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1.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(3): 470-477, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719253

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of the study is to assess the effect of probiotic bacteria on oral Candida counts in cancer patients who are undergoing head- and neck-radiotherapy in a tertiary care center. Study Design: The study was a randomized clinical trial including 90 patients who just completed head- and neck-radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Participants were randomly allocated into three equal sized groups, i.e., probiotics group, candid group, and combination groups. Oral rinse samples of the patients were collected before and after the intervention for the identification of Candida. The samples were incubated on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar with Chloramphenicol at 37°C for 48 h, to assess the counts of colony-forming units/milliliter (CFU/ml) of Candida in saliva, and further on chrome agar plates to identify the Candida spp. Data were analyzed using mixed ANOVA to compare mean CFU/ml of Candida among three groups before and after the intervention. Results: A total of 86 patients were included in the final analysis and there was a statistically significant reduction in mean Candida spp. Counts (CFU/ml) after intervention in all the three groups (P = 0.000) and significant reductions identified in both probiotic and combination therapy groups. Apart from reduction in Candida albicans, significant decrease in Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis was observed after probiotics usage compared to other groups. Conclusions: The present study suggests that probiotic bacteria were effective in reducing oral Candida spp which can be recommended alone or in combination with traditional antifungal agents for effective reduction in oral Candida in head- and neck-radiotherapy patients.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidíase Bucal/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Saliva/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Candidíase Bucal/etiologia , Candidíase Bucal/patologia , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saliva/efeitos dos fármacos , Saliva/efeitos da radiação , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 374, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated Staphylococcus aureus and oral bacterial concentrations are known to correlate with pneumonia hospitalization in nursing home residents. However, the effects of a professional oral care intervention on these factors remain unclear. The aims of this quasi-experimental study were to compare bacterial concentrations in saliva and sputum, oral health status, distribution of Staphylococcus aureus, and pneumonia status before and after a professional oral care intervention. METHODS: A purposive sample of residents from two nursing homes was divided into an intervention group that received a weekly professional oral care intervention and a control group. Oral bacterial concentration was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The Staphylococcus aureus distribution was determined by bacterial culture and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. After data collection, a statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of the intervention. RESULTS: Most residents were unconscious (80%), and most had a history of pneumonia (76%). Baseline demographic data did not significantly differ between the two groups. After the intervention, the intervention group had significant improvements in plaque index (1.66 ± 0.78 vs. 0.94 ± 0.64, p <  0.01), gingival index (2.36 ± 0.76 vs. 1.65 ± 0.83, p <  0.01), tongue coating index (0.96 ± 1.10 vs. 0.16 ± 0.47, p <  0.01), distribution of Staphylococcus aureus in salivary samples (11.11 ± 14.47% vs. 1.74 ± 3.75%, p = 0.02), and salivary bacterial concentration ([4.27 ± 3.65] × 105 vs. [0.75 ± 1.20] × 105, p <  0.01). Sputum bacterial concentration did not significantly differ. The intervention group also had a significantly lower annual prevalence of pneumonia hospitalization (1.24 ± 1.51 vs. 0.48 ± 0.59, p = 0.01), especially in residents whose salivary bacterial concentration exceeded the median. However, the duration of pneumonia hospitalization did not significantly differ between the two groups. CONCLUSION: A professional oral care intervention in nursing home residents can improve oral health, reduce levels of salivary bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus, and decrease the annual prevalence of pneumonia hospitalization. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03874962. Registered 12 March 2019 - Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Boca/microbiologia , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Saliva/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/microbiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Taiwan
3.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190501, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236356

