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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 147: 310-321, 2025 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003049

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of different salinity gradients and addition of compatible solutes on anaerobic treated effluent water qualities, sludge characteristics and microbial communities were investigated. The increase in salinity resulted in a decrease in particle size of the granular sludge, which was concentrated in the range of 0.5-1.0 mm. The content of EPS (extracellular polymeric substances) in the granular sludge gradually increased with increasing salinity and the addition of betaine (a typical compatible solute). Meanwhile, the microbial community structure was significantly affected by salinity, with high salinity reducing the diversity of bacteria. At higher salinity, Patescibacteria and Proteobacteria gradually became the dominant phylum, with relative abundance increasing to 13.53% and 12.16% at 20 g/L salinity. Desulfobacterota and its subordinate Desulfovibrio, which secrete EPS in large quantities, dominated significantly after betaine addition.Their relative abundance reached 13.65% and 7.86% at phylum level and genus level. The effect of these changes on the treated effluent was shown as the average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate decreased from 82.10% to 79.71%, 78.01%, 68.51% and 64.55% when the salinity gradually increased from 2 g/L to 6, 10, 16 and 20 g/L. At the salinity of 20 g/L, average COD removal increased to 71.65% by the addition of 2 mmol/L betaine. The gradient elevated salinity and the exogenous addition of betaine played an important role in achieving stability of the anaerobic system in a highly saline environment, which provided a feasible strategy for anaerobic treatment of organic saline wastewater.


Assuntos
Betaína , Salinidade , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Betaína/metabolismo , Esgotos/microbiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Anaerobiose , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 147: 404-413, 2025 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003058

RESUMO

Salinity was considered to have effects on the characteristics, performance microbial communities of aerobic granular sludge. This study investigated granulation process with gradual increase of salt under different gradients. Two identical sequencing batch reactors were operated, while the influent of Ra and Rb was subjected to stepwise increments of NaCl concentrations (0-4 g/L and 0-10 g/L). The presence of filamentous bacteria may contribute to granules formed under lower salinity conditions, potentially leading to granules fragmentation. Excellent removal efficiency achieved in both reactors although there was a small accumulation of nitrite in Rb at later stages. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in Ra were 95.31%, 93.70% and 88.66%, while the corresponding removal efficiencies in Rb were 94.19%, 89.79% and 80.74%. Salinity stimulated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secretion and enriched EPS producing bacteria to help maintain the integrity and stability of the aerobic granules. Heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria were responsible for NH4+-N and NO2--N oxidation of salinity systems and large number of denitrifying bacteria were detected, which ensure the high removal efficiency of TN in the systems.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Nitrogênio , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Esgotos/microbiologia , Fósforo/metabolismo , Salinidade , Cloreto de Sódio , Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbiota , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio
3.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 672, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969999

RESUMO

The scarcity of freshwater resources resulting in a significant yield loss presents a pressing challenge in agriculture. To address this issue, utilizing abundantly available saline water could offer a smart solution. In this study, we demonstrate that the genome sequence rhizosphere bacterium Tritonibacter mobilis AK171, a halophilic marine bacterium recognized for its ability to thrive in saline and waterlogged environments, isolated from mangroves, has the remarkable ability to enable plant growth using saline irrigation. AK171 is characterized as rod-shaped cells, displays agile movement in free-living conditions, and adopts a rosette arrangement in static media. Moreover, The qualitative evaluation of PGP traits showed that AK171 could produce siderophores and IAA but could not solubilize phosphate nor produce hydrolytic enzymes it exhibits a remarkable tolerance to high temperatures and salinity. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive genome sequence analysis of T. mobilis AK171 to unravel the genetic mechanisms underlying its plant growth-promoting abilities in such challenging conditions. Our analysis revealed diverse genes and pathways involved in the bacterium's adaptation to salinity and waterlogging stress. Notably, T. mobilis AK171 exhibited a high level of tolerance to salinity and waterlogging through the activation of stress-responsive genes and the production of specific enzymes and metabolites. Additionally, we identified genes associated with biofilm formation, indicating its potential role in establishing symbiotic relationships with host plants. Furthermore, our analysis unveiled the presence of genes responsible for synthesizing antimicrobial compounds, including tropodithietic acid (TDA), which can effectively control phytopathogens. This genomic insight into T. mobilis AK171 provides valuable information for understanding the molecular basis of plant-microbial interactions in saline and waterlogged environments. It offers potential applications for sustainable agriculture in challenging conditions.


