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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26757, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397819

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The role of cognitive, social and biological factors in the etiology of chronic periodontitis has been reported.The aim of this study was to evaluate the salivary cortisol level and interleukin-1 B level in patients of Chronic periodontitis in smokers and stress and nonsmokers without stress.The design of study randomized, prospective, double-blinded, and prospective study.The total sample size was comprised of 600 subjects between the ages of 20 and 50 years. The sample size was divided into 300 males and 300 females. Out of 600 subjects, 200 subjects comprised of subjects with chronic periodontitis with positive depression level with a history of smoking (Group I), 200 subjects comprised of subjects with chronic periodontitis without depression and without smoking (Group II), and 200 subjects who were taken as the control group comprised of healthy subjects without chronic periodontitis, without depression level, and no smoking history (Group III). Salivary cortisol levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The result showed that there was a positive correlation between morning and evening salivary cortisol level in all the groups with correlation coefficient. There was significant higher value of salivary cortisol in Group I patients when compared with Group II and Group III. However, when the comparison of salivary cortisol levels was done between the Group II and Control group, the result showed nonsignificant P value.It is suggested that stress is positively correlated with the salivary cortisol levels in smokers and nonsmokers.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica/sangue , Hidrocortisona/análise , Interleucina-1beta/análise , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Periodontite Crônica/diagnóstico , Periodontite Crônica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Saliva/enzimologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
2.
Vet J ; 273: 105679, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148602

RESUMO

Salivary biomarkers were studied in 17 healthy Large White sows from early gestation to the end of lactation. Saliva samples were obtained at 34 ± 3 days from insemination (G30), 24 ± 4 days before farrowing (G90), within the first 24 h after farrowing (L1) and at the end of a lactation period of 21 days (L21). The measurements in saliva included stress-related biomarkers (cortisol, chromogranin A, α-amylase, butyrylcholinesterase [BChE] and lipase [Lip]), inflammatory biomarkers (adenosine deaminase isoenzymes 1 [ADA1] and 2 [ADA2], and haptoglobin [Hp]) and oxidative stress biomarkers (cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing ability, uric acid, advanced oxidation protein products [AOPP] and hydrogen peroxide [H2O2]), as well as routine biochemistry analytes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alkaline phosphatase [ALP], γ-glutamine transferase [GGT], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], creatine kinase [CK], urea, creatinine, triglycerides, lactate, calcium and phosphorus). The main changes were observed at farrowing, with increases in biomarkers of stress (cortisol and BChE), inflammation (ADA isoenzymes and Hp) and oxidative stress (AOPP and H2O2), as well as muscle and hepatic enzymes (CK, AST, ALP, GGT and LDH). Lactate and triglycerides increased at the end of gestation and remained at high concentrations until the end of lactation. Lip was higher in gestation than at lactation. Thus, changes in biomarkers of stress, immune function, oxidative stress, hepatic and muscle integrity, and energy mobilization occur in sow saliva during pregnancy, farrowing and lactation. These changes, caused by physiological conditions, should be taken into consideration when these biomarkers are used for the evaluation of sow health and welfare.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Lactação/fisiologia , Gravidez/fisiologia , Saliva/química , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Animais , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Inflamação , Estresse Oxidativo , Parto/fisiologia , Saliva/enzimologia
3.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(9): 1592-1599, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908223

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to validate a commercially available automated assay for the measurement of total adenosine deaminase (tADA) and its isoenzymes (ADA1 and ADA2) in saliva in a fast and accurate way, and evaluate the possible changes of these analytes in individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: The validation, in addition to the evaluation of precision and accuracy, included the analysis of the effects of the main procedures that are currently being used for SARS-CoV-2 inactivation in saliva and a pilot study to evaluate the possible changes in salivary tADA and isoenzymes in individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: The automated assay proved to be accurate and precise, with intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation below 8.2%, linearity under dilution linear regression with R2 close to 1, and recovery percentage between 80 and 120% in all cases. This assay was affected when the sample is treated with heat or SDS for virus inactivation but tolerated Triton X-100 and NP-40. Individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection (n=71) and who recovered from infection (n=11) had higher mean values of activity of tADA and its isoenzymes than healthy individuals (n=35). CONCLUSIONS: tADA and its isoenzymes ADA1 and ADA2 can be measured accurately and precisely in saliva samples in a rapid, economical, and reproducible way and can be analyzed after chemical inactivation with Triton X-100 and NP-40. Besides, the changes observed in tADA and isoenzymes in individuals with COVID-19 open the possibility of their potential use as non-invasive biomarkers in this disease.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/metabolismo , Bioensaio/métodos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Saliva/enzimologia , Adulto , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Isoenzimas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 4721812, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564676

