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1.
Talanta ; 236: 122831, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635221

RESUMO

In this study, a novel type of covalent organic framework (COF) material rich in boronic acid sites was prepared through post-synthesis modification (TbBD@PEI@Au@4-MPBA). The surface of COF material had abundant carboxylic acid groups, which could bind a large amount of polyethyleneimine (PEI) through electrostatic interaction. At the same time, the amino groups on the PEI can be grafted with Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) in situ, and then 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MPBA) was modified by the reaction of Au and sulfhydryl groups. The massive grafting of boronic acid groups made the material's enrichment effect on glycopeptides expected. The results of experiments indicated that the composite material has high sensitivity (5 amol µL-1) and selectivity (1:1000). In addition, the material has outstanding stability and reusability, with a load capacity of about 100 mg g-1 and a recovery of 99.3 ± 2.2%. What's more, after enriched by TbBD@PEI@Au@4-MPBA, 56 endogenous glycopeptides from fresh human saliva were detected by MALDI-TOF MS, 56 unique glycopeptides corresponding to 31 glycoproteins from human saliva and 513 unique glycopeptides corresponding to 208 glycoproteins from serum of throat cancer patient were detected by nano-LC-MS/MS, respectively, which was expected to be applied to glycoproteomics research.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Glicopeptídeos , Ouro , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Saliva , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
Talanta ; 236: 122863, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635245

RESUMO

Cannabis is currently one of the most consumed drugs in many countries. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the principal psychoactive component of this drug and is present in saliva after consumption. This paper reports a novel biomolecule-free electrochemical approach to detect an ultra-low level of THC in saliva using modified electrodes with molecules of the same analyte (THC) that are detected later via square wave voltammetry. The results from this research revealed that the electrodeposition of THC on the working electrode (sensor analyte) could highly enhance the limit of detection by improving the affinity of the THC molecules present in the sample (sample analyte) to the sensing electrode surface. Detailed descriptions about the optimization of the sensor and its performance in simple media, such as PBS, and complex media, such as simulated and real saliva, are provided. This novel and yet simple electrochemical-based sensing strategy allowed for a low limit of detection of 1.6 ng/mL THC in simulated and real saliva, distinguishing concentrations ranging from 2 to 25 ng/mL, making this technology viable for a real-world application such as roadside testing.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Alucinógenos , Dronabinol , Eletrodos , Saliva
3.
Food Chem ; 367: 130755, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390910

RESUMO

Sialic acids are a group of nine-carbon α-keto acids. Sialic acid exists in more than 50 forms, with the natural types discovered as N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), deaminoneuraminic acid (2-keto-3-deoxy-nonulononic acid or Kdn), and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Sialic acid level varies depending on the source, where edible bird's nest (EBN), predominantly Neu5Ac, is among the major sources of sialic acid. Due to its high nutritive value and complexity, sialic acid has been studied extensively through acid, aqueous, and enzymatic extraction. Although detection by chromatographic methods or mass spectrometry is common, the isolation and recovery work remained limited. Sialic acid is well-recognised for its bioactivities, including brain and cognition development, immune-enhancing, anti-hypertensive, anticancer, and skin whitening properties. Therefore, sialic acid can be used as a functional ingredient in the various industries. This paper reviews the current trend in the biochemistry, sources, extraction, and functions of sialic acids with special reference to EBN.


Assuntos
Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico , Ácidos Siálicos , Animais , Aves , Saliva
4.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(1): 120-123, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580006