Assuntos
Avicennia , Avicennia/microbiologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Genômica , Rizosfera , Salinidade , Filogenia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Sideróforos/metabolismo
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(8): 692, 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38960989

RESUMO

Groundwater monitoring data can be prone to errors and biases due to various factors like borehole and equipment malfunctions, or human mistakes. These inaccuracies can jeopardize the groundwater system, leading to reduced efficiency and potentially causing partial or complete failures in the monitoring system. Traditional anomaly detection methods, which rely on statistical and time-variant techniques, struggle to handle the complex and dynamic nature of anomalies. With advancements in artificial intelligence and the growing need for effective anomaly detection and prevention across different sectors, artificial neural network methods are emerging as capable of identifying more intricate anomalies by considering both temporal and contextual aspects. Nonetheless, there is still a shortage of comprehensive studies on groundwater anomaly detection. The intricate patterns of sequential data from groundwater present numerous challenges, necessitating sophisticated modeling techniques that combine mathematics, statistics, and machine learning for viable solutions. This paper introduces a model designed for high accuracy and efficient computation in detecting anomalies in groundwater monitoring data through a probabilistic approach. We employed the Monte Carlo method and SEAWAT numerical simulation to ascertain the uncertainty in groundwater salinity. Subsequently, a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM)-Autoencoder model was trained and evaluated, forming the basis of an anomaly detection framework. Each piece of training data was assessed by the LSTM-Autoencoder using the Negative Log Likelihood (NLL) score and a predefined threshold to determine the data's abnormality percentage. The accuracy evaluation of the proposed LSTM-Autoencoder algorithm revealed that this approach achieved commendable performance, with an accuracy of 98.47% in anomaly detection.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Subterrânea , Redes Neurais de Computação , Água Subterrânea/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Método de Monte Carlo , Salinidade
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(8): 696, 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38963444

RESUMO

Salinity-induced desertification is a pressing environmental issue that poses a significant threat to the sustainability of oasis ecosystems worldwide. These ecosystems are vital to the livelihoods of millions of people living in hyper-arid, arid and semi-arid regions, providing essential resources such as food, water and other necessities. However, overexploitation of natural resources, changes in land use and climate change have led to the degradation of these ecosystems, resulting in soil salinisation, waterlogging and other adverse effects. Combating salinity-induced desertification requires a comprehensive approach that addresses both the underlying causes of ecosystem degradation and the direct consequences for local communities. The strategy may include measures for sustainable land use, reforestation and water conservation. It is also essential to involve local communities in these activities and to ensure that their perspectives are heard. The aim of this article is to examine the causes and processes of salinity-induced desertification in oasis ecosystems and the implications for their sustainability. It also examines strategies that are being used to prevent desertification and promote sustainable oasis management. This article aims to raise awareness of this critical issue and to promote action towards a more sustainable future.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Salinidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Solo/química
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15062, 2024 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956110

RESUMO

Soil salinity is a major nutritional challenge with poor agriculture production characterized by high sodium (Na+) ions in the soil. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and biochar have received attention as a sustainable strategy to reduce biotic and abiotic stress. However, there is a lack of information regarding the incorporation of ZnO NPs with biochar to ameliorate the salinity stress (0, 50,100 mM). Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the potentials of ZnO NPs application (priming and foliar) alone and with a combination of biochar on the growth and nutrient availability of spinach plants under salinity stress. Results demonstrated that salinity stress at a higher rate (100 mM) showed maximum growth retardation by inducing oxidative stress, resulted in reduced photosynthetic rate and nutrient availability. ZnO NPs (priming and foliar) alone enhanced growth, chlorophyll contents and gas exchange parameters by improving the antioxidant enzymes activity of spinach under salinity stress. While, a significant and more pronounced effect was observed at combined treatments of ZnO NPs with biochar amendment. More importantly, ZnO NPs foliar application with biochar significantly reduced the Na+ contents in root 57.69%, and leaves 61.27% of spinach as compared to the respective control. Furthermore, higher nutrient contents were also found at the combined treatment of ZnO NPs foliar application with biochar. Overall, ZnO NPs combined application with biochar proved to be an efficient and sustainable strategy to alleviate salinity stress and improve crop nutritional quality under salinity stress. We inferred that ZnO NPs foliar application with a combination of biochar is more effectual in improving crop nutritional status and salinity mitigation than priming treatments with a combination of biochar.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Estresse Salino , Spinacia oleracea , Óxido de Zinco , Zinco , Spinacia oleracea/efeitos dos fármacos , Spinacia oleracea/metabolismo , Spinacia oleracea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Carvão Vegetal/química , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Óxido de Zinco/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/farmacologia , Zinco/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Solo/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Salinidade
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15656, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38977885