RESUMO

Background: Elderly patients receiving nasal feeding have weaker physiological function, and placement of a nasogastric tube weakens the natural barrier of the cardia-esophageal sphincter; therefore, the risk of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is higher. Many studies have shown that pepsin is extremely sensitive in predicting GERD, so this study intends to investigate the level of pepsin in saliva of elderly patients with nasal feeding and analyze its influencing factors. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Patients admitted to the Chinese PLA General Hospital from April 2018 to October 2018 who received nasal feeding were included. One ml of saliva was collected from each patient in while sitting during fasting in the morning and 1 hour after lunch for 3 consecutive days. Pepsin was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The patients were predivided into two groups (≥7.75µg/ml or <7.75µg/ml) based on the median pepsin. Baseline and clinical factors were compared. Results: The mean age of the patients was 91.09 ± 4.91 years. There were statistical differences in diabetes and feeding methods between the two groups. There was a positive correlation between the morning and postprandial pepsin levels (r = 0.442, P < 0.001), and has no statistical difference (P = 0.175). Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors for higher pepsin levels were diabetes (odds ratio (OR): 2.67; 95% CI: 1.225-5.819, P = 0.013) and nasal feeding methods (OR: 2.475; 95% CI: 1.183-5.180, P=0.016). Conclusions: For patients undergoing nasal feeding who are older than 80 years, the fasting and 1-hour postprandial pepsin concentration were consistent. Diabetes and feeding methods are risk factors for high pepsin levels. For the elderly over 80 years old, age has no influence on pepsin concentration.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico/metabolismo , Pepsina A/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Administração Intranasal , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Impedância Elétrica , Monitoramento do pH Esofágico , Esôfago/metabolismo , Esôfago/fisiopatologia , Métodos de Alimentação , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pepsina A/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/enzimologia
5.
Pathol Res Pract ; 220: 153381, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640711

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019, which spread worldwide immediately after the first patient infected with this virus was discovered in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Currently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specimens for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 include saliva, nasopharyngeal swabs, and lower respiratory tract-derived materials such as sputum. Initially, nasopharyngeal swab specimens were applied mainly to the PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2. There was a risk of infection to healthcare workers due to coughing or sneezing by the subjects at the time of sample collection. In contrast, saliva specimens have a low risk of droplet infection and are easy to collect, and their application to PCR testing has been promoted. In this study, we have determined the detection limit of SARS-CoV-2 in saliva samples and examined the effects of storage temperature and storage time of saliva samples on the PCR detection results. As a result, 5 × 103 copies of SARS-CoV-2 could be detected in 1 mL phosphate-buffered saline, whereas 5 × 104 copies of SARS-CoV-2 were needed in 1 mL saliva to detect the virus by real-time one-step PCR. Interestingly, SARS-CoV-2 (5 × 103 copies/mL) could be detected in saliva supplemented with an RNase inhibitor. Concerning the saliva samples supplemented with an RNase inhibitor, the optimal temperature for sample storage was -20 °C, and PCR detection was maintained within 48 h without problems under these conditions. These finding suggest that RNase in the saliva can affect the detection of SARS-CoV-2 by PCR using saliva samples.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Ribonucleases , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/virologia , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , RNA Viral/análise , Saliva/enzimologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
6.
Biomolecules ; 11(2)2021 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513978