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The acquired pellicle formation is the first step in dental biofilm formation. It distinguishes dental biofilms from other biofilm types. OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of salivary pellicle formation before biofilm formation on enamel demineralization. METHODOLOGY: Saliva collection was approved by Indiana University IRB. Three donors provided wax-stimulated saliva as the microcosm bacterial inoculum source. Acquired pellicle was formed on bovine enamel samples. Two groups (0.5% and 1% sucrose-supplemented growth media) with three subgroups (surface conditioning using filtered/pasteurized saliva; filtered saliva; and deionized water (DIW)) were included (n=9/subgroup). Biofilm was then allowed to grow for 48 h using Brain Heart Infusion media supplemented with 5 g/l yeast extract, 1 mM CaCl2.2H2O, 5% vitamin K and hemin (v/v), and sucrose. Enamel samples were analyzed for Vickers surface microhardness change (VHNchange), and transverse microradiography measuring lesion depth (L) and mineral loss (∆Z). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. RESULTS: The two-way interaction of sucrose concentration × surface conditioning was not significant for VHNchange (p=0.872), ∆Z (p=0.662) or L (p=0.436). Surface conditioning affected VHNchange (p=0.0079), while sucrose concentration impacted ∆Z (p<0.0001) and L (p<0.0001). Surface conditioning with filtered/pasteurized saliva resulted in the lowest VHNchange values for both sucrose concentrations. The differences between filtered/pasteurized subgroups and the two other surface conditionings were significant (filtered saliva p=0.006; DIW p=0.0075). Growing the biofilm in 1% sucrose resulted in lesions with higher ∆Z and L values when compared with 0.5% sucrose. The differences in ∆Z and L between sucrose concentration subgroups was significant, regardless of surface conditioning (both p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Within the study limitations, surface conditioning using human saliva does not influence biofilm-mediated enamel caries lesion formation as measured by transverse microradiography, while differences were observed using surface microhardness, indicating a complex interaction between pellicle proteins and biofilm-mediated demineralization of the enamel surface.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esmalte Dentário/microbiologia , Saliva/química , Sacarose/química , Desmineralização do Dente/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Esmalte Dentário/química , Película Dentária/microbiologia , Dureza , Microrradiografia/métodos , Pasteurização , Valores de Referência , Saliva/microbiologia , Sacarose/análise , Propriedades de Superfície
4.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231838, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348348

RESUMO

The International Space Station (ISS) is a complex built environment physically isolated from Earth. Assessing the interplay between the microbial community of the ISS and its crew is important for preventing biomedical and structural complications for long term human spaceflight missions. In this study, we describe one crewmember's microbial profile from body swabs of mouth, nose, ear, skin and saliva that were collected at eight different time points pre-, during and post-flight. Additionally, environmental surface samples from eight different habitable locations in the ISS were collected from two flights. Environmental samples from one flight were collected by the crewmember and samples from the next flight were collected after the crewmember departed. The microbial composition in both environment and crewmember samples was measured using shotgun metagenomic sequencing and processed using the Livermore Metagenomics Analysis Toolkit. Ordination of sample to sample distances showed that of the eight crew body sites analyzed, skin, nostril, and ear samples are more similar in microbial composition to the ISS surfaces than mouth and saliva samples; and that the microbial composition of the crewmember's skin samples are more closely related to the ISS surface samples collected by the crewmember on the same flight than ISS surface samples collected by other crewmembers on different flights. In these collections, species alpha diversity in saliva samples appears to decrease during flight and rebound after returning to Earth. This is the first study to compare the ISS microbiome to a crewmember's microbiome via shotgun metagenomic sequencing. We observed that the microbiome of the surfaces inside the ISS resemble those of the crew's skin. These data support future crew and ISS microbial surveillance efforts and the design of preventive measures to maintain crew habitat onboard spacecraft destined for long term space travel.


Assuntos
Astronautas , Sistemas Ecológicos Fechados , Microbiota/genética , Voo Espacial/instrumentação , Astronave , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Metagenoma/genética , Saliva/microbiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Fatores de Tempo
5.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0228798, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Lactobacilli, and other salivary indices in subjects wearing clear aligners (CA) in comparison with multibrackets orthodontic appliances (MB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sample of 80 participants