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The pandemic of a novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been problematic worldwide. A new SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test (SmartAmp) was licensed in Japan in July 2021. This method, which enables us to diagnose COVID-19 as well as a gene mutation on the virus, is promising to reduce medical costs and staff labor. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To analyze the diagnostic accuracy of the SmartAmp assay for diagnosing COVID-19, we performed this retrospective study at our institute during April and May 2021. We compared the results of the SmartAmp assay and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) using a saliva sample from individuals suspected as having COVID-19. RESULTS: Out of 70 samples tested, the SmartAmp assay had 50 (71%) positive and 20 (29%) negative results. Using rRT-PCR as a reference, the diagnostic accuracy displayed a sensitivity of 84%, a specificity of 95%, a positive predictive value of 97.7%, and a negative predictive value of 70.4%. On the other hand, false-negative cases were found in 7 (10%), and there was no significant difference of Ct-value between true positive and false negative cases (Mean Ct-value 25.2 vs. 27.5 cycles, p = 0.226 by Mann-Whitney U test). CONCLUSION: The SmartAmp assay is a valuable method to diagnose COVID-19 rapidly. However, the negative predictive value is not high enough to diagnose the disease, so that negative results should be considered for rRT-PCR testing if patients are suspected of having COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saliva , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transcrição Reversa , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 132-138, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human tongue is important in the oral processing of food and in sensory perception. Tongue topography could influence delicate differences in sensory perception. It is hypothesized that tongue surface roughness could alter oral lubrication status and affect perception of smoothness. Fifteen participants with varying levels of tongue surface roughness were recruited and tested. Participants' in situ oral lubrication status without and after consumption of fluid food (milk with varying fat content and maltodextrin solutions with different shear viscosities) was measured. Participants' smoothness sensory scores were also recorded. RESULTS: The in situ friction coefficient (0.299-1.505) was significantly positively correlated with tongue-surface roughness (54.6-140.0 µm) in all types of test fluid samples across participants. Oral lubrication was significantly decreased when participants consumed the test fluid samples compared with no liquid food consumption, for all test fluid sample types (P < 0.05). No significant differences in in situ friction coefficient were found after participants consumed different test fluid samples, and this was mainly attributed to the limited quantities of fluid residuals in the oral cavity after expectoration. Participants whose tongue surface roughness differed did not exhibit significant differences in smoothness perception with different test fluid samples. CONCLUSION: Tongue surface roughness has a strong impact on in situ oral lubrication, and fluid food intake reduces in situ oral lubrication significantly. Saliva film and tongue surface roughness might play greater roles in oral lubrication and smoothness sensory perception if fluid is expectorated after consumption. The association between oral physiology and texture perception still needs further elucidation. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Percepção Gustatória , Língua/química , Adulto , Animais , Gorduras/química , Gorduras/metabolismo , Feminino , Fricção , Humanos , Lubrificação , Masculino , Leite/química , Leite/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Saliva/fisiologia , Propriedades de Superfície , Língua/fisiologia , Viscosidade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 264: 120293, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455374

RESUMO

A fluorescence probe based on carbon dots (CDs) coated with silica molecularly imprinted polymer (MIPs) was synthesized for selective and sensitive determination of cetirizine (CTZ). Green source carbon dots were firstly derived from orange peels through a microwave method, and had the merits of eco-friendly and low toxicity. Then a thin silica film was formed on the surface of CDs by reverse microemulsion technique, and molecularly imprinted polymer coated on silica-carbon dots. In this scene, CTZ, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) were employed as a template, a functional monomer and cross linker, respectively. The obtained CDs-MIPs can selectively bind CTZ through the specific interaction between recognition sites and template, and obey photoinduced electron transfer fluorescence quenching mechanism. Fluorescence dropped linearly in the range of 0.5-500 ng mL-1, under the optimal conditions, with a detection limit of 0.41 ng mL-1. Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully intended for the determination of trace CTZ in human saliva and urine samples without the interference of other molecules and ions. And recoveries ranged from 95.8% to 99.8% with relative standard deviation less than 3.0%.


Assuntos
Impressão Molecular , Pontos Quânticos , Carbono , Cetirizina , Corantes Fluorescentes , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Polímeros Molecularmente Impressos , Saliva , Dióxido de Silício
7.
Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am ; 34(1): 135-146, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598858

RESUMO

In this chapter, the authors review the benefits of saliva and the destructive consequences of its loss. It is hoped that this will help their colleagues identify and treat patients before development of symptoms. Xerostomia is the subjective complaint of dry mouth or sensation of oral dryness. Hyposalivation is the actual decrease in measured salivary outflow. The authors discuss a compiled list of highly cited medications commonly used today that are linked with xerostomia and hyposalivation. There are numerous treatment modalities that are present, such as saliva substitutes, mouth rinses, sugar-free candy, and pilocarpine among others.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Ardência Bucal , Xerostomia , Síndrome da Ardência Bucal/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Saliva , Xerostomia/induzido quimicamente , Xerostomia/terapia
8.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 266: 120423, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637987

