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1.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 126-129, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060046

RESUMO

Considering the issues of shortage of medical resources and the invasiveness and infection risk involved in the collection of nasopharyngeal swab specimens, there is a need for an effective alternative test specimen for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection. Here, we investigated suitability of saliva as a non-invasively obtained specimen for molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in Japanese patients with COVID-19. In total, 28 paired clinical specimens of saliva and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 12 patients at various time points after symptom onset. Each specimen was assayed using reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) on the BD MAX open system using primers and probes targeting the N-gene. The saliva and nasopharyngeal swab specimens showed 19 and 15 positive results, respectively. No invalid (PCR inhibition) result was observed for any specimen. The qualitative results of each specimen obtained in the period immediately after symptom onset were similar. Three convalescent patients presented saliva-positive results, whereas their nasopharyngeal swabs were negative at four different time points, suggesting that saliva may be superior to nasopharyngeal swabs in terms of obtaining stable assay result of SARS-CoV-2. In conclusion, our results suggest that saliva can potentially serve as an alternative to nasopharyngeal swabs as a specimen for SARS-CoV-2 rRT-PCR. As saliva can be collected by patients themselves, it may be an effective way to overcome the shortage of personal protective equipment and specimen sampling tools.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/virologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Humanos , Japão , Pandemias , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
2.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 1017-1023, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215493

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the oral colonisation potential after four weeks' administration of Lactobacillus reuteri and to examine the short-term effect of probiotics on salivary Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group comprised 13 young adults who volunteered after receiving verbal and written information. The short-term prospective clinical trial lasted 9 weeks, consisting of a 4-week intervention period with administration twice daily and a 5-week post-administration follow-up period with no probiotic consumption. Saliva and dental biofilm samples were obtained immediately before probiotic administration, after 2 weeks and after 4 weeks of L. reuteri administration. Follow-up samples were collected once every week on a regular basis after administration was terminated. The numbers of salivary S. mutans and lactobacilli were assessed by regular plating, while the presence of the two L. reuteri strains in saliva and dental biofilm was evaluated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). RESULTS: The occurrence of L. reuteri in the oral cavity increased gradually during the intervention period and reached the maximum level after four weeks of probiotic administration (p < 0.0001). The 4-week samples of stimulated whole saliva showed a statistically significant decrease in the number of S. mutans and a statistically significant increase in the salivary lactobacilli level in comparison to baseline. qPCR showed that the DSM 17938 strain has better colonisation for both saliva and dental biofilm than the ATCC PTA 5289 strain at the nine-week follow-up. CONCLUSION: Probiotics have the ability to colonise the oral cavity during usage, but it gradually disappears after the completion of intake. It also has ability to decrease the number of salivary S. mutans.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus reuteri , Probióticos , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Lactobacillus , Estudos Prospectivos , Saliva , Streptococcus mutans , Adulto Jovem
3.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 127(10): 551-555, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156296

RESUMO

Saliva is of crucial importance to the quality of life and oral health in particular. Saliva is secreted by the different salivary glands and contains a large variety of biomolecules, including proteins, peptides and other substances involved in protecting oral tissue. The most versatile salivary proteins are the mucins. These glycoproteins play a role in many different processes, including protection, defence, food processing and lubrication. In addition, saliva contains complementary antimicrobial proteins that keep the oral microbiome in check in a healthy mouth. The salivary peptide histatin plays an important role in wound healing by inducing cells at the edges of a wound to close the wound by cell migration and cell stretching. The management of saliva secretion is a complex process and includes an interplay between the nervous system, stimulators such as chewing and taste, and inhibitory factors such as stress, pain and (negative) emotions. The importance of saliva to oral health becomes especially clear when saliva production has been chronically inhibited or has ceased entirely, for example, as a result of the adverse effects of polypharmacy, in patients undergoing radiotherapy in the head and neck area or those suffering from Sjögren's syndrome. Loss of the protective effect of saliva makes teeth more vulnerable to various disorders. Ideally, the general dental practice should pay more attention to patients suffering from dry mouth and related care.