RESUMO

The aim of current study was to identify closely linked QTLs and candidate genes related to germination indices under control, salinity and drought conditions in barley. A total of nine (a major), 28 (eight major) and 34 (five major) closely linked QTLs were mapped on the seven chromosomes in response to control, drought and salinity conditions using genome-wide composite interval mapping, respectively. The major QTLs can be used in marker-assisted selection (MAS) projects to increase tolerance to drought and salinity stresses during the germination. Overall, 422 unique candidate genes were associated with most major QTLs. Moreover, gene ontology analysis showed that candidate genes mostly involved in biological process related to signal transduction and response to stimulus in the pathway of resistance to drought and salinity stresses. Also, the protein-protein interaction network was identified 10 genes. Furthermore, 10 genes were associated with receptor-like kinase family. In addition, 16 transcription factors were detected. Three transcription factors including B3, bHLH, and FAR1 had the most encoding genes. Totally, 60 microRNAs were traced to regulate the target genes. Finally, the key genes are a suitable and reliable source for future studies to improve resistance to abiotic stress during the germination of barley.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Secas , Germinação , Hordeum , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Estresse Salino , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Germinação/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Salinidade , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15883, 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38987579

RESUMO

Salinity stress poses a significant treat to crop yields and product quality worldwide. Application of a humic acid bio stimulant and grafting onto tolerant rootstocks can both be considered sustainable agronomic practices that can effectively ameliorate the negative effects of salinity stress. This study aimed to assess the above mentioned ameliorative effects of both practices on cucumber plants subjected to saline environments. To attain this goal a factorial experiment was carried out in the form of a completely randomized design with three replications. The three factors considered were (a) three different salinity levels (0, 5, and 10 dS m-1 of NaCl), (b) foliar application of humic acid at three levels (0, 100, and 200 mg L-1), and (c) both grafted and ungrafted plants. Vegetative traits including plant height, fresh and dry weight and number of leaf exhibited a significant decrease under increasing salinity stress. However, the application of humic acid at both levels mitigated these effects compared to control plants. The reduction in relative water content (RWC) of the leaf caused by salinity, was compensated by the application of humic acid and grafting. Thus, the highest RWC (86.65%) was observed in grafting plants with 0 dS m-1 of NaCl and 20 mg L-1 of humic acid. Electrolyte leakage (EL) increased under salinity stress, but the application of humic acid and grafting improved this trait and the lowest amount of EL (26.95%) was in grafting plants with 0 dS m-1 of NaCl and 20 mg L-1 of humic acid. The highest amount of catalase (0.53 mmol H2O2 g-1 fw min-1) and peroxidase (12.290 mmol H2O2 g-1 fw min-1) enzymes were observed in the treatment of 10 dS m-1 of NaCl and 200 mg L-1 humic acid. The highest amount of total phenol (1.99 mg g-1 FW), total flavonoid (0.486 mg g-1 FW), total soluble carbohydrate (30.80 mg g-1 FW), soluble protein (34.56 mg g-1 FW), proline (3.86 µg g-1 FW) was in grafting plants with 0 dS m-1 of NaCl and 200 mg L-1 of humic acid. Phenolic acids and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzymes increased with increasing salinity and humic acid levels. Contrary to humic acid, salt stress increased the sodium (Na+) and chlorine (Cl-) and decreased the amount of potassium (K+) and calcium (Ca2+) in the root and leaf of ungrafted cucumber. However, the application 200 mg L-1 humic acid appeared to mitigate these effects, thereby suggesting a potential role in moderating physiological processes and improving growth of cucumber plants subjected to salinity stress. According to the obtained results, spraying of humic acid (200 mg L-1) and the use of salt resistant rootstocks are recommended to increase tolerance to salt stress in cucumber. These results, for the first time, clearly demonstrated that fig leaf gourd a new highly salt-tolerant rootstock, enhances salt tolerance and improves yield and quality of grafted cucumber plants by reducing sodium transport to the shoot and increasing the amount of compatible osmolytes.