RESUMO

Simple colorimetric biosensor was designed for the quantification SCN- ions based on the principle of colorimetric reactions between Co2+ and SCN- ions reaction using synthesized chromophore (2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-5-yl)(phenyl) methanone (HBPM)/Co2+ ions conjugate which was synthesized via greener ultrawave sonication method. The structural characterization of the HBPM chromophore was confirmed by using NMR, ESI-MASS spectral techniques and the photophysical properties, sensor studies were done by using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. Our designed HBPM/Co2+ ions conjugates have selectively detected SCN- ions qualitatively and quantitatively in the presence of other human salivary interferents. As per clinical point of view, three different ranges of SCN- ions from 0.1 to 2 mM for normal, 3 to 10 mM for disease, and 100-600 µM for below normal ranges were tested successfully by our developed sensor and the LoD was calculated as 5.43 nM. The real potent application of the developed biosensor was tested in human salivary samples of both smokers and non-smokers under different ages and obtained results shown good agreement with existing clinical methods.


Assuntos
Colorimetria , Saliva , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Humanos , Íons , Tiocianatos
9.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e213587, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1254537

RESUMO

Aim: One of the main factors that play a pivotal role in the transmission of COVID-19 from human to human is saliva; according to the subject's importance, the present study aimed to evaluate the potential of transmission via the saliva of coronavirus disease. Methods: PubMed, ISI, Embase, Scopus, Medicine have been used until September 2020 to search for articles. Therefore, EndNote X9 used to manage electronic resources. A 95% confidence interval (CI) effect size, fixed effect model, Inverse-variance methods have been calculated. The positive rate of SARS-CoV2 assessed with meta analysis. To deal with potential heterogeneity, random effects were used, and I2 showed heterogeneity. I2 values above 50% signified moderate-to-high heterogeneity. The Meta-analysis has been evaluated with Stata/MP v.16 (the fastest version of Stata) statistical software. Results: According to the study's purpose, in the initial search with keywords, 19 articles were found, the full text of 3 studies was reviewed, and finally, three studies were selected. The positive rate of SARS-CoV2 was 86% (86%; 95% CI 67 %-100%). Conclusion: saliva can be a non-invasive specimen type for diagnosis of COVID-19. Dentists should be aware that saliva plays a major role in the transmission of COVID-19 from human to human, and failure to follow prevention protocols can contaminate them


Assuntos
Saliva , Serviços de Saúde Bucal , COVID-19
10.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(4): e601, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341249

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has infected over 95 million people worldwide and over 2 million in Colombia. The healthcare personnel (HCP) in our country account for more than 3,800 cases and 197 deaths until January 2021 1. Being a highly contagious virus, it has changed medical practice and exposed HCP who are at risk of becoming victims with every patient they see. The primary routes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 are through respiratory droplets and contact with infected patients or any nearby surfaces or objects which the patient has used. Airborne transmission of the virus is possible when conducting aerosol generating procedures 2. Among HCP, those who are more exposed to aerosols are more vulnerable to get the disease: anesthesiologists, emergency physicians, internists and intensivists, as well as ENT doctors, ophthalmologists, maxillofacial surgeons, head and neck surgeons, dentists, gastroenterologists, pulmonologists, respiratory therapists, scrub nurses, nursing staff, inter alia.


La pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 ha contagiado más de 95 millones de personas en el mundo y más de 2 millones en Colombia. El personal de salud (PS) en nuestro país presenta más de 34.800 casos y 197 muertes a enero de 2021 (1). Su alta contagiosidad llegó para cambiar la manera de ejercer la medicina, exponiendo con cada atención al PS a convertirse en una víctima más. La principal vía de transmisión del SARS-CoV-2 es por gotas respiratorias y por contacto con pacientes infectados o superficies cercanas u objetos que este haya utilizado. La transmisión aérea del virus es posible al efectuarse procedimientos que pueden generar aerosoles (2). Dentro del PS, aquellos que más se exponen a aerosoles son los más vulnerables a adquirir esta enfermedad: anestesiólogos, emergenciólogos, internistas e intensivistas, así como otorrinolaringólogos, oftalmólogos, cirujanos maxilofaciales, cirujanos de cabeza y cuello, odontólogos, gastroenterólogos, neumólogos, terapeutas respiratorios, instrumentadores quirúrgicos y personal de enfermería, entre otros.