RESUMO

Acute intense exercise causes significant oxidative stress and consequently an increase in total antioxidant capacity; however, the mechanisms and combined effects of intense exercise and smoking on oxidative stress among active and non-active smokers are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute intense exercise on antioxidant enzyme activity responses in active and non-active individuals exposed to cigarette smoke. The study included 40 subjects who were equally classified as: smokers that did exercise (SE), smokers that did not do exercise (SnE), non-smokers that did exercise (NSE), and non-smokers that did not do exercise (NSnE). The adjusted Astrand test was used to exhaust the subjects. Salivary enzymes of peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured, by spectrophotometry methods, at 3 different time points: pre-test (TP1), post-test (TP2), and one hour after finishing the test (TP3). Significant (p < 0.05) group x time interactions were found for the three enzymes. Salivary POX, CAT and SOD increased in all groups from TP1 to TP2 and decreased from TP2 to TP3. Only the NSE showed a significant difference between TP1 to TP3 in POX and SOD by +0.011 ± 0.007 and +0.075 ± 0.020 (U/mL), respectively. The NSE showed significantly higher activity of POX, CAT and SOD in TP2 compared to the other groups. Furthermore, NSE and NSnE had higher activity of POX, CAT and SOD in TP1 and TP3 (p < 0.05) compared with SE and SnE. Only in the NSnE, were no differences observed in CAT compared with SE and SnE in TP3. These results showed that the antioxidant activity at rest and in the recovery time after the acute intense exercise was lower in SE and SnE compared with NSE and NSnE, suggesting that smoking habit may reduce the ameliorating effect of regular physical activity on acute exercise-induced oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Exercício Físico , Fumar , Adulto , Catalase/metabolismo , Dieta , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , não Fumantes , Estresse Oxidativo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Saliva/enzimologia , Fumantes , Espectrofotometria , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(5): 2423-2432, 2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497208

RESUMO

Amylases are key enzymes in the processing of starch in many kingdoms of life. They are important catalysts in industrial biotechnology where they are applied in, among others, food processing and the production of detergents. In man amylases are the first enzymes in the digestion of starch to glucose and arguably also the preferred target in therapeutic strategies aimed at the treatment of type 2 diabetes patients through down-tuning glucose assimilation. Efficient and sensitive assays that report selectively on retaining amylase activities irrespective of the nature and complexity of the biomaterial studied are of great value both in finding new and effective human amylase inhibitors and in the discovery of new microbial amylases with potentially advantageous features for biotechnological application. Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) of retaining glycosidases is inherently suited for the development of such an assay format. We here report on the design and synthesis of 1,6-epi-cyclophellitol-based pseudodisaccharides equipped with a suite of reporter entities and their use in ABPP of retaining amylases from human saliva, murine tissue as well as secretomes from fungi grown on starch. The activity and efficiency of the inhibitors and probes are substantiated by extensive biochemical analysis, and the selectivity for amylases over related retaining endoglycosidases is validated by structural studies.


Assuntos
Ensaios Enzimáticos/métodos , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Saliva/enzimologia , alfa-Amilases/sangue
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(12): e1009075, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275645

RESUMO

Varroa destructor is an ectoparasite of honey bees and an active disease vector, which represents one of the most severe threats for the beekeeping industry. This parasitic mite feeds on the host's body fluids through a wound in the cuticle, which allows food uptake by the mother mite and its progeny, offering a potential route of entrance for infecting microorganisms. Mite feeding is associated with saliva injection, whose role is still largely unknown. Here we try to fill this gap by identifying putative host regulation factors present in the saliva of V. destructor and performing a functional analysis for one of them, a chitinase (Vd-CHIsal) phylogenetically related to chitinases present in parasitic and predatory arthropods, which shows a specific and very high level of expression in the mite's salivary glands. Vd-CHIsal is essential for effective mite feeding and survival, since it is apparently involved both in maintaining the feeding wound open and in preventing host infection by opportunistic pathogens. Our results show the important role in the modulation of mite-honey bee interactions exerted by a host regulation factor shared by different evolutionary lineages of parasitic arthropods. We predict that the functional characterization of Varroa sialome will provide new background knowledge on parasitism evolution in arthropods and the opportunity to develop new bioinspired strategies for mite control based on the disruption of their complex interactions with a living food source.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Saliva/enzimologia , Varroidae/metabolismo , Animais , Criação de Abelhas/métodos , Abelhas/imunologia , Abelhas/metabolismo , Abelhas/parasitologia , Quitinases/metabolismo , Imunidade , Pupa/parasitologia , Saliva/química , Glândulas Salivares/metabolismo , Varroidae/patogenicidade , Varroidae/fisiologia
9.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e927381, 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The Lyon Consensus classification confirms or rules out gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The refractory symptoms of patients with GERD taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are challenging in clinical practice. Salivary pepsin concentration was proposed as a diagnostic biomarker for GERD. We aimed to determine the diagnostic value of salivary pepsin concentration for patients with conclusive GERD, based on the Lyon classification, and the correlation of salivary pepsin concentration with parameters of high-resolution manometry and 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH in patients with PPI-refractory symptoms. MATERIAL AND METHODS Saliva samples obtained from 130 patients who were suspicious for GERD and had PPI-refractory symptoms were used for pepsin determination using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, high-resolution manometry, 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance, and pH recording and were classified as conclusive GERD, inconclusive GERD, and evidence against GERD groups according to Lyon classification. RESULTS Salivary pepsin concentration was 8.2 ng/mL (3.8-17.8 ng/mL), 4.0 ng/mL (2.3-6.1 ng/mL), and 2.4 ng/mL (2.2-3.1 ng/mL) in conclusive GERD, inconclusive GERD, and evidence against GERD groups, respectively (P<0.001), and had a negative correlation with distal mean nocturnal baseline impedance and positive correlations with acid exposure time, total number of reflux events, and esophagogastric junction type. The area under the ROC curve of salivary pepsin for conclusive GERD was 0.76 (0.68-0.84), with a sensitivity of 76.36% and a specificity of 63.41% for conclusive GERD diagnosis at a cut-off value of 4.21 ng/mL. CONCLUSIONS Salivary pepsin test had moderate diagnostic value for conclusive GERD by Lyon classification in patients with PPI-refractory symptoms.