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Substâncias Húmicas , Estresse Salino , Cucumis sativus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cucumis sativus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salinidade , Agricultura/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 633, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38971752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) experiences many negative effects under salinity stress, which may be mediated by recurrent selection. Salt-tolerant alfalfa may display unique adaptations in association with rhizobium under salt stress. RESULTS: To elucidate inoculation effects on salt-tolerant alfalfa under salt stress, this study leveraged a salt-tolerant alfalfa population selected through two cycles of recurrent selection under high salt stress. After experiencing 120-day salt stress, mRNA was extracted from 8 random genotypes either grown in 0 or 8 dS/m salt stress with or without inoculation by Ensifer meliloti. Results showed 320 and 176 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) modulated in response to salinity stress or inoculation x salinity stress, respectively. Notable results in plants under 8 dS/m stress included upregulation of a key gene involved in the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway with a concomitant decrease in expression of the SNrK pathway. Inoculation of salt-stressed plants stimulated increased transcription of a sulfate-uptake gene as well as upregulation of the Lysine-27-trimethyltransferase (EZH2), Histone 3 (H3), and argonaute (AGO, a component of miRISC silencing complexes) genes related to epigenetic and post-transcriptional gene control. CONCLUSIONS: Salt-tolerant alfalfa may benefit from improved activity of TOR and decreased activity of SNrK1 in salt stress, while inoculation by rhizobiumstimulates production of sulfate uptake- and other unique genes.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Medicago sativa , Tolerância ao Sal , Medicago sativa/genética , Medicago sativa/fisiologia , Medicago sativa/microbiologia , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Salinidade , Sinorhizobium meliloti/fisiologia , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/genética , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/fisiologia
10.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 45(7): 4279-4292, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39022973

RESUMO

Microbial fertilizers have the characteristics of high efficiency and environmental protection in improving saline soils, and the application of functional microbial fertilizers is of great significance for the green abatement of saline barriers and the improvement of soil quality in coastal areas. The experiment was based on moderately saline soil in the coastal area of Hebei Province, with corn as the indicator crop, on the basis of conventional chemical fertilizer application. Different microbial fertilizer treatments, namely, T1 (conventional chemical fertilizer 750 kg·hm-2 + compound microbial agent 75 kg·hm-2), T2 (conventional chemical fertilizer 750 kg·hm-2 + Bacillus megaterium 300 kg·hm-2), T3 (conventional chemical fertilizer 750 kg·hm-2 + B. mucilaginosus 300 kg·hm-2), T4 (conventional chemical fertilizer 750 kg·hm-2 + organic silicon fertilizer 600 kg·hm-2), T5 (conventional chemical fertilizer 750 kg·hm-2 + bio-organic fertilizer 600 kg·hm-2), T6 (conventional fertilizer 750 kg·hm-2 + active microalgae 15 kg·hm-2), and CK (only fertilizer 750 kg·hm-2), were used for these seven treatments, to study the effects of different microbial fertilizers on soil nutrients, salinity, bacterial community, and corn yield and economic efficiency during two critical periods (V12 stage and maturity stage) of corn. The results showed that compared with that in CK, T1 significantly increased soil total nitrogen (TN) and available phosphorus (AP) contents during the whole growth period. Over the whole reproductive period, soil organic matter (OM) at maturity increased by 10.35% over the V12 stage compared to that in CK, but there was no significant difference between treatments. Compared with that in CK, T5 and T6 significantly reduced soil total salinity and Ca2+ content during the whole growth period by an average of 14.51%-18.48% and 24.25%-25.51%. T1 significantly increased the bacterial diversity index over the whole growth period by 45.16% compared to that in CK. The dominant soil phyla were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi, and the dominant genera were Bacillus and Geminicoccaceae. The most abundant functions of the bacterial community in the study area were chemoheterotrophy and aerobic chemoheterotrophy, with average relative abundances of 28.89% and 27.11%, and T3 and T6 significantly improved soil N cycling function. The results of redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that Na+, SO42-, pH, and EC were important factors driving the structure of the bacterial community, and correlation heatmaps showed that Na+, SO42-, pH, and EC were significantly and positively correlated mainly with the phylum Planctomycetota, whereas soil OM and TN were significantly and positively correlated with Cyanobacteria. Compared with that in CK, T6 increased the relative abundance of Cyanobacteria and optimized the bacterial community structure during the whole growth period. Using recommended dosages of bacterial fertilizers T1 and T6 increased maize yield by 7.31%-24.83% and economic efficiency by 9.05%-23.23%, respectively. The preliminary results of soil chemical properties and yield correlation analysis revealed that EC, AP, HCO3-, and Mg2+ were the obstacle factors limiting soil productivity in coastal areas. In conclusion, the use of the compound bacterial agent (T1) and active microalgae (T6) at the recommended dosage can significantly enhance soil nutrients, reduce salinity, and improve the structural diversity of soil bacterial communities, which not only ensures the increase in maize yield and efficiency but also realizes the efficient use of microbial fertilizers and the improvement of soil quality.