Assuntos
Humanos , Povidona-Iodo , COVID-19 , Saliva , Pessoal de Saúde , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 164(11): 753-766, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758951

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Matrices that can be collected non-invasively for quantification of a stress response in sheep have received little attention in the veterinary literature. This study examines the suitability of blood, tears and saliva for determining a stress response in sheep undergoing sham foot trimming on a tilt table. The cortisol concentration of blood, tears and saliva and the concentration of cortisol metabolites in faeces were measured in 13 healthy Meat Merino ewes once a day for six days. Sham foot trimming on a tilt table was used as the stressor and was done during a one-hour period on day 4; cortisol concentrations of blood and tears were measured at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 60 minutes. Cortisol concentrations of blood (maximum at 30 minutes) and tears (maximum at 40 minutes) increased during the procedure and then decreased. There were significant correlations between cortisol concentrations of blood and tears (p = 0,04) during sham foot trimming (area under the curve, 0 to 60 minutes). Over the entire 6-day study period, significant correlations were seen between the cortisol concentrations of blood and tears (r = 0,55; p.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Saliva , Animais , Fezes , Feminino , Ovinos
12.
J Med Invest ; 68(3.4): 280-285, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759145

RESUMO

The administration of Leu57-Leu58-His59-Lys60 (LLHK), Leu58-His59-Lys60 (LHK), and His59-Lys60 (HK) from ß-lactoglobulin C variant, which is specific to Jersey cow milk, has been shown to prevent and/or restore the age-dependent atrophy and functional decline of salivary glands by affecting gene expression in elderly rats. In this study, we investigated the effect of Jersey cow defatted milk on salivary volume and composition in elderly persons. Participants (aged 85 to 98, n = 8) were administered defatted dry milk from Jersey cows twice a day for 4 weeks. Before and after 4 weeks from the start of drinking, saliva was collected and weighed. Salivary cystatin S and amylase levels were analyzed by Western blotting. To assess the effect of Jersey cow defatted milk on taste perception, questionnaires were used. Salivary volume after oral administration of 40 g of Jersey cow defatted dry milk daily for 4 weeks was 1.8 times higher than that before administration. Salivary cystatin S and amylase levels significantly increased after administration of Jersey cow defatted dry milk. Moreover, all participants who had taste impairment reported improved taste perception after administration. The administration of Jersey cow defatted dry milk increased salivary volume and changed the composition of saliva in elderly persons. Furthermore, it improved taste perception. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 280-285, August, 2021.


Assuntos
Lactação , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Projetos Piloto , Ratos , Saliva
13.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 406, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727972

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Salivary cortisol and cortisone are used as biomarkers of physiological stress. Careful sampling of saliva for profiling of awakening response and the diurnal slope can be challenging in free-living environments, and validated sampling protocols are lacking. Therefore, we investigated (1) the level of compliance to a three-day home-based salivary sampling protocol, and (2) the within subject day-to-day variability of cortisol and cortisone outcomes and the required measuring days to obtain high reproducibility. RESULTS: Nineteen healthy adults (mean age: 42, 50% females) participated. Participants collected in total 434 salivary samples out of 456 scheduled (four samples per day over three consecutive days at two time points). We found high level of compliance to the proposed free-living salivary sampling protocol with 18 (95%) and 16 (84%) participants being compliant to numbers and timing of samples, respectively. The area under the curve for the morning salivary samples and peak-to-bed slope had moderate reproducibility for cortisol and cortisone (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.51-0.68, and mean coefficient of variation: 14.7%-75.3%). Three-to-four measuring days were required for high reproducibility of the area under the curve for the morning salivary samples and peak-to-bed slope using this free-living salivary sampling protocol. Trial registration Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03788525).