Assuntos
Impedância Elétrica , Monitoramento do pH Esofágico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/diagnóstico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/fisiopatologia , Manometria , Pepsina A/metabolismo , Saliva/enzimologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC
10.
Biosci Rep ; 40(11)2020 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The current study was performed to determine the presence of pepsin in saliva and laryngeal tissue among participants with benign and malignant laryngeal neoplasms. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study included three groups of patients with: (1) benign laryngeal neoplasms, (2) malignant laryngeal neoplasms and (3) control subjects without symptoms or signs of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). METHODS: Eighty-one voluntary participants were included into study. They were recruited from a group of patients with histologically proven benign and malignant laryngeal neoplasms and in case of control subjects among patients with nasal septum deformation without symptoms of LPR. Morning saliva samples were collected preoperatively. Tumor biopsies were collected by directoscopy of larynx and the control samples from interarytenoid unit of larynx. All samples were analyzed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Pepsin was found in all samples of saliva and tissue biopsies in groups with malignant and benign neoplasms. The highest concentration of pepsin was found in a group of patients with malignant laryngeal neoplasms. Patients with benign laryngeal neoplasms had lower concentrations and the control subjects presented with the lowest concentration of pepsin measured from their saliva. Differences were not statistically significant. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis showed the largest number of high positive samples in the group of malignant lesions. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that pepsin and LPR can contribute to the development of benign and malignant laryngeal neoplasms. Further prospective studies, with far more patients, are necessary to prove the role of pepsin in multifactorial etiology of laryngeal neoplasms.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias Laríngeas/enzimologia , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo/enzimologia , Laringe/enzimologia , Pepsina A/análise , Saliva/enzimologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Laríngeas/patologia , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo/patologia , Laringe/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17918, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087771

RESUMO

The relationship between salivary α-amylase activity (psAAa) or AMY1 copy number and the risk of obesity remains controversial. We aimed to assess this relationship in a cohort from Qatar, where obesity affects 43% of adults. The relationship was investigated cross-sectionally in 923 Qatari adults from the Qatar biobank cohort. AMY1 CN was estimated form whole genome sequencing data. The associations with obesity prevalence were assessed by linear and logistic regressions. We found no difference in AMY1 CN between obese and normal-weight individuals. However, the psAAa was significantly lower in obese individuals. Significant inverse correlations were found between adiposity markers and psAAa in both sexes, but were marginally stronger in men. A significant effect of high psAAa, but not AMY1 CN, on reduced obesity rates was identified in men (OR per psAAa unit 0.957 [95% CI 0.937-0.977], p < 0.001, with psAAa ranging between 5 to 66 U/L). A significantly higher prevalence of obesity was observed in the lowest quartile of psAAa in men (75% (Q1) vs. 36% (Q4), p < 0.001) and women (74% (Q1) vs 56% (Q4), p = 0.009). Our findings suggest that high psAAa, but not AMY1 CN, has a potential positive benefit against obesity in the Qatari population.