Assuntos
Bacillus megaterium , Fertilizantes , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Zea mays , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Bacillus megaterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus megaterium/metabolismo , China , Salinidade , Biomassa , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Fósforo/análise
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 16759, 2024 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39033168

RESUMO

Soil salinization poses a serious threat to crop growth. The selection of appropriate soil modifiers and water-soluble fertilizers for saline soils represents a crucial method for enhancing crop yields. The modifiers and medium-element water-soluble fertilizers were prepared using hydrochar derived from rice straw. Two distinct experiments were designed to study the effect of modifiers and water-soluble fertilizers on saline soils. The first experiment, designated as the "Soil Cultivation Experiment" , sought to investigate the impact of various modifiers on soil quality. The second experiment, designated as the "Method of Field Micro-Area Experiment", aimed to assess the influence of water-soluble fertilizers on saline soils. The results showed that the application of modifiers and water-soluble fertilizers significantly enhanced comprehensive soil physical and chemical properties, crop growth, soil enzyme activity, and other key indicators in saline and alkaline soils. The optimal dosage of the modifier was 20 g/kg, which reduced the pH value from 8.62 to 8.21 and the decreased alkalinity by 8.26%. Furthermore, their application effectively boosted nutrient levels, including organic matter, and increased soil enzyme activity. The biomass of alfalfa showed enhancements of 63.01% and 20.87% and the biomass of leymus chinensis increased by 29.39% and 9.02% for the two batches, respectively. Notably, the application of water-soluble fertilizer yielded achieved superior results. This study also provided a theoretical basis for their future application in soda saline-alkali soil.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Solo , Fertilizantes/análise , Solo/química , Água/química , Salinidade , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solubilidade , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Biomassa , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/métodos , Medicago sativa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 16750, 2024 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39033179

RESUMO

Anthropogenic deoxygenation of the Baltic Sea caused major declines in demersal and benthic habitat quality with consequent impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Using Baltic cod otolith chemical proxies of hypoxia, salinity, and fish metabolic status and growth, we tracked changes from baseline conditions in the late Neolithic (4500 BP) and early twentieth century to the present, in order to understand how recent, accelerating climate change has affected this key species. Otolith hypoxia proxies (Mn:Mg) increased with expanding anoxic water volumes, but decreased with increasing salinity indexed by otolith Sr:Ca. Metabolic status proxied by otolith Mg:Ca and reconstructed growth were positively related to dissolved oxygen percent saturation, with particularly severe declines since 2010. This long-term record of otolith indicators provides further evidence of a profound state change in oxygen for the worse, in one of the world's largest inland seas. Spreading hypoxia due to climate warming will likely impair fish populations globally and evidence can be tracked with otolith chemical biomarkers.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Oceanos e Mares , Membrana dos Otólitos , Oxigênio , Animais , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Oxigênio/análise , Salinidade , Ecossistema
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 16737, 2024 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39033227