Assuntos
Histatinas , Saliva , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Qualidade de Vida , Salivação
4.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 127(10): 561-566, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156298

RESUMO

In hospitals, blood is still the gold standard in diagnostics, but outside hospitals saliva is used more and more. Collecting saliva is not invasive and is therefore easier, safer and cheaper than drawing blood. Saliva secretion itself is also a diagnostic parameter. A low saliva secretion rate may indicate an underlying disease such as Sjögren syndrome and is a risk factor for the occurrence of caries, dental erosion, Candida infections and is associated with upper respiratory tract infections in athletes. Unlike blood, saliva can be collected independently of qualified staff. Saliva can then be sent to laboratories where it can be screened for inherited diseases or virus infections like Covid-19. Tests for which saliva does not need to be sent away but can be processed on site, like pregnancy tests or HIV tests, which are already commercially available, are even easier. The rapid development of biosensors in combination with mobile phone based health apps will lead to new possibilities for saliva diagnostics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Cárie Dentária , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saliva , Betacoronavirus , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Saliva/química , Saliva/virologia
5.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 44(4): 240-248, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167017

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of different enamel conditioning protocols and their re-application on the microleakage of fissure sealants placed following saliva contamination. STUDY DESIGN: The study included 156 human third molars in 16 subgroups (2×4×2) under two main groups (sealant type): Group A- hydrophobic resin sealant, 3M Clinpro™ Sealant; Group B- hydrophilic resin sealant, Ultraseal XT Hydro. Each group was then divided according to the type of surface conditioning; 1- Er,Cr:YSSG laser etching, 2- acid-etching, 3- acid-etching+etch-and-rinse adhesive (Prime&Bond® One Select) and 4- self-etching adhesive (Clearfil™ SE Bond). After contaminating the conditioned occlusal enamel surfaces with artificial saliva, fissure sealant was applied in half of the specimens (a), whereas in the other half, (b) the respective surface conditioning was repeated and then fissure sealant was placed. Following thermocycling, the samples were immersed in basic fuchsin, sectioned, and dye penetration was quantitatively assessed with ImageJ. Two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc tests were used for statistical analyses (p<0.05). RESULTS: The least microleakage was observed in A3b and A3a, whereas B4b and B4a were the subgroups with the highest microleakage. Following saliva contamination, when surface conditioning was not re-applied, the effects of fissure sealant types and surface conditioning were significant (p=0.005 and p<0.001, respectively). However, their interaction was insignificant (p=0.173). When surface conditioning was re-applied after saliva contamination, the effects of type of fissure sealant and surface conditioning (p=0.000, for both) and their interaction (p=0.004) were significant. CONCLUSIONS: 3M Clinpro™ Sealant was superior to Ultraseal XT Hydro. Re-application of Er,Cr:YSSG laser and the self-etching adhesive did not affect the microleakage of both fissure sealants. Without re-application, acid-etching+etch-and-rinse adhesive was superior to acid-etching only. However, both of them were similarly successful when they were re-applied following saliva contamination.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Infiltração Dentária , Condicionamento Ácido do Dente , Esmalte Dentário , Infiltração Dentária/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras , Saliva
6.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 127(10): 525-531, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156293

RESUMO

Saliva does more than merely contribute to the digestion of food. It is essential to the health of the oral cavity and with that, indirectly, of the entire body. In the 1970s and 1980s, the most important proteins and peptides in saliva were identified and characterised. For example, mucins MUC5B and MUC7, proline-rich proteins, cystatins and histatins are now known to the level of the amino acid sequence and molecular structure. The associated physical properties indicate how these proteins carry out their protective function. Sometimes, however, this information can mislead science because the relationship between property and function is not necessarily unambiguous. In addition, unexpected properties are sometimes discovered compelling scientists to re-evaluate critically the transition from physical property to physiological function. In certain cases, this has led to perceiving the (possible) function of these proteins in a completely different light.