Assuntos
Cortisona , Adulto , Ritmo Circadiano , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Saliva
14.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 45(5): 330-336, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740262

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aims to determine the relation of salivary LL37 level and mutans streptococci levels in early childhood caries (ECC). STUDY DESIGN: A case-control study was performed in children ≤71 months old. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected and the level of salivary LL37 was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The mutans streptococci oral bacteria were isolated from saliva and identified using a modified SB-20 culture medium (SB-20M). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate, and Spearman's rank correlation analysis. RESULTS: The was a variability of salivary LL37 level among the children and the level was significantly associated with age and races. The median (IQR) value of salivary LL37 in caries-free (CF) children was significantly higher 393.50 (580.55) ng/mL compared to 172.50 (234.65) ng/mL in the ECC group. The ECC children exhibited a significantly higher count of S. mutans and S. sobrinus compared to the CF children. An inverse weak correlation between salivary LL37 and dmft was also observed. CONCLUSIONS: The low salivary LL37 level and higher S. mutans and S. sobrinus count in ECC supported the protective role of salivary LL37 against dental caries. Further studies are required to explore the definite relation between salivary LL37 levels and dental caries.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Humanos , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros , Saliva , Streptococcus mutans
15.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 45(5): 323-329, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740270

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the salivary IgA (immunoglobulin A) and alpha amylase levels in the unstimulated whole saliva samples of caries-free and caries-active children and correlate it with the caries status and age. STUDY DESIGN: The salivary IgA and amylase was investigated in 100 children in the range of 8-12 years divided in two groups, control group (DMFT and/or deft = 0) and study group (DMFT/deft score ≥5). The salivary IgA was measured using kit based on two-site sandwich enzyme immunoassay principle and amylase was estimated using the vitro amyl slides. RESULTS: The mean salivary IgA and amylase levels in the saliva of the children in the control group was found to be significantly increased (p=.001 and p=.014 respectively) whereas the relationship between salivary IgA and amylase levels in the saliva of the children was found to be insignificant with the age (p=.392 and p=.306 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that salivary IgA and amylase levels in saliva increased significantly in caries free children and the level of salivary IgA and alpha amylase has no significant relation with the age of the children.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Imunoglobulina A , Amilases , Criança , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Humanos , Saliva , alfa-Amilases
16.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771026

RESUMO

Early diagnosis with rapid detection of the virus plays a key role in preventing the spread of infection and in treating patients effectively. In order to address the need for a straightforward detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection and assessment of viral spread, we developed rapid, sensitive, extraction-free one-step reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) tests for detecting SARS-CoV-2 in saliva. We analyzed over 700 matched pairs of saliva and nasopharyngeal swab (NSB) specimens from asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. Saliva, as either an oral cavity swab or passive drool, was collected in an RNA stabilization buffer. The stabilized saliva specimens were heat-treated and directly analyzed without RNA extraction. The diagnostic sensitivity of saliva-based RT-qPCR was at least 95% in individuals with subclinical infection and outperformed RT-LAMP, which had at least 70% sensitivity when compared to NSBs analyzed with a clinical RT-qPCR test. The diagnostic sensitivity for passive drool saliva was higher than that of oral cavity swab specimens (95% and 87%, respectively). A rapid, sensitive one-step extraction-free RT-qPCR test for detecting SARS-CoV-2 in passive drool saliva is operationally simple and can be easily implemented using existing testing sites, thus allowing high-throughput, rapid, and repeated testing of large populations. Furthermore, saliva testing is adequate to detect individuals in an asymptomatic screening program and can help improve voluntary screening compliance for those individuals averse to various forms of nasal collections.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Teste para COVID-19/métodos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , RNA/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Saliva/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769677

RESUMO

This review aims to clarify the nature of the link between Alzheimer's disease and the oral microbiome on an epidemiological and pathophysiological level, as well as to highlight new therapeutic perspectives that contribute to the management of this disease. We performed a systematic review, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews checklist, from January 2000 to July 2021. The terms "plaque," "saliva," and "mouth" were associated with the search term "oral diseases" and used in combination with the Boolean operator "AND"/"OR". We included experimental or clinical studies and excluded conferences, abstracts, reviews, and editorials. A total of 27 articles were selected. Evidence for the impact of the oral microbiome on the pathophysiological and immunoinflammatory mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease is accumulating. The impact of the oral microbiome on the development of AD opens the door to complementary therapies such as phototherapy and/or the use of prebiotic compounds and probiotic strains for global or targeted modulation of the oral microbiome in order to have a favourable influence on the evolution of this pathology in the future.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Microbiota , Doenças da Boca , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Humanos , Doenças da Boca/terapia , Saliva
18.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 7(1): 81, 2021 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795298

