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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(32): e26756, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A rapid lateral flow test (Peptest) to detect pepsin in saliva/sputum has been considered as a valuable method for diagnosing laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The aim of this meta-analysis is to analyze the utility of Peptest for diagnosis of LPR and GERD. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochran Library (from January 1980 to 26 January 2020) were searched for pepsin in saliva for LPR/GERD diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio, and area under the curve data were summarized to examine the accuracy. RESULTS: A total of 16 articles that included 2401 patients and 897 controls were analyzed. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of GERD/LPR with Peptest were 62% (95% confidence interval [CI] 49%-73%) and 74% (95% CI 50%-90%), respectively. The summarized diagnostic odds ratio and area under the curve were 5.0 (95% CI 2-19) and 0.70 (95% CI 0.66-0.74), respectively. CONCLUSION: Peptest shows moderate diagnostic value for LPR and GERD. More studies with standard protocols should be done to verify its usefulness.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico/diagnóstico , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo/diagnóstico , Pepsina A/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/metabolismo , Humanos , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo/metabolismo , Curva ROC
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209865

RESUMO

Saliva is easy to access, non-invasive and a useful source of information useful for the diagnosis of serval inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases. Following the advent of genomic technologies and -omic research, studies based on saliva testing have rapidly increased and human salivary proteome has been partially characterized. As a proteomic protocol to analyze the whole saliva proteome is not currently available, the most common aim of the proteomic analysis is to discriminate between physiological and pathological conditions. The salivary proteome has been initially investigated in several diseases: oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral leukoplakia, chronic graft-versus-host disease, and Sjögren's syndrome. Otherwise, salivary proteomics studies in the dermatological field are still in the initial phase, thus the aim of this review is to collect the best research evidence on the role of saliva proteomics analysis in immune-mediated skin diseases to understand the direction of research in this field. The results of PRISMA analysis reported herein suggest that human saliva analysis could provide significant data for the diagnosis and prognosis of several immune-mediated and inflammatory skin diseases in the next future.


Assuntos
Proteômica/métodos , Saliva/metabolismo , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Prognóstico , Dermatopatias/imunologia
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202728

RESUMO

The prognosis of patients with oral squamous carcinoma (OSCC) largely depends on the stage at diagnosis, the 5-year survival rate being approximately 30% for advanced tumors. Early diagnosis, including the detection of lesions at risk for malignant transformation, is crucial for limiting the need for extensive surgery and for improving disease-free survival. Saliva has gained popularity as a readily available source of biomarkers (including cytokines) useful for diagnosing specific oral and systemic conditions. Particularly, the close interaction between oral dysplastic/neoplastic cells and saliva makes such fluid an ideal candidate for the development of non-invasive and highly accurate diagnostic tests. The present review has been designed to answer the question: "Is there evidence to support the role of specific salivary cytokines in the diagnosis of OSCC?" We retrieved 27 observational studies satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Among the most frequent cytokines investigated as candidates for OSCC biomarkers, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α are present at higher concentration in the saliva of OSCC patients than in healthy controls and may therefore serve as basis for the development of rapid tests for early diagnosis of oral cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Prognóstico
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200970

RESUMO

Severe periodontitis is prevalent in Down syndrome (DS). This study aimed to identify genetic variations associated with periodontitis in individuals with DS. The study group was distributed into DS patients with periodontitis (n = 50) and DS patients with healthy periodontium (n = 36). All samples were genotyped with the "Axiom Spanish Biobank" array, which contains 757,836 markers. An association analysis at the individual marker level using logistic regression, as well as at the gene level applying the sequence kernel association test (SKAT) was performed. The most significant genes were included in a pathway analysis using the free DAVID software. C12orf74 (rs4315121, p = 9.85 × 10-5, OR = 8.84), LOC101930064 (rs4814890, p = 9.61 × 10-5, OR = 0.13), KBTBD12 (rs1549874, p = 8.27 × 10-5, OR = 0.08), PIWIL1 (rs11060842, p = 7.82 × 10-5, OR = 9.05) and C16orf82 (rs62030877, p = 8.92 × 10-5, OR = 0.14) showed a higher probability in the individual analysis. The analysis at the gene level highlighted PIWIL, MIR9-2, LHCGR, TPR and BCR. At the signaling pathway level, PI3K-Akt, long-term depression and FoxO achieved nominal significance (p = 1.3 × 10-2, p = 5.1 × 10-3, p = 1.2 × 10-2, respectively). In summary, various metabolic pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis in DS, including PI3K-Akt, which regulates cell proliferation and inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down/complicações , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doenças Periodontais/patologia , Saliva/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Periodontais/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Biol Chem ; 297(1): 100865, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118237