Assuntos
Saliva , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Humanos , Mucina-5B , Mucinas
7.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 127(10): 533-542, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156294

RESUMO

Three patients who were referred to the saliva of the Center for Special Care Dentistry (Stichting Bijzondere Tandheelkunde, SBT) in Amsterdam clearly demonstrate that in the case of patients suffering from xerostomia, it can be useful to have the saliva secretion rate determined and to take saliva into account in the aetiology and in developing a dental treatment plan. In the first case, a 39-year-old woman presented with dry mouth associated with Sjögren's syndrome. A fair degree of saliva secretion was still possible. The teeth were characterised by wear, caries lesions and sensitivity. The second patient was a 42-year-old man suffering from dry mouth associated with the use of medications. His teeth were weakened to the point of deciding to create conventional full dentures, despite a possible moderate prognosis due to oral dryness. The third patient, a 79-year-old woman, was suffering from severe dry mouth, associated with Sjögren's syndrome. Due to the ruinous condition of her teeth and extreme dry mouth, the decision was made to remove the remaining dentition and insert implant-retained dentures.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Sjogren , Xerostomia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saliva , Síndrome de Sjogren/complicações , Síndrome de Sjogren/diagnóstico , Xerostomia/etiologia
8.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 127(10): 557-560, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156297

RESUMO

Halitosis (bad breath) is caused by a number of volatiles originating, in most cases, in the oral cavity (intra-oral halitosis). These unpleasant smelling gases are volatile sulphur compounds such as hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide secreted as a result of bacterial metabolism. Bacteria on the tongue dorsum, as well as oral pathologies such as gingivitis and periodontitis, are the main causes of intra-oral halitosis. Saliva has a number of functions that can affect intra-oral halitosis, such as mechanical cleaning, moistening of the oral cavity and antibacterial properties. Very low secretion of saliva (hyposalivation) can affect intra-oral halitosis.


Assuntos
Halitose , Halitose/etiologia , Humanos , Saliva , Compostos de Enxofre , Língua
9.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 127(10): 567-571, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156299

RESUMO

Saliva is a very multifaceted fluid with many different functions and it plays an essential role in oral health. With an aging population, dental professionals will increasingly be confronted with patients with reduced saliva secretion (hyposalivation) or dry mouth (xerostomia). Clinical symptoms as a result of dry mouth vary from mild to severe damage to the hard and soft tissues. Therefore it is important to establish whether a patient is suffering from hyposalivation and if so, whether the patient is able to activate the saliva secretion. Based on saliva testing, hyposalivation and dry mouth can be diagnosed in the general dental practice and be taken into account in prevention and treatment plans.


Assuntos
Saliva , Xerostomia , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Xerostomia/diagnóstico
10.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 127(10): 573-580, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156300

RESUMO

The relationship between xerostomia and reduced saliva secretion is known to occur in patients suffering from dry mouth. These are mainly (frail) older people experiencing reduced saliva secretion as a result of the use of medication. In the current research, we investigated whether the severity of xerostomia could be used as predictor for saliva secretion in young adults. 369 dentistry students participated in this study, of whom 33.4% were male and 66.6% were female, with an average age of 20.2 ± 2.4 years. It was found that the severity of xerostomia in the young adult students had a weak correlation with the unstimulated saliva secretion rate. This indicates that dry mouth complaints in this age group are not a good predictor for saliva secretion. In addition, it is concluded that hyposalivation is not restricted to older people or to specific patient groups, but that even among a trial population of young adults, individuals can suffer from dry mouth and/or reduced saliva secretion.


