly, PePIP2;7 was strongly expressed in the mesophyll cells near bulliform cells of immature leaves, suggesting that PePIP2;7 might function in water transport and contribute to leaf unfolding. The transient expression assay showed that PePIP2;7 was a plasma membrane intrinsic protein. Furthermore, PePIP2;7 was upregulated under abiotic stresses such as high light, drought, and NaCl. Compared with Col-0, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing PePIP2;7 had better seed germination rate, longer taproot length, higher SOD activity, and lower MDA content under abiotic stresses. Besides, yeasts expressing PePIP2;7 also had higher tolerance to stress compared to the control. Taken together, our results show that PePIP2;7 is leaf-specific and involved in stress response, which provides new insights into aquaporin function in bamboo.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sasa/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Clorofila/genética , Clorofila/metabolismo , Enzimas/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Manitol/farmacologia , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Salinidade , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
13.
Plant Sci ; 309: 110955, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134851

RESUMO

Cyclic Nucleotides Monophosphate (cNMP) are key signalling compounds whose role in plant cell signal transduction is still poorly understood. In this work we used sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor used in human, to amplify the signal cascade triggered by cNMP using tomato as model plant. Metabolomics was then used, together with plant growth and root architecture parameters, to unravel the changes elicited by PDE inhibition either under non-stress and 100 mM NaCl salinity conditions. The PDE inhibitor elicited a significant increase in biomass (+62 %) and root length (+56 %) under no stress conditions, and affected root architecture in terms of distribution over diameter classes. Together with cGMP, others cNMP were modulated by the treatment. Moreover, PDE inhibition triggered a broad metabolic reprogramming involving photosynthesis and secondary metabolism. A complex crosstalk network of phytohormones and other signalling compounds could be observed in treated plants. Nonetheless, metabolites related to redox imbalance processes and NO signalling could be highlighted in tomato following PDE application. Despite salinity damped down the growth-promoting effects of sildenafil, interesting implications in plant mitigation to stress-related detrimental effects could be observed.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Estresse Oxidativo , Salinidade , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 783: 147094, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088141

RESUMO

The understanding of sub-surface soil microbial diversity is limited at both saline and hypersaline ecosystems, even though salinity is found to affect the microbial community in aqueous and terrestrial environment. In this study, a phylo-taxonomy analysis as well as the functional characteristics of microbial community of flat salt basin of White Rann of Kachchh (WR), Gujarat, India was performed along the natural salinity gradient. The high throughput sequencing approach has revealed the numerical abundance of bacteria relative to the archaea. Salinity, TOC, EC and sulphate concentration might be the primary driver of the community distribution along the transect at WR. The much anticipated effect of salinity gradient on the microbial composition surprisingly turned out to be more speculative, with little variance in the community composition along the spatial distance of WR. The metabolic pathways involved in energy metabolism (like carbon, nitrogen, sulphur) along with environmental adaptive genes (like osmotic and oxidative stress response, heat and cold shock genes clusters) were abundantly annotated from shot-gun metagenomic study. The carbonic anhydrase harbouring bacteria Bacillus sp. DM4CA1 was isolated from WR, having a catalytic ability for converting the gaseous carbon dioxide in presence of calcium carbonate into calcite at 25 % higher rate as compared to non-harbouring strains. The enzyme has a role in multiple alternative pathways in microbial metabolism. With the array of results obtained, the study could become the new reference for understanding the diversity structure and functional characteristics of the microbial community of terrestrial saline environment.


Assuntos
Archaea , Bactérias , Archaea/genética , Bactérias/genética , Índia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Salinidade , Microbiologia do Solo
15.
Chemosphere ; 276: 130220, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088098

RESUMO

The increasing discharge of high-salinity organic wastewater has drawn much concern. This work investigated the degradation and mineralization of ciprofloxacin (CIP) in high-salinity wastewater by ozonation coupled with ultraviolet irradiation (UV). After coupling with UV, the removal efficiency of CIP was increased insignificantly (maximum 5.0%), while the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal in CIP wastewater (CW) was enhanced dramatically to 91.4% as compared with independent O3 (37.5%). The reactive oxygen species (ROS) were identified as singlet oxygen (1O2) and superoxide anion radical (O2-•)·through electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and quenching experiments, among which 1O2 predominated in the UV/O3 process. The existence of salt (Na2SO4 or NaCl) accelerated the mass transfer of O3 at the gas-liquid interface, thus CIP removal was promoted in UV/O3/SO42- system. However, excessive Cl- inhibited the removal efficiency of DOC in CW owing to its consumption of O3. CIP degradation decreased as pH increased in non-salinity and UV/O3/SO42- system, which proved the direct reaction occurred between CIP and O3. On the contrary, the O3 mass transfer increased with increasing pH, hence the elimination of DOC in CW was promoted in UV/O3/Cl- system. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected from tail gas, but the toxicity estimation indicated the toxicity of products was similar or less than that of CIP. Overall, this work is meaningful for the practical application of UV/O3 process in the high-salinity industry.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ciprofloxacina , Salinidade , Raios Ultravioleta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Water Res ; 200: 117255, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062402