RESUMO

In this comprehensive investigation, we successfully isolated and characterized 40 distinct plant-associated halotolerant bacteria strains obtained from three halophytic plant species: Tamarix nilotica, Suaeda pruinosa, and Arthrocnemum macrostachyum. From this diverse pool of isolates, we meticulously selected five exceptional plant-associated halotolerant bacteria strains through a judiciously designed seed biopriming experiment and then identified molecularly. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DW6 was isolated from A. macrostachyum. Three bacteria (Providencia rettgeri DW3, Bacillus licheniformis DW4, and Salinicoccus sesuvii DW5) were isolated for the first time from T. nilotica, S. pruinosa and S. pruinosa, respectively. Paenalcaligenes suwonensis DW7 was isolated for the first time from A. macrostachyum. These plant-associated halotolerant bacteria exhibited growth-promoting activities, including phosphate solubilization, nitrogen fixation, and production of bioactive compounds, i.e., ammonia, phytohormones, hydrogen cyanide, siderophores, and exopolysaccharides. A controlled laboratory experiment was conducted to reduce the detrimental impact of soil salinity. Vicia faba seedlings were inoculated individually or in mixtures by the five most effective plant-associated halotolerant bacteria to reduce the impact of salt stress and improve growth parameters. The growth parameters were significantly reduced due to the salinity stress in the control samples, compared to the experimental ones. The unprecedented novelty of our findings is underscored by the demonstrable efficacy of co-inoculation with these five distinct bacterial types as a pioneering bio-approach for countering the deleterious effects of soil salinity on plant growth. This study thus presents a remarkable contribution to the field of plant science and offers a promising avenue for sustainable agriculture in saline environments.


Assuntos
Salinidade , Vicia faba , Vicia faba/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vicia faba/microbiologia , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/microbiologia , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Tamaricaceae/microbiologia , Tamaricaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chenopodiaceae/microbiologia , Chenopodiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , Tolerância ao Sal , Fosfatos/metabolismo
14.
Mol Ecol ; 33(15): e17448, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38946210

RESUMO

Species with widespread distributions play a crucial role in our understanding of climate change impacts on population structure. In marine species, population structure is often governed by both high connectivity potential and selection across strong environmental gradients. Despite the complexity of factors influencing marine populations, studying species with broad distribution can provide valuable insights into the relative importance of these factors and the consequences of climate-induced alterations across environmental gradients. We used the northern shrimp Pandalus borealis and its wide latitudinal distribution to identify current drivers of population structure and predict the species' vulnerability to climate change. A total of 1514 individuals sampled across 24° latitude were genotyped at high geographic (54 stations) and genetic (14,331 SNPs) resolutions to assess genetic variation and environmental correlations. Four populations were identified in addition to finer substructure associated with local adaptation. Geographic patterns of neutral population structure reflected predominant oceanographic currents, while a significant proportion of the genetic variation was associated with gradients in salinity and temperature. Adaptive landscapes generated using climate projections suggest a larger genomic offset in the southern extent of the P. borealis range, where shrimp had the largest adaptive standing genetic variation. Our genomic results combined with recent observations point to further deterioration in southern regions and an impending vulnerable status in the regions at higher latitudes for P. borealis. They also provide rare insights into the drivers of population structure and climatic vulnerability of a widespread meroplanktonic species, which is crucial to understanding future challenges associated with invertebrates essential to ecosystem functioning.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Genética Populacional , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Pandalidae/genética , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Salinidade , Genômica , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Temperatura
15.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 6013, 2024 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39019914

RESUMO

With the continuous expansion of saline soils under climate change, understanding the eco-evolutionary tradeoff between the microbial mitigation of carbon limitation and the maintenance of functional traits in saline soils represents a significant knowledge gap in predicting future soil health and ecological function. Through shotgun metagenomic sequencing of coastal soils along a salinity gradient, we show contrasting eco-evolutionary directions of soil bacteria and archaea that manifest in changes to genome size and the functional potential of the soil microbiome. In salt environments with high carbon requirements, bacteria exhibit reduced genome sizes associated with a depletion of metabolic genes, while archaea display larger genomes and enrichment of salt-resistance, metabolic, and carbon-acquisition genes. This suggests that bacteria conserve energy through genome streamlining when facing salt stress, while archaea invest in carbon-acquisition pathways to broaden their resource usage. These findings suggest divergent directions in eco-evolutionary adaptations to soil saline stress amongst microbial clades and serve as a foundation for understanding the response of soil microbiomes to escalating climate change.