Assuntos
Dosagem de Genes/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Saliva/enzimologia , alfa-Amilases/genética , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Catar/epidemiologia , Risco , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
Food Res Int ; 136: 109300, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846512

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to understand the contribution of hydrocolloids to oral structure breakdown of starch-based systems in relation to mouthfeel sensations. For this, carrot purees were prepared using corn starch and a different second thickener (λ-carrageenan, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), xanthan gum, or an extra amount of starch). The viscosity decay of purees under in vitro oral conditions was measured (starch pasting cell adapted to a rheometer) when shearing at a constant shear rate in the presence of artificial saliva. Sensory properties of purees were described using the Flash Profile technique by a group of 13 panellists. Oral viscosity decay of systems was modelled using a second order structural kinetic equation that included three parameters: initial viscosity, rate of breakdown, and viscosity at equilibrium. Although they had the same initial viscosity, the structural breakdown of the purees in oral conditions varied, depending on the second thickener used. The structure of purees containing xanthan and λ-carrageenan were more resistant under oral conditions exhibiting a slow and smaller breakdown. In contrast, purees containing only starch showed a rapid and large decay because of the complete structure breakdown by amylase. For puree containing CMC, there was also a rapid decrease, but smaller than starch, indicating that part of the structure remained after digestion. Texture sensations freely described by assessors varied according to two main sensory dimensions, that were clearly related to the structural breakdown parameters. As expected, the dimension of thickness (from watery and liquid to thick and viscous) separated base purees from thickened purees and was related to the initial viscosity. The smoothness dimension (from rough and lumpy to the smooth and creamy) was related to the viscosity at equilibrium indicating that after the oral digestion, the characteristics of the remaining structure can explain differences in complex attributes of semisolid systems such as smoothness and creaminess.


Assuntos
Coloides/química , Coloides/metabolismo , Boca/fisiologia , Sensação , Viscosidade , Carragenina/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Reologia , Saliva/enzimologia , Amido/química , Amido/metabolismo , Verduras/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
13.
J Chem Ecol ; 46(9): 891-905, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700062

RESUMO

The effect of temperature on insect-plant interactions in the face of changing climate is complex as the plant, its herbivores and their interactions are usually affected differentially leading to an asymmetry in response. Using experimental warming and a combination of biochemical and herbivory bioassays, the effects of elevated temperatures and herbivore damage (Helicoverpa zea) on resistance and tolerance traits of Solanum lycopersicum var. Better boy (tomato), as well as herbivory performance and salivary defense elicitors were examined. Insects and plants were differentially sensitive towards warming within the experimental temperature range. Herbivore growth rate increased with temperature, whereas plants growth as well as the ability to tolerate stress measured by photosynthesis recovery and regrowth ability were compromised at the highest temperature regime. In particular, temperature influenced the caterpillars' capacity to induce plant defenses due to changes in the amount of a salivary defense elicitor, glucose oxidase (GOX). This was further complexed by the temperature effects on plant inducibility, which was significantly enhanced at an above-optimum temperature; this paralleled with an increased plants resistance to herbivory but significantly varied between previously damaged and undamaged leaves. Elevated temperatures produced asymmetry in species' responses and changes in the relationship among species, indicating a more complicated response under a climate change scenario.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Glucose Oxidase/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Lepidópteros/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Herbivoria , Temperatura Alta , Larva/enzimologia , Larva/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Saliva/enzimologia
14.
Elife ; 92020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579109

RESUMO

A body of animal and human evidence points to the norepinephrine (NE) locus coeruleus (LC) system in modulating memory for arousing experiences, but whether the LC would recast its role along memory stages remains unknown. Sedation precluded examination of LC dynamics during memory processing in animals. Here, we addressed the contribution of the LC during arousal-associated memory processing through a unique combination of dedicated ultra-high-field LC-imaging methods, a well-established emotional memory task, online physiological and saliva alpha-amylase measurements in young adults. Arousal-related LC activation followed amygdala engagement during encoding. During consolidation and recollection, activation transitioned to hippocampal involvement, reflecting learning and model updating. NE-LC activation is dynamic, plays an arousal-controlling role, and is not sufficient but requires interactions with the amygdala to form adaptive memories of emotional experiences. These findings have implications for understanding contributions of LC dysregulation to disruptions in emotional memory formation, observed in psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders.