RESUMO

Despite significant advances in the field applications of reserve electrodialysis (RED) to produce salinity gradient power, net energy production remains an issue owing to limitations such as high energy requirement for high flow rates of feed solutions, and severe fouling and pressure build up when thin spacers are used. Therefore, to maximize the performance and efficiency of energy harvesting in the RED, a cascaded RED stack, with multiple stages between the anode and cathode electrodes, was investigated. In cascaded stacks, 100-cell paired stacks were divided into several stages, so the feed water flowed into the first stage, and the effluent from the first stage was then reused in the next stages. This cascaded stack could overcome the typical drawbacks of RED (large amount of feed water required, intensive pumping energy, and low net energy production). Although 25% of the feed water volume was used in the 4-stage cascaded stack (100-cell-pairs) compared to the conventional stack (100-cell-pairs with a parallel flow operation), much more energy was produced with the 4-stage cascaded stack. The net power density and net specific energy with the 4-stage cascaded stack were the highest at 0.5 cm/s (0.48 W/m2) and 0.25 cm/s (0.06 kWh/m3), respectively. This is very promising for the practical application of RED since feed water volumes can be greatly reduced, which could reduce the burden on the feed water pretreatment step. Consequently, we can build a compact RED plant with smaller pretreatment processes and fewer RED unit stacks.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Salinidade , Eletrodos
17.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067096

RESUMO

Colombia is the main producer of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.), a plant known for its various consumption practices and medicinal properties. This plant is generally grown in eroded soils and is considered moderately tolerant to unfavorable conditions, such as nutrient-poor soils or high salt concentrations. Most studies conducted on this plant focus on fruit production and composition because it is the target product, but a small number of studies have been conducted to describe the effect of abiotic stress, e.g., salt stress, on growth and biochemical responses. In order to better understand the mechanism of inherent tolerance of this plant facing salt stress, the present study was conducted to determine the metabolic and growth differences of P. peruviana plants at three different BBCH-based growth substages, varying salt conditions. Hence, plants were independently treated with two NaCl solutions, and growth parameters and LC-ESI-MS-derived semi-quantitative levels of metabolites were then measured and compared between salt treatments per growth substage. A 90 mM NaCl treatment caused the greatest effect on plants, provoking low growth and particular metabolite variations. The treatment discrimination-driving feature classification suggested that glycosylated flavonols increased under 30 mM NaCl at 209 substages, withanolides decreased under 90 mM NaCl at 603 and 703 substages, and up-regulation of a free flavonol at all selected stages can be considered a salt stress response. Findings locate such response into a metabolic context and afford some insights into the plant response associated with antioxidant compound up-regulation.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Physalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Physalis/metabolismo , Estresse Salino/fisiologia , Análise Discriminante , Germinação/fisiologia , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Salinidade
18.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(2): e20190574, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076086

RESUMO

Ephyrae are the young scyphozoan jellyfishes that usually passes unnoticed, whereas their adult counterparts play major ecological roles and can negatively affect economic activities when they occur in high densities. We describe, for the first time, wild ephyrae of Lychnorhiza lucerna (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae) from the Patos Lagoon Estuary, Southern Brazil. A total of 10 ephyrae were found in salinities between 12 and 33 and temperatures between 16 and 27°C. The presence of digitata, eight oral arms and serrated tips on marginal lobes allowed species determination. Wild ephyrae were morphologically identical to laboratory-cultivated individuals. The youngest individual was about one to two days old, and the most developed one, between 12 and 14 days old. Recruitment of L. lucerna probably initiated during warmer months (December until February) because nine out of ten individuals were found in high temperature (> 20° C) and salinity (> 30) waters. On the other hand, a mid-winter occurrence of a single ephyra (T=16° C, S= 12) demonstrates that the species may support a considerable range of variation in the physical environment. We reinforce the importance of long-term studies to provide information about the species coupling with seasonal cycles and the dynamics of estuarine and coastal areas.


Assuntos
Cnidários , Cifozoários , Adulto , Animais , Brasil , Humanos , Salinidade , Temperatura
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3462, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103533

RESUMO

Seasonal drawdown of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the subtropical upper ocean makes a significant contribution to net community production (NCP) globally. Although NCP requires macronutrient supply, surface macronutrients are chronically depleted, and their supply has been unable to balance the NCP demand. Here, we report nanomolar increases in surface nitrate plus nitrite (N+N, ~20 nM) and phosphate (PO4, ~15 nM) from summer to winter in the western subtropical North Pacific. Molar ratios of upward fluxes of DIC:N+N:PO4 to the euphotic zone (< 100 m) were in near-stoichiometric balance with microbial C:N:P ratios (107~243:16~35:1). Comparison of these upward influxes with other atmospheric and marine sources demonstrated that total supply is largely driven by the other sources for C and N (93~96%), but not for P (10%), suggesting that nanomolar upward supply of P and its preferential recycling play a vital role in sustaining the NCP.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Fosfatos/análise , Clima Tropical , Carbono/análise , Nitratos/análise , Nitritos/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Oceano Pacífico , Salinidade , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Água/química
20.
Food Chem ; 361: 130160, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062457

RESUMO

The quality of crustaceans' flesh has direct impact on consumers' purchase choices, with water environment and dietary nutrition being effective ways to regulate flesh quality. The aim of present study was to investigate the impacts of water salinity (low, 4 and medium, 23) and dietary lipid source (fish oil and soybean oil) on nutritional values, texture, taste and odor of flesh of mud crab. While water salinity had no significant influence on nutritional values of crab flesh, crabs fed soybean oil displayed significantly lower contents of amino acids and n-3 PUFAs in muscle. However, crabs reared at low salinity showed reduced flesh hardness, chewiness and gumminess likely related to altered myofiber structure, that impacted muscle texture. Furthermore, low salinity and dietary soybean oil weakened umami taste and aroma characteristics of crab flesh associated with decreased contents of free amino acids, flavor nucleotides, inorganic ions and odor active compounds in flesh.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Aquicultura/métodos , Braquiúros/química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Aminoácidos/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Salinidade , Proteínas de Frutos do Mar/análise , Óleo de Soja/farmacologia , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
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