RESUMO

The oral microbiome has been connected with lung health and may be of significance in the progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Saliva-based SARS-CoV-2 tests provide the opportunity to leverage stored samples for assessing the oral microbiome. However, these collection kits have not been tested for their accuracy in measuring the oral microbiome. Saliva is highly enriched with human DNA and reducing it prior to shotgun sequencing may increase the depth of bacterial reads. We examined both the effect of saliva collection method and sequence processing on measurement of microbiome depth and diversity by 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun metagenomics. We collected 56 samples from 22 subjects. Each subject provided saliva samples with and without preservative, and a subset provided a second set of samples the following day. 16S rRNA gene (V4) sequencing was performed on all samples, and shotgun metagenomics was performed on a subset of samples collected with preservative with and without human DNA depletion before sequencing. We observed that the beta diversity distances within subjects over time was smaller than between unrelated subjects, and distances within subjects were smaller in samples collected with preservative. Samples collected with preservative had higher alpha diversity measuring both richness and evenness. Human DNA depletion before extraction and shotgun sequencing yielded higher total and relative reads mapping to bacterial sequences. We conclude that collecting saliva with preservative may provide more consistent measures of the oral microbiome and depleting human DNA increases yield of bacterial sequences.


Assuntos
Microbiota/genética , Saliva/microbiologia , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , COVID-19/genética , DNA/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenoma/genética , Metagenômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21768, 2021 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741099

RESUMO

Rapid design, screening, and characterization of biorecognition elements (BREs) is essential for the development of diagnostic tests and antiviral therapeutics needed to combat the spread of viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To address this need, we developed a high-throughput pipeline combining in silico design of a peptide library specific for SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and microarray screening to identify binding sequences. Our optimized microarray platform allowed the simultaneous screening of ~ 2.5 k peptides and rapid identification of binding sequences resulting in selection of four peptides with nanomolar affinity to the SARS-CoV-2 S protein. Finally, we demonstrated the successful integration of one of the top peptides into an electrochemical sensor with a clinically relevant limit of detection for S protein in spiked saliva. Our results demonstrate the utility of this novel pipeline for the selection of peptide BREs in response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, and the broader application of such a platform in response to future viral threats.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Técnicas de Química Combinatória , Peptídeos/química , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , COVID-19/virologia , Biologia Computacional , Eletroquímica/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Interferometria , Cinética , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Engenharia de Proteínas , Saliva/imunologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22493, 2021 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795308

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has infected millions worldwide, therefore there is an urgent need to increase our diagnostic capacity to identify infected cases. Although RT-qPCR remains the gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 detection, this method requires specialised equipment in a diagnostic laboratory and has a long turn-around time to process the samples. To address this, several groups have recently reported the development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) as a simple, low cost and rapid method for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Herein we present a comparative analysis of three LAMP-based assays that target different regions of the SARS-CoV-2: ORF1ab RdRP, ORF1ab nsp3 and Gene N. We perform a detailed assessment of their sensitivity, kinetics and false positive rates for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics in LAMP or RT-LAMP reactions, using colorimetric or fluorescent detection. Our results independently validate that all three assays can detect SARS-CoV-2 in 30 min, with robust accuracy at detecting as little as 1000 RNA copies and the results can be visualised simply by color changes. Incorporation of RT-LAMP with fluorescent detection further increases the detection sensitivity to as little as 100 RNA copies. We also note the shortcomings of some LAMP-based assays, including variable results with shorter reaction time or lower load of SARS-CoV-2, and false positive results in some experimental conditions and clinical saliva samples. Overall for RT-LAMP detection, the ORF1ab RdRP and ORF1ab nsp3 assays have faster kinetics for detection but varying degrees of false positives detection, whereas the Gene N assay exhibits no false positives in 30 min reaction time, which highlights the importance of optimal primer design to minimise false-positives in RT-LAMP. This study provides validation of the performance of LAMP-based assays as a rapid, highly sensitive detection method for SARS-CoV-2, which have important implications in development of point-of-care diagnostics for SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Saliva/metabolismo , Adulto , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saliva/virologia
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