Assuntos
Saliva , Xerostomia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Taxa Secretória , Xerostomia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Trials ; 21(1): 906, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: - To describe the evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 salivary viral load of patients infected with Covid-19, performing 7 days of tri-daily mouthwashes with and without antivirals. - To compare the evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 nasal and salivary viral load according to the presence or absence of antivirals in the mouthwash. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a multi-center, randomised controlled trial (RCT) with two parallel arms (1:1 ratio). PARTICIPANTS: Inclusion criteria - Age: 18-85 years old - Clinical diagnosis of Covid-19 infection - Clinical signs have been present for less than 8 days - Virological confirmation - Understanding and acceptance of the trial - Written agreement to participate in the trial Exclusion criteria - Pregnancy, breastfeeding, inability to comply with protocol, lack of written agreement - Patients using mouthwash on a regular basis (more than once a week) - Patient at risk of infectious endocarditis - Patients unable to answer questions - Uncooperative patient The clinical trial is being conducted with the collaboration of three French hospital centers: Hospital Center Emile Roux (Le Puy en Velay, France), Clinic of the Protestant Infirmary (Lyon, France) and Intercommunal Hospital Center (Mont de Marsan, France). INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Eligible participants will be allocated to one of the two study groups. Intervention group: patients perform a tri-daily mouthwash with mouthwash containing antivirals (ß-cyclodextrin and Citrox®) for a period of 7 days. CONTROL GROUP: patients perform a tri-daily mouthwash with a placebo mouthwash for a period of 7 days. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary Outcome Measures: Change from Baseline amount of SARS-CoV-2 in salivary samples at 4 and 9 hours, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 days. Real-time PCR assays are performed to assess salivary SARS-CoV 2 viral load. SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Change from Baseline amount of SARS-CoV-2 virus in nasal samples at 6 days. Real-time PCR assays are performed to assess nasal SARS-CoV-2 viral load. RANDOMISATION: Participants meeting all eligibility requirements are allocated to one of the two study arms (mouthwash with ß-cyclodextrin and Citrox® or mouthwash without ß-cyclodextrin and Citrox®) in a 1:1 ratio using simple randomisation with computer generated random numbers. BLINDING (MASKING): Participants, doctors and nurses caring for participants, laboratory technicians and investigators assessing the outcomes will be blinded to group assignment. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): Both the intervention and control groups will be composed of 103 participants, so the study will include a total of 206 participants. TRIAL STATUS: The current protocol version is 6, August 4th, 2020. Recruitment began on April 6, 2020 and is anticipated to be complete by April 5, 2021. As of October 2, 2020, forty-two participants have been included. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered on 20 April 2020 at www.clinicaltrials.gov with the number NCT04352959 . FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol." The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2)."


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Antissépticos Bucais , Cavidade Nasal/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saliva/virologia , Adulto , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Antissépticos Bucais/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral , beta-Ciclodextrinas/administração & dosagem , beta-Ciclodextrinas/efeitos adversos
12.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(42): 3291-3295, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202489

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the consistency of different measurement methods of saliva 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) in different glucose metabolism populations. Methods: From January 2018 to June 2019, 175 healthy volunteers (21-65 years, 58 males and 117 females) with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 80 diabetic patients (18-70 years, 44 males and 36 females) were enrolled in Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital. Saliva was collected by saliva collection tube, and 1,5-AG was measured using both enzymatic and mass spectrometry methods. Serum 1,5-AG was determined by enzymatic method. Results: In NGT subjects, both serum and saliva 1,5-AG levels detected by enzymatic method were positively correlated with the saliva 1,5-AG levels detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (r=0.247 and 0.523, respectively, both P<0.05). However, there was no significant correlation between saliva and serum 1,5-AG levels detected by enzymatic method (r=-0.074, P=0.333). In diabetic patients, both serum and saliva 1,5-AG levels detected by enzymatic method were positively correlated with the saliva 1,5-AG levels detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (r=0.284 and 0.423, respectively, both P<0.05). However, there was no significant correlation between saliva and serum 1,5-AG levels detected by enzymatic method (r=-0.079, P=0.487). Conclusions: Both serum and saliva 1,5-AG levels detected by enzymatic method have a good consistency with saliva 1,5-AG levels detected by mass spectrometry method. The saliva and serum 1,5-AG levels detected by enzymatic method are not well correlated, and thus the enzymatic detection of saliva 1,5-AG needs further improvement in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Saliva , China , Desoxiglucose , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Braz Dent J ; 31(5): 466-470, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146328