RESUMO

During feeding, a tick's mouthpart penetrates the host's skin and damages tissues and small blood vessels, triggering the extrinsic coagulation and lectin complement pathways. To elude these defense mechanisms, ticks secrete multiple anticoagulant proteins and complement system inhibitors in their saliva. Here, we characterized the inhibitory activities of the homologous tick salivary proteins tick salivary lectin pathway inhibitor, Salp14, and Salp9Pac from Ixodesscapularis in the coagulation cascade and the lectin complement pathway. All three proteins inhibited binding of mannan-binding lectin to the polysaccharide mannan, preventing the activation of the lectin complement pathway. In contrast, only Salp14 showed an appreciable effect on coagulation by prolonging the lag time of thrombin generation. We found that the anticoagulant properties of Salp14 are governed by its basic tail region, which resembles the C terminus of tissue factor pathway inhibitor alpha and blocks the assembly and/or activity of the prothrombinase complex in the same way. Moreover, the Salp14 protein tail contributes to the inhibition of the lectin complement pathway via interaction with mannan binding lectin-associated serine proteases. Furthermore, we identified BaSO4-adsorbing protein 1 isolated from the tick Ornithodoros savignyi as a distant homolog of tick salivary lectin pathway inhibitor/Salp14 proteins and showed that it inhibits the lectin complement pathway but not coagulation. The structure of BaSO4-adsorbing protein 1, solved here using NMR spectroscopy, indicated that this protein adopts a noncanonical epidermal growth factor domain-like structural fold, the first such report for tick salivary proteins. These data support a mechanism by which tick saliva proteins simultaneously inhibit both the host coagulation cascade and the lectin complement pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/ultraestrutura , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Lectinas/genética , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/ultraestrutura , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/química , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Coagulação Sanguínea/genética , Vasos Sanguíneos/parasitologia , Vasos Sanguíneos/patologia , Lectina de Ligação a Manose da Via do Complemento/genética , Ixodes/patogenicidade , Ixodes/ultraestrutura , Lectinas/ultraestrutura , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Conformação Proteica , Saliva/química , Saliva/metabolismo , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/química , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/genética , Trombina/genética , Carrapatos/genética , Carrapatos/patogenicidade
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 184: 339-348, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097968

RESUMO

Salivary glycoproteins are known as an important barrier to inhibit influenza infection by presenting sialic acid (Sia) ligands that can bind with viral hemagglutination. Here, to further understand why pregnant women are more vulnerable to avian influenza virus (AIV), we investigated the alteration of protein sialylation in the saliva of women during pregnancy and postpartum, and its impact on the saliva binding affinity to AIV. Totally 1200 saliva samples were collected, the expression levels of terminal α2-3/6-linked Sia on salivary proteins were tested and validated, and the binding activities of salivary proteins were assessed against 3 strains of AIV and the H1N1 vaccine. Result showed that the expression of terminal α2-3-linked Sia in the saliva of women decreased dramatically during pregnancy compared to that of non-pregnancy control, especially for women in the second or third trimester (fold change = 0.53 and 0.37, p < 0.001). And their salivary protein binding ability to AIV declined accordingly. The variation of terminal α2-3-linked Sia on salivary MUC5B and IgA was consistent with the above results. This study indicates that the decrease of terminal α2-3-linked Sia on salivary glycoproteins of pregnant women affects their binding ability to AIV, which may provide new insights into AIV prevention and control.