Assuntos
Locus Cerúleo/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Memória/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Saliva/enzimologia , Adulto Jovem , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
15.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 209: 111933, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570059

RESUMO

Xerostomia and hyposalivation are frequent conditions in patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy, which usually lead to a worsening of quality of life. This study aimed to assess whether photobiomodulation (PBM) can minimize hyposalivation, xerostomia and qualitative changes on saliva and improve quality of life in patients undergoing radiotherapy in short-term follow-up. Twenty-one patients were randomly divided into two groups: sham group (SG) and laser group (LG). A diode laser was used for intra- (660 nm, 10 J/cm2, 0.28 J per point, 40 mW) and extra-oral (810 nm, 25 J/cm2, 0.7 J per point, 40 mW) applications over the salivary glands, three times a week, during the entire radiotherapy period. In SG, the tip of the instrument was sealed with blue rubber to prevent the passage of light. Xerostomia and pH were evaluated and unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow was determined before the start of radiotherapy (T1), after the 15th session (T2), after the end of radiotherapy (T3) and 60 days after radiotherapy (T4). Concentrations of calcium, total proteins, chloride, sodium, potassium and amylase and catalase activities were evaluated in stimulated saliva samples. Quality of life was assessed at times T1 and T4. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess differences in the outcome between times and groups. All patients showed worsening in unstimulated (p = .003) and stimulated (p < .001) salivary flow, xerostomia (p < .05) and quality of life during radiotherapy (p = .001). An increase in chloride concentrations was observed at times T3 and T4 (p < 0,05), and a reduction in amylase activity at T3 (p < .05). Unstimulated saliva pH was higher in LG than SG at T3 (p = .037). No difference between groups was noted in relation to salivary flow and composition, xerostomia or quality of life. Our results suggest that PBM may help in preserving salivary pH during radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Qualidade de Vida , Saliva/metabolismo , Xerostomia/etiologia , Amilases/metabolismo , Seguimentos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/complicações , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Saliva/enzimologia
16.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 18(1): 68, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enhancing angiogenesis is critical for accelerating wound healing. Application of different types of exosomes (Exos) to promote angiogenesis represents a novel strategy for enhanced wound repair. Saliva is known to accelerate wound healing, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. RESULTS: Our results have demonstrated that saliva-derived exosomes (saliva-Exos) induce human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in vitro, and promote cutaneous wound healing in vivo. Further experiments documented that Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2O (UBE2O) is one of the main mRNAs of saliva-Exos, and activation of UBE2O has effects similar to those of saliva-Exos, both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, UBE2O decreases the level of SMAD family member 6 (SMAD6), thereby activating bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), which, in turn, induces angiogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: The present work suggests that administration of saliva-Exos and UBE2O represents a promising strategy for enhancing wound healing through promotion of angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Exossomos/enzimologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Saliva/enzimologia , Proteína Smad6/metabolismo , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/farmacologia , Saliva/citologia , Pele/lesões , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/genética , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/farmacologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
J Med Entomol ; 57(6): 1679-1685, 2020 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459332

RESUMO

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was previously reported to be present in saliva of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini), with proposed potential functions to 1) reduce acetylcholine toxicity during rapid engorgement, 2) modulate host immune responses, and 3) to influence pathogen transmission and establishment in the host. Potential modulation of host immune responses might include participation in salivary-assisted transmission and establishment of pathogens in the host as has been reported for a number of arthropod vector-borne diseases. If the hypothesis that tick salivary AChE may alter host immune responses is correct, we reasoned that similar cholinesterase activities might be present in saliva of additional arthropod vectors. Here, we report the presence of AChE-like activity in the saliva of southern cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus; the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus); Asian tiger mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (Skuse); sand flies, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli); and biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones. Salivary AChE-like activity was not detected for horn flies Haematobia irritans (L.), stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), and house flies Musca domestica L. Salivary cholinesterase (ChE) activities of arthropod vectors of disease-causing agents exhibited various Michaelis-Menten KM values that were each lower than the KM value of bovine serum AChE. A lower KM value is indicative of higher affinity for substrate and is consistent with a hypothesized role in localized depletion of host tissue acetylcholine potentially modulating host immune responses at the arthropod bite site that may favor ectoparasite blood-feeding and alter host defensive responses against pathogen transmission and establishment.