Assuntos
Archaea , Bactérias , Carbono , Mudança Climática , Microbiota , Estresse Salino , Microbiologia do Solo , Carbono/metabolismo , Archaea/genética , Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Microbiota/genética , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Salinidade , Solo/química , Metagenômica , Filogenia , Evolução Biológica , Genoma Bacteriano , Metagenoma
16.
Plant Sci ; 346: 112171, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969140

RESUMO

The escalating salinity levels in cultivable soil pose a significant threat to agricultural productivity and, consequently, human sustenance. This problem is being exacerbated by natural processes and human activities, coinciding with a period of rapid population growth. Developing halophytic crops is needed to ensure food security is not impaired and land resources can be used sustainably. Evolution has created many close halophyte relatives of our major glycophytic crops, such as Puccinellia tenuiflora (relative of barley and wheat), Oryza coarctata (relative of rice) and Glycine soja (relative of soybean). There are also some halophytes have been subjected to semi-domestication and are considered as minor crops, such as Chenopodium quinoa. In this paper, we examine the prevailing comprehension of robust salinity resilience in halophytes. We summarize the existing strategies and technologies that equip researchers with the means to enhance the salt tolerance capabilities of primary crops and investigate the genetic makeup of halophytes.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/fisiologia , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/metabolismo , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo
17.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(8): 193, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39008125

RESUMO

Soil salinity is a major constraint for sustainable agricultural productivity, which together with the incessant climate change may be transformed into a severe threat to the global food security. It is, therefore, a serious concern that needs to be addressed expeditiously. The overproduction and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are the key events occurring during salt stress, consequently employing nitro-oxidative stress and programmed cell death in plants. However, very sporadic studies have been performed concerning different aspects of nitro-oxidative stress in plants under salinity stress. The ability of plants to tolerate salinity is associated with their ability to maintain the cellular redox equilibrium mediated by both non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms. The present review emphasizes the mechanisms of ROS and RNS generation in plants, providing a detailed evaluation of how redox homeostasis is conserved through their effective removal. The uniqueness of this article stems from its incorporation of expression analyses of candidate genes for different antioxidant enzymes involved in ROS and RNS detoxification across various developmental stages and tissues of rice, utilizing publicly available microarray data. It underscores the utilization of modern biotechnological methods to improve salinity tolerance in crops, employing different antioxidants as markers. The review also explores how various transcription factors contribute to plants' ability to tolerate salinity by either activating or repressing the expression of stress-responsive genes. In summary, the review offers a thorough insight into the nitro-oxidative homeostasis strategy for extenuating salinity stress in plants.


Assuntos
Homeostase , Espécies Reativas de Nitrogênio , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Tolerância ao Sal , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estresse Oxidativo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Plantas/metabolismo , Salinidade
18.
Theor Appl Genet ; 137(8): 184, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39008128

RESUMO

Phytotoxic soil salinity is a global problem, and in the northern Great Plains and western Canada, salt accumulates on the surface of marine sediment soils with high water tables under annual crop cover, particularly near wetlands. Crop production can overcome saline-affected soils using crop species and cultivars with salinity tolerance along with changes in management practices. This research seeks to improve our understanding of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) genetic tolerance to high salinity soils. Genome-wide association was conducted using the Sunflower Association Mapping panel grown for two years in naturally occurring saline soils (2016 and 2017, near Indian Head, Saskatchewan, Canada), and six phenotypes were measured: days to bloom, height, leaf area, leaf mass, oil percentage, and yield. Plot level soil salinity was determined by grid sampling of soil followed by kriging. Three estimates of sunflower performance were calculated: (1) under low soil salinity (< 4 dS/m), (2) under high soil salinity (> 4 dS/m), and (3) plasticity (regression coefficient between phenotype and soil salinity). Fourteen loci were significant, with one instance of co-localization between a leaf area and a leaf mass locus. Some genomic regions identified as significant in this study were also significant in a recent greenhouse salinity experiment using the same panel. Also, some candidate genes underlying significant QTL have been identified in other plant species as having a role in salinity response. This research identifies alleles for cultivar improvement and for genetic studies to further elucidate salinity tolerance pathways.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Helianthus , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Tolerância ao Sal , Helianthus/genética , Helianthus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Helianthus/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Salinidade , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Solo/química , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo
19.
PeerJ ; 12: e17727, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39011380