Assuntos
Regulação para Baixo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/metabolismo , Vírus da Influenza A/metabolismo , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/química , Saliva/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Glicoproteínas/química , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/química , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/metabolismo , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/metabolismo , Vacinas contra Influenza/metabolismo , Mucina-5B/química , Mucina-5B/metabolismo , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e26369, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diseases of the oral cavity (OC) with an infectious trigger such as caries and periodontal disease are extremely common in the general population and can also have effects at the cardiovascular level. The oral salivary flow, with its buffering capacity, is able to regulate the pH of the OC and, therefore, significantly contribute to the ecological balance of the microenvironment in which the oral microbiome (OM) develops. On the other side, when the quality/quantity of salivary flow is altered it is supposed the disruption of this balance with the potential increase in oral pathogens and triggered diseases. Among the endogenous substances able to exert a significant effect on the salivary flow and its characteristics, carnosine (Car), a dipeptide originally isolated in skeletal muscle, represents, thanks to the known buffering properties, a promising principle. METHODS: We aimed this protocol to evaluate the quantitative/qualitative characteristics of the salivary flow in healthy volunteer subjects (n = 20) and in subjects suffering from common OC pathologies (n = 40), before and after 7 days of supplementation with SaliflussTM (Metis Healthcare srl, Milan, Italy), a Class I medical device on the market as 400 mg mucoadhesive oral tablets that has Car as the main ingredient. DISCUSSION: Combining the characteristics of saliva with the OM and comparing them with OC pathologies, we expect to clarify their reciprocal relationship and, using quantitative proteomics techniques, to help clarify the mechanism of action of Car.


Assuntos
Carnosina/administração & dosagem , Cárie Dentária/dietoterapia , Gengivite/dietoterapia , Periodontite/dietoterapia , Saliva/química , Administração Bucal , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Cárie Dentária/complicações , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gengivite/microbiologia , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Microbiota/fisiologia , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Periodontite/prevenção & controle , Saliva/metabolismo , Comprimidos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Arch Oral Biol ; 129: 105183, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the antibacterial effects of different saliva-substitutes-containing-lysozyme(LYZ) or-lactoferrin(LF) on Streptococcus mutans(S. mutans) in comparison with human saliva. DESIGN: In vitro wound-healing assay was performed with L929 mouse fibroblast cell line by using various concentrations of LYZ and LF to determine optimum concentrations and to confirm do not show any cytotoxicity of proteins according to cell culture studies. Antibacterial effect was assessed by determining Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for all groups on S.mutans. Bacterial adhesion of S. mutans for 4 h on hydroxyapatite(HAP) discs after application of different saliva substitutes was evaluated. The formulations were:saliva-substitute(Group SS);saliva-substitute-containing-Lactoferrin(Group SSLF);saliva-substitute-containing-Lysozyme(Group SSLYZ). Human saliva was control group(Group HS). RESULTS: In vitro wound healing assay results showed that, when added into the cell culture media, LYZ and LF significantly increase 48 -h scratch wound closure compared to the cell culture media(p < 0.0001). At the end of second day, samples treated with both between 2.5-100 µg/mL LF and 5-200 µg/mL LYZ were found to have significant wound healing effect(p < 001). It was observed that saliva-substitutes-containing-LYZ or-LF had antibacterial effects on S.mutans. Bacterial adhesion on HAP discs was observed significantly higher in control group than in study groups. The amount of adhered S. mutans was significantly higher in Group SS than other study groups(p < 0.0001). However, no statistically significant difference was found between the number of bacteria adhered to HAP discs between SSLYZ and SSLF groups(p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The study of cell viability and wound healing was great significance in the optimum concentrations of LYZ and LF. Among formulations, saliva-substitutes-containing-LYZ or-LF exhibited higher inhibitory effect on S.mutans.