RESUMO

Homeostasis between salivary calcium and phosphorus is important for maintaining oral health. The aim of this study was to evaluate if polymorphisms in ESR1 (Estrogen Receptor Alpha), ESR2 (Estrogen Receptor Beta) and miRNA17 (microRNA17) are associated with calcium and phosphorus levels in saliva. Saliva from 276 12-year-old children were collected by masticatory stimulation and calcium and phosphorus levels were determined by Mass Spectrometry. Genomic DNA was extracted from remaining saliva and genetic polymorphisms in ESR1 (rs12154178, rs1884051, rs9340799 and rs2234693), in ESR2 (rs4986938 and rs1256049) and in miRNA17 (rs4284505) were genotyped using TaqMan chemistry and a real-time PCR equipment. Statistical differences in genotype and allele distributions between 'low' and 'high' calcium and phosphorus levels were determined using chi-square or Fisher´s exact tests. The analysis was also adjusted by sex (alpha of 5%). ESR1 rs9340799 had the less common genotype associated with higher calcium levels (p=0.03). The less common allele of ESR1 rs1884051 was associated with lower phosphorus levels (p=0.005) and there was an excess of heterozygotes for miRNA17 rs4284505 among individuals with lower calcium levels (p=0.002), both adjusted by sex. This study provides evidence that genetic polymorphisms in ESR1 and miRNA17 are involved in determining salivary calcium and phosphorus levels.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio , MicroRNAs , Criança , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Fósforo , Polimorfismo Genético , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Saliva
14.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(10): 1111-1114, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131229

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate cytomegalovirus detoxification and associated factors among preschool children in Yinan County, Shandong Province. Methods: Two kindergartens were selected from the county and township of Yinan respectively. A total of 250 children were investigated in October 2018. Case information was obtained through the child's guardian. Saliva samples of children and their mothers were collected for cytomegalovirus realtime-PCR detection.The status of CMV detoxification of children was explored and the associated factors were analyzed. Results: A total of 242 preschool children were investigated, and the detoxification rate of cytomegalovirus among them was 22.31% (54/242, 95%CI: 17.0%-27.6%). Logistic regression analysis showed that the rate of detoxification was higher in children whose mothers were cytomegalovirus detoxified (OR=12.39, 95%CI:1.73-88.65)and whose school was located in the county (OR=3.58, 95%CI:1.34-9.55). Conclusions: The detoxification rate of cytomegalovirus in preschool children is high, and there is mutual transmission between children and mothers. Women of childbearing age should pay attention to prevent congenital cytomegalovirus infection when they come into contact with children.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Citomegalovirus , Pré-Escolar , Citomegalovirus/genética , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mães , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Saliva
15.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 158(5): 759-766, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131565

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of digital models in orthodontics is becoming increasingly widespread. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and performance of digital intraoral scanning under 4 different intraoral environmental conditions. METHODS: Four digital models were acquired with TRIOS intraoral scanner (3Shape, Copenhagen, Denmark) for 50 subjects. A total of 200 digital models were divided into 4 groups as follows: daylight and saliva (group 1), daylight with saliva isolation (group 2), reflector light and saliva (group 3), and relatively dark oral environment and saliva (group 4). The 4 digital models were superimposed, and the edges of the models were trimmed to create common boundaries (Geomagic Control X; 3D Systems, Rock Hill, SC). Group 2 models were used as a reference and superimposed separately with the models of the other 3 groups. Deviations between corresponding models were compared as means of negative deviation, means of positive deviation, in total area, out total area, positively positioned areas, and negatively positioned areas. In addition, all groups were compared in terms of scanning time, the total number of images, and the mesiodistal width of teeth. RESULTS: Overlapping of group 1 with the reference model (group 2), a surface deviation of 13.1% (out total area) was observed. This analysis revealed that a 13% deviation was caused by the presence of saliva alone. This rate was 12.6% in group 3 and 15.5% in group 4, respectively. The values for means of negative deviation were -55 µ in group 1,-63 µ in group 3, and -68 µ in group 4. Means of positive deviation values were distributed among groups as follows: 68 µ in group 1, 69 µ in group 3, and 78 µ in group 4. The total number of images was observed, at least in group 4. CONCLUSIONS: The intraoral scanner performance was affected by different environmental conditions, and that caused variations on the surface of digital models. However, the performance of the intraoral scanner was independent of the scanning time and mesiodistal width of the teeth.