Assuntos
Vetores Artrópodes/enzimologia , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Dípteros/enzimologia , Carrapatos/enzimologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Saliva/enzimologia
18.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 104(4): e21690, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394499

RESUMO

The harlequin bug (HB), Murgantia histrionica, is a major pest of cabbage family plants throughout its range in the United States. RNA interference (RNAi) is a posttranscriptional gene silencing mechanism that is showing promise as a biopesticide due to the ability to target species-specific genes necessary for growth and/or survival with synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). In the present study, dsRNA stability assays revealed that nucleases present in the saliva of harlequin bugs did not rapidly degrade dsRNA. We tracked the movement and localization of radioactively labeled dsRNA in both mustard plant seedlings and harlequin bug nymphs that fed on treated host plants. Movement of 32 P-labeled-dsRNA from soil to plant and plant to insect was detected. The efficacy of RNAi in inducing mortality in harlequin bug adults and nymphs injected or fed with dsRNA targeting inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP), ATPase N2B (ATPase), serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-ß catalytic subunit (PP1), signal recognition particle 54 kDa protein (SRP), and G protein-coupled receptor 161-like (GPCR) genes was evaluated. Injection of dsRNA targeting candidate genes into adults caused between 40% and 75% mortality and induced significant knockdown of target gene expression. Feeding dsRNA targeting the IAP gene to nymphs by plant-mediated and droplet feeding methods induced knockdown of the target gene and caused 40-55% mortality. These findings suggest that RNAi may be a viable approach for managing this pest.


Assuntos
Heterópteros/genética , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Heterópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Heterópteros/metabolismo , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/genética , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Mostardeira/parasitologia , Ninfa/genética , Ninfa/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , RNA de Cadeia Dupla , Ribonucleases , Saliva/enzimologia , Solo/química
19.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 65(4): 212-215, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227725

RESUMO

Cholinesterase activity in mixed saliva of patients with somatic pathology was investigated. The results showed differences in enzyme activity depending on the disease. The highest salivary cholinesterase activity was detected in patients with bronchopulmonary pathology, and the lowest - in cardiovascular diseases. A reliable relationship between the changes in the activity of cholinesterase in saliva and the rate of salivation, and with patients taking atypical antipsychotics and M, H-anticholinergic drugs, was revealed.


Assuntos
Colinesterases/fisiologia , Pneumopatias/patologia , Saliva/enzimologia , Salivação , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/administração & dosagem , Humanos
20.
Molecules ; 25(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906397

RESUMO

Chinese bayberry leaf proanthocyanidins (BLPs) are Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) oligomers or polymers, which have a lot of health-promoting activity. The activity is closely related to their behavior during in vitro digestion, which remains unknown and hinders further investigations. To clarify the changes of BLPs during gastrointestinal digestion, further research is required. For in vitro digestion, including gastric-intestinal digestion, colon fermentation was applied. Caco-2 monolayer transportation was also applied to investigate the behavior of different BLPs with different degrees of polymerization. The trimers and the tetramers were significantly decreased during in vitro gastric-intestinal digestion resulting in a significant increase in the content of dimers. The dimers and trimers were the main compounds utilized by gut microbiota and they were assumed not to degrade through cleavage of the inflavan bond. The monomers and dimers were able to transport through the Caco-2 monolayer at a rate of 10.45% and 6.4%, respectively.


Assuntos
Biopolímeros/metabolismo , Ácido Gálico/análise , Myrica/química , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biopolímeros/análise , Biopolímeros/química , Células CACO-2 , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/análise , Catequina/química , Catequina/metabolismo , Digestão , Fermentação , Ácido Gálico/química , Ácido Gálico/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/enzimologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Técnicas In Vitro , Intestinos/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Polimerização , Proantocianidinas/análise , Proantocianidinas/química , Saliva/enzimologia
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