Assuntos
Muramidase , Streptococcus mutans , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Humanos , Lactoferrina/metabolismo , Lactoferrina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Saliva/metabolismo , Streptococcus mutans/metabolismo
9.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072538

RESUMO

The purpose of this review is to present an overview of roadside drug testing, driving enforcement, and drunk/drug driving detection around the world. Drunk and drug driving is a severe problem, not only in the UAE, but also around the world. This has important implications for road safety as drunk or drug driving may increase the chances of a driver's involvement in a road crash when compared to a drug-free driver. Recently, due to increases in drug-impaired drivers' crash involvement, many mobile roadside drug testing devices have been introduced to the market. These devices use oral fluid, urine or blood matrices. These are on-the-spot tests, which are easy to use and are applied by law enforcement agencies and the public. Law enforcement agencies most commonly use oral fluid to detect the presence of illicit drugs in drivers. This review discusses all the available devices in the market used by the authorities. It also describes the type of drugs widely abused by drivers along with behavioral testing methods. The different types of matrices used for roadside drug testing are also evaluated. Sample collection, storage, and pre-treatment methods are discussed, followed by the confirmatory analysis of positive samples. This article will significantly help law enforcement agencies compare and evaluate all the reliable roadside testing devices and new emerging confirmatory devices available to them in the market. This will help them make an informed decision on which device to adapt to their individual needs.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Drogas Ilícitas/análise , Testes Imediatos , Saliva/metabolismo , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/instrumentação , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência , Dirigir sob a Influência/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/efeitos adversos , Aplicação da Lei , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise
10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(26): 31140-31152, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156831

RESUMO

Existing single-functional agents against dental caries are inadequate in antibacterial performance or mineralization balance. This problem can be resolved through a novel strategy, namely, the construction of an antibiofouling and mineralizing dual-bioactive tooth surface by grafting a dentotropic moiety to an antimicrobial peptide. The constructed bioactive peptide can strongly adsorb onto the tooth surface and has beneficial functions in a myriad of ways. It inhibits cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans adhesion, kills planktonic S. mutans, and destroys the S. mutans biofilm on the tooth surface. It also protects teeth from demineralization in acidic environments, and induces self-healing regeneration in the remineralization environment. Molecular dynamics simulations elucidate the main adsorption mechanism that the positively charged amino acid residues in the bioactive peptide bind to phosphate groups on the tooth surface, and the main mineralization mechanism that the negative charges on the outermost layer of the bioactive peptide repel acetic acid ions and attract calcium ions as nucleation sites for remineralization. This study suggests that this in-house synthesized dual-bioactive peptide is a promising functional agent to prevent dental caries, and is effective in inducing in situ self-healing remineralization for the treatment of decayed teeth.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Adsorção , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hidroxiapatitas/química , Hidroxiapatitas/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Dente Serotino/química , Dente Serotino/microbiologia , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Saliva/metabolismo , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia , Desmineralização do Dente/prevenção & controle , Remineralização Dentária
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167955

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Saliva collection is a non-invasive test and is convenient. 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) is a new indicator reflecting short-term blood glucose levels. This study aimed to explore the relationship between saliva 1,5-AG and insulin secretion function and insulin sensitivity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Adult patients with type 2 diabetes who were hospitalized were enrolled. Based on blood glucose and C-peptide, homeostasis model assessment 2 for ß cell secretion function, C-peptidogenic index (CGI), △2-hour C-peptide (2hCP)/△2-hour postprandial glucose (2hPG), ratio of 0-30 min area under the curve for C-peptide and area under the curve for glucose (AUCCP30/AUCPG30), and AUC2hCP/AUC2hPG were calculated to evaluate insulin secretion function, while indicators such as homeostasis model assessment 2 for insulin resistance were used to assess insulin sensitivity. RESULTS: We included 284 subjects (178 men and 106 women) with type 2 diabetes aged 20-70 years. The saliva 1,5-AG level was 0.133 (0.089-0.204) µg/mL. Spearman's correlation analysis revealed a significantly negative correlation between saliva 1,5-AG and 0, 30, and 120 min blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c, and glycated albumin (all p<0.05), and a significantly positive association between saliva 1,5-AG and CGI (r=0.171, p=0.004) and AUC CP30 /AUC PG30 (r=0.174, p=0.003). The above correlations still existed after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and diabetes duration. In multiple linear regression, saliva 1,5-AG was an independent factor of CGI (standardized ß=0.135, p=0.015) and AUC CP30 /AUC PG30 (standardized ß=0.110, p=0.020). CONCLUSIONS: Saliva 1,5-AG was related to CGI and AUCCP30/AUCPG30 in patients with type 2 diabetes. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR-SOC-17011356.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , China , Desoxiglucose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina , Masculino , Saliva/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072470