RESUMO

Background: Sandy beaches are dynamic environments housing a large diversity of organisms and providing important environmental services. Meiofaunal metazoan are small organisms that play a key role in the sediment. Their diversity, distribution and composition are driven by sedimentary and oceanographic parameters. Understanding the diversity patterns of marine meiofauna is critical in a changing world. Methods: In this study, we investigate if there is seasonal difference in meiofaunal assemblage composition and diversity along 1 year and if the marine seascapes dynamics (water masses with particular biogeochemical features, characterized by temperature, salinity, absolute dynamic topography, chromophoric dissolved organic material, chlorophyll-a, and normalized fluorescent line height), rainfall, and sediment parameters (total organic matter, carbonate, carbohydrate, protein, lipids, protein-to-carbohydrate, carbohydrate-to-lipids, and biopolymeric carbon) affect significatively meiofaunal diversity at a tropical sandy beach. We tested two hypotheses here: (i) meiofaunal diversity is higher during warmer months and its composition changes significatively among seasons along a year at a tropical sandy beach, and (ii) meiofaunal diversity metrics are significantly explained by marine seascapes characteristics and sediment parameters. We used metabarcoding (V9 hypervariable region from 18S gene) from sediment samples to assess the meiofaunal assemblage composition and diversity (phylogenetic diversity and Shannon's diversity) over a period of 1 year. Results: Meiofauna was dominated by Crustacea (46% of sequence reads), Annelida (28% of sequence reads) and Nematoda (12% of sequence reads) in periods of the year with high temperatures (>25 °C), high salinity (>31.5 ppt), and calm waters. Our data support our initial hypotheses revealing a higher meiofaunal diversity (phylogenetic and Shannon's Diversity) and different composition during warmer periods of the year. Meiofaunal diversity was driven by a set of multiple variables, including biological variables (biopolymeric carbon) and organic matter quality (protein content, lipid content, and carbohydrate-to-lipid ratio).


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Sedimentos Geológicos , Estações do Ano , Animais , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Oceano Atlântico , Organismos Aquáticos , Praias , Clima Tropical , Salinidade , Areia
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 16233, 2024 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39004658

RESUMO

Saline-sodic stress restricts the absorption of zinc by rice, consequently impacting the photosynthesis process of rice plants. In this experiment, Landrace 9 was selected as the test material and the potting method was employed to investigate the influence of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on zinc absorption and chlorophyll fluorescence in rice grown in saline-sodic land. The research findings demonstrate that the application of ZnO NPs proves to be more advantageous for the growth of rice in saline-sodic soil. Notably, the application of ZnO NPs significantly decreases the levels of Na+ and MDA in rice leaves in saline-sodic soil, while increasing the levels of K+ and Zn2+. Additionally, ZnO NPs enhances the content of chloroplast pigments, specific energy flux, quantum yield, and the performance of active PSII reaction center (PIABS) in rice leaves under saline-sodic stress. Furthermore, the relative variable fluorescence (WK and VJ) and quantum energy dissipation rate (φDo) of rice are also reduced. Therefore, the addition of ZnO NPs enhances the transfer of electrons and energy within the rice photosystem when subjected to saline-sodic stress. This promotes photosynthesis in rice plants growing in saline-sodic land, increasing their resistance to saline-sodic stress and ultimately facilitating their growth and development.


Assuntos
Oryza , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Solo , Óxido de Zinco , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo/química , Clorofila/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Fluorescência , Salinidade
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