Assuntos
Técnica de Moldagem Odontológica , Saliva , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Modelos Dentários , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional
17.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal ; 25(6): e818-e826, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Besides dental erosion syndrome, other oral syndromes could benefit from the stimulation of salivary secretion, in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). Our aims is evaluate the improvement of oral extra-oesophageal manifestations in patients with GORD using xylitol-malic acid tablets to stimulate salivary secretion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The effectiveness of salivary stimulation using xylitol-malic acid tablets (as a supplement to omeprazole 40 mg/day) was assessed in a clinical trial (n = 14) lasting six months with patients with prior positive pH-metry, through GORD extra-oesophageal clinical signs, GerdQ and RDQ questionnaires, odontological variables, basal salivary secretion, stimulated salivary secretion, pH and buffer capacity, mucosal erythema index and dental wear. STATISTICS: chi-square (Haberman post-hoc), ANOVA, and Mann-Whitney U; variables between visits were evaluated with McNemar's Student's t and Wilcoxon tests; p < 0.05. RESULTS: 100% of patients not taking xylitol-malic acid presented xerostomia, but only 14.3% of patients taking xylitol-malic acid (p < 0.01) did. The mean saliva-buffer capacity at the last visit for patients not taking xylitol-malic acid was 2.14 ± 0.38, versus 2.71 ± 0.49 for patients taking xylitol-malic acid (p < 0.05). Retro-sternal burning (p < 0.05), heartburn (p < 0.05) and regurgitation (p < 0.05) were also reduced. CONCLUSIONS: Xylitol-malic acid tablets improve quality of life among patients with GORD, by reducing dry mouth, increasing saliva buffering and reducing heartburn, retro-sternal burning and regurgitation.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Malatos , Saliva , Xilitol , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Malatos/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Saliva/metabolismo , Comprimidos , Xilitol/uso terapêutico
18.
Oecologia ; 194(3): 383-390, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083848

RESUMO

Megaherbivores have been of particular interest to scientists because of the physiological and ecological challenges associated with their extreme body size. Yet, one question that has seldom been explored is how browsing megaherbivores cope with plant secondary metabolites (PSMs), such as tannins, found in their food. It is possible that the sheer body size of these megaherbivores allows them to ingest tannins with no deleterious effects. However, it is plausible that megaherbivores must rely on other mechanisms to cope with PSMs, such as the production of salivary tannin-binding proteins. Thus, we aimed to determine whether megaherbivore browsers produce tannin-binding proteins to further reduce the consequences of ingesting a tannin-rich diet. Using a series of laboratory assays, we explored whether elephants, black rhinoceros, and giraffe had tannin-binding proteins in their saliva. We tested for the presence of proline-rich proteins in the saliva using two different approaches: (1) SDS-PAGE using Laemmli's (Laemmli, Nature 227:680-685, 1970) destaining method, and (2) comparative SDS-PAGE gels using Beeley et al.'s (Beeley et al. Electrophoresis 12:493-499, 1991) method for staining and destaining to probe for proline-rich proteins. Then, to test for the tannin-binding affinity of their saliva, we performed an inhibition assay. We did not observe proline-rich proteins in any of the megaherbivore species, but they did have other protein(s) in their saliva that have a high tannin-binding affinity. Our results highlight that, despite their large body sizes, and their abilities to tolerate low-quality food, browsing megaherbivores have likely evolved tannin-binding proteins as a way of coping with the negative effects of tannins.


Assuntos
Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares , Taninos , Animais , Dieta , Perissodáctilos , Saliva
19.
JAMA ; 324(14): 1406-1418, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048154

RESUMO

Importance: Persistent smoking may cause adverse outcomes among patients with cancer. Many cancer centers have not fully implemented evidence-based tobacco treatment into routine care. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of sustained telephone counseling and medication (intensive treatment) compared with shorter-term telephone counseling and medication advice (standard treatment) to assist patients recently diagnosed with cancer to quit smoking. Design, Setting, and Participants: This unblinded randomized clinical trial was conducted at Massachusetts General Hospital/Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Adults who had smoked 1 cigarette or more within 30 days, spoke English or Spanish, and had recently diagnosed breast, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, gynecological, head and neck, lung, lymphoma, or melanoma cancers were eligible. Enrollment occurred between November 2013 and July 2017; assessments were completed by the end of February 2018. Interventions: Participants randomized to the intensive treatment (n = 153) and the standard treatment (n = 150) received 4 weekly telephone counseling sessions and medication advice. The intensive treatment group also received 4 biweekly and 3 monthly telephone counseling sessions and choice of Food and Drug Administration-approved cessation medication (nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, or varenicline). Main Outcome and Measures: The primary outcome was biochemically confirmed 7-day point prevalence tobacco abstinence at 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes were treatment utilization rates. Results: Among 303 patients who were randomized (mean age, 58.3 years; 170 women [56.1%]), 221 (78.1%) completed the trial. Six-month biochemically confirmed quit rates were 34.5% (n = 51 in the intensive treatment group) vs 21.5% (n = 29 in the standard treatment group) (difference, 13.0% [95% CI, 3.0%-23.3%]; odds ratio, 1.92 [95% CI, 1.13-3.27]; P < .02). The median number of counseling sessions completed was 8 (interquartile range, 4-11) in the intensive treatment group. A total of 97 intensive treatment participants (77.0%) vs 68 standard treatment participants (59.1%) reported cessation medication use (difference, 17.9% [95% CI, 6.3%-29.5%]; odds ratio, 2.31 [95% CI, 1.32-4.04]; P = .003). The most common adverse events in the intensive treatment and standard treatment groups, respectively, were nausea (n = 13 and n = 6), rash (n = 4 and n = 1), hiccups (n = 4 and n = 1), mouth irritation (n = 4 and n = 0), difficulty sleeping (n = 3 and n = 2), and vivid dreams (n = 3 and n = 2). Conclusions and Relevance: Among smokers recently diagnosed with cancer in 2 National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers, sustained counseling and provision of free cessation medication compared with 4-week counseling and medication advice resulted in higher 6-month biochemically confirmed quit rates. However, the generalizability of the study findings is uncertain and requires further research. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01871506.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Temperança/psicologia , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Idoso , Bupropiona/efeitos adversos , Bupropiona/uso terapêutico , Cotinina/análise , Aconselhamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Entrevista Motivacional , Satisfação do Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes , Saliva/química , Fumar/tratamento farmacológico , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/efeitos adversos , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/uso terapêutico , Telefone , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Vareniclina/efeitos adversos , Vareniclina/uso terapêutico
20.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 29(4): 396-399, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089289

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the changes of salivary composition, flow and dry mouth in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma after parotid sparing modulated radiation therapy. METHODS: One hundred and one patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma who received radiotherapy in Qingyang People's Hospital from May 2016 to November 2018 were selected and divided into intensity modulated radiation group(n=54) and conventional radiation group(n=47) according to different treatment methods. The clinicopathological parameters, parotid uptake index, salivary composition, dry mouth, oropharyngeal symptoms and grading were compared between the two groups. The data were analyzed with SPSS 20.0 software package. RESULTS: The tumor site, TNM stage and differentiation had no significant difference between the two groups(P>0.05). The concentration of total protein, secretory IgA, calcium and phosphorus in saliva of patients in intensity modulated radiation therapy group were significantly higher than those in conventional radiation group(P<0.05). The parotid uptake index, secretion index and salivary flow velocity were significantly decreased in both groups(P<0.05), and were significantly lower in the conventional radiation group than in the intensity modulated radiation group(P<0.05). Dry mouth condition in intensity modulated radiation group was significantly better than that in conventional radiation group(P<0.05). After treatment, the ratio of pharyngalgia and dysphagia patients in the intensity modulated radiation group was significantly lower than that in the conventional radiation group(P<0.05). The degree of oropharyngeal grading in the intensity modulated radiation therapy group was significantly better than that in the conventional radiation group(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The application of parotid sparing retention modulated radiation therapy has little effect on salivary composition, flow rate and dry mouth, and has obvious protective effect on parotid secretion.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Xerostomia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Humanos , Glândula Parótida , Saliva , Xerostomia/prevenção & controle
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