RESUMO

Aging-related salivary dysfunction commonly induces the poor oral health, including decreased saliva flow and dental caries. Although the clinical significance of the salivary glands is well-known, the complex metabolic pathways contributing to the aging-dysfunction process are only beginning to be uncovered. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the metabolic changes in aging-mediated salivary gland dysfunction as a key aspect of oral physiology. Several metabolic neuropeptides or hormones are involved in causing or contributing to salivary gland dysfunction, including hyposalivation and age-related diseases. Thus, aging-related metabolism holds promise for early diagnosis, increased choice of therapy and the identification of new metabolic pathways that could potentially be targeted in salivary gland dysfunction.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Glândulas Salivares/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Hormônios/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolômica/métodos , Saliva/metabolismo , Doenças das Glândulas Salivares/diagnóstico , Doenças das Glândulas Salivares/etiologia , Doenças das Glândulas Salivares/metabolismo , Doenças das Glândulas Salivares/terapia , Glândulas Salivares/patologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064456

RESUMO

Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a complex heterogeneous disease characterized by a wide spectrum of glandular and extra-glandular manifestations. In this pilot study, a SWATH-MS approach was used to monitor extracellular vesicles-enriched saliva (EVs) sub-proteome in pSS patients, to compare it with whole saliva (WS) proteome, and assess differential expressed proteins between pSS and healthy control EVs samples. Comparison between EVs and WS led to the characterization of compartment-specific proteins with a moderate degree of overlap. A total of 290 proteins were identified and quantified in EVs from healthy and pSS patients. Among those, 121 proteins were found to be differentially expressed in pSS, 82% were found to be upregulated, and 18% downregulated in pSS samples. The most representative functional pathways associated to the protein networks were related to immune-innate response, including several members of S100 protein family, annexin A2, resistin, serpin peptidase inhibitors, azurocidin, and CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen. Our results highlight the usefulness of EVs for the discovery of novel salivary-omic biomarkers and open novel perspectives in pSS for the identification of proteins of clinical relevance that could be used not only for the disease diagnosis but also to improve patients' stratification and treatment-monitoring. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD025649.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Proteoma/genética , Saliva/metabolismo , Síndrome de Sjogren/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Anexina A2/genética , Anexina A2/metabolismo , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/genética , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Vesículas Extracelulares/química , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/genética , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Proteoma/classificação , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica/instrumentação , Proteômica/métodos , Resistina/genética , Resistina/metabolismo , Proteínas S100/genética , Proteínas S100/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Serpinas/genética , Serpinas/metabolismo , Síndrome de Sjogren/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Sjogren/metabolismo , Síndrome de Sjogren/patologia
14.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067188

RESUMO

Emotional stress negatively affects the quality of a person's daily life. From a physiological point of view, stress is expressed in the excitation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex axis, which leads to the release of the hormone cortisol into the blood. We developed a lateral flow immunoassay to detect cortisol in human salivary fluid and tested it on 10 healthy volunteers daily for about one month (n = 293 saliva samples). Cortisol was detected in concentrations ranging from 1 to 70 ng/mL. Salivary cortisol levels were confirmed by ELISA. The straightness range of LFIA calibration was from 1 to 100 ng/mL. The diagnostic sensitivity of the method was 73%. It was found that in 3 out of 10 subjects, fluctuations in the level of cortisol in saliva partially corresponded to the subjectively assessed level of stress.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Saliva/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066665

RESUMO

Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) typically act as transporters of odor molecules and play an important role in insect host location. Here, we identified an OBP in brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens salivary glands via transcriptome sequencing. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting analysis results showed that NlugOBP11 was highly expressed in salivary glands and secreted into rice plant during feeding, suggesting that it assists in BPH feeding on rice. Functional analysis in N. lugens saliva revealed that silencing this gene by RNA interference decreased the BPH stylet performance in the phloem of rice plants, reduced sap sucking, and ultimately led to insect death. Moreover, overexpression of NlugOBP11 in rice protoplasts or Nicotiana benthamiana leaves inhibited the production of defense-related signaling molecule salicylic acid in rice plant. The results demonstrate that NlugOBP11 is not only essential for BPH feeding, but also acts as an effector that inhibits plant defense.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Oryza/parasitologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Receptores Odorantes/química , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Tabaco/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 194, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salivary cortisol collected at home is a useful test to diagnose and monitor Cushing's syndrome in humans. The main problem in dogs is to retrieve a sufficient amount of saliva. The aim of this study was to evaluate different salivary collection methods and compare their effects on volume, pH and cortisol concentration of saliva. Sixteen healthy Beagles were used in a 4 × 4 randomized crossover study with a washout period of 1 week between each of the following collection methods: 1. Salimetrics® cotton swab dipped in ginger powder (ginger group); 2. beef-flavored Salimetrics® (bouillon group); 3. Salivette® cotton swab with an enclosed treat (treat group); 4. plain Salimetrics® (control group). First, baseline saliva (plain cotton swab, S0) and, 2 min later, experimental saliva (according to group allocation above, SExp) were collected. Saliva was gathered by holding the swabs in the animal's mouth for 2 min. After the cross-over study, another saliva sample was collected from all dogs by the ginger method, using a 30 s sampling time (30s-ginger method). Cortisol concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: All three stimulation methods increased saliva production significantly (S0 compared to SExp: ginger p = 0.0005; bouillon p = 0.009; treat p = 0.007). Only ginger stimulation, however, generated a significantly higher amount of saliva (SExp) compared to the control group (p = 0.00001; median (range) amount of saliva for SExp: ginger 1200 ul (600-1700), bouillon 650 ul (200-1900), treat 700 ul (300-1000), control 400 ul (0-1100)). The amount of saliva retrieved by the 30s-ginger method was still higher than that from the control group (p = 0.0004). Bouillon and treat stimulation led to decreased pH values (bouillon, p = 0.0028; treat, 0.0018). Excitement was higher in the ginger group (p = 0.01). Chewing was intensified in the ginger and treat group (ginger, p = 0.003; treat, 0.0009). The cortisol concentration SExp was higher compared to that of S0 in the ginger and treat group (p = 0.02, 0.003). The experimental cortisol concentrations (SExp) were not different between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The 30s-ginger method could prove useful in evaluating or monitoring dogs with Cushing's syndrome, as sampling at home for 30 s by the owner seems feasible.


Assuntos
Cães/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Gengibre , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Carne Vermelha , Estimulação Química
17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(23): 26704-26711, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038080

RESUMO

Monitoring glucose levels in physiological fluids can help prevent severe complications associated with hypo- and hyper-glycemic events. Current glucose-monitoring systems require a three-electrode setup and a power source to function, which can hamper the system miniaturization to the patient discomfort. Enzymatic fuel cells (EFCs) offer the opportunity to develop self-powered and minimally invasive glucose sensors by eliminating the need for an external power source. Nevertheless, practical applications demand for cost-effective and mass-manufacturable EFCs compatible with integration strategies. In this study, we explore for the first time the use of gold electrodes on a printed circuit board (PCB) for the development of an EFC and demonstrate its application in saliva. To increase the specific surface area, the PCB gold-plated electrodes were modified with porous gold films. At the anode, glucose oxidase is immobilized with an osmium redox polymer that serves as an electron-transfer mediator. At the cathode, bilirubin oxidase is adsorbed onto the porous gold surface with a blocking agent that prevents parasitic reactions while maintaining the enzyme catalytic activity. The resulting EFC showed a linear response to glucose in phosphate buffer within the range 50 µM to 1 mM, with a sensitivity of 14.13 µA cm-2 mM-1. The sensor was further characterized in saliva, showing the linear range of detection of 0.75 to 2 mM, which is within the physiological range, and sensitivity of 21.5 µA cm-2 mM-1. Overall, this work demonstrates that PCBs are suitable platforms for EFCs, paving the way for the development of fully integrated systems in a seamless and miniaturized device.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Eletrodos , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Glucose Oxidase/metabolismo , Glucose/análise , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Catálise , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Humanos , Saliva/química
18.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1191-1199, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049471

RESUMO

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has led to more than 159 million confirmed cases with over 3.3 million deaths worldwide, but it remains mystery why most infected individuals (∼98%) were asymptomatic or only experienced mild illness. The same mystery applies to the deadly 1918 H1N1 influenza pandemic, which has puzzled the field for a century. Here we discuss dual potential properties of the 1918 H1N1 pandemic viruses that led to the high fatality rate in the small portion of severe cases, while about 98% infected persons in the United States were self-limited with mild symptoms, or even asymptomatic. These variations now have been postulated to be impacted by polymorphisms of the sialic acid receptors in the general population. Since coronaviruses (CoVs) also recognize sialic acid receptors and cause severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemics and pandemics, similar principles of influenza virus evolution and pandemicity may also apply to CoVs. A potential common principle of pathogen/host co-evolution of influenza and CoVs under selection of host sialic acids in parallel with different epidemic and pandemic influenza and coronaviruses is discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Influenza Humana/patologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores Virais/genética , Ácidos Siálicos/metabolismo , Doenças Assintomáticas , Evolução Biológica , COVID-19/mortalidade , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/patogenicidade , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/patogenicidade , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Saliva/metabolismo , Saliva/virologia
19.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 419, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the most important risk factor for the development of cervical cancer, but factors contributing to HR-HPV persistence are incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to test for associations of chronic stress and two aspects of diurnal cortisol secretion (i.e., the cortisol awakening response [CAR] and total cortisol output over the day [AUCgday]) with HR-HPV status at baseline and 12 months later (follow-up). METHODS: We evaluated 188 women (25 ± 3 years) at baseline. Follow-up investigation was restricted to HR-HPV infected women at baseline. Of the initial 48 HR-HPV positive participants, 42 completed the follow-up (16 HR-HPV positive and 26 HR-HPV negative). At baseline and follow-up, we determined HR-HPV status in cervical smears, assessed chronic stress, and repeatedly measured salivary cortisol over the day. At baseline, we analyzed salivary cortisol only in a subgroup of 90 participants (45 HR-HPV negative and 45 HR-HPV positive). RESULTS: At baseline, higher chronic stress (excessive demands at work: p = .022, chronic worrying: p = .032), and a higher CAR (p = .014) were related to baseline HR-HPV positivity. At follow-up, there was a statistical trend for a positive association between the CAR and HR-HPV positivity (p = .062). Neither the CAR nor the AUCgday mediated the associations between chronic stress and HR-HPV status. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that both chronic stress and diurnal cortisol are related to the presence of HR-HPV infection and may thus play a role in HPV-associated cervical carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/epidemiologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Saliva/metabolismo , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/complicações , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
20.
APMIS ; 129(6): 304-313, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811685

RESUMO

Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is a conserved protein of the innate immune system which has been less studied than the pentraxin C-reactive protein (CRP), but it is of relevance in, for example, vascular pathology and pregnancy morbidities. Since the interest in salivary biomarkers in general is increasing, we asked whether PTX3 could be detected in saliva and if any substantial diurnal variation occurs. In addition, we evaluated association with biomarkers of systemic inflammation (interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8 and CRP), body mass index (BMI), smoking, and age. PTX3 in morning and evening saliva from 106 middle-aged participants of the general population was investigated by ELISA and total protein levels by spectrophotometry. PTX3 was detectable in saliva, and concentrations varied over the day with higher morning concentrations, but the PTX3 relative protein levels (percentage of total protein) were significantly higher in the evening. Sex and age did not impact salivary PTX3, but smoking was associated with lower PTX3 levels. BMI correlated positively with PTX3 in evening saliva. There was no general association with biomarkers of systemic inflammation, except for IL-6. Salivary PTX3 likely reflects the local inflammatory milieu, and adjustments for sampling time, smoking habits, and BMI are needed to adequately interpret PTX3 in saliva.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/metabolismo , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saliva/metabolismo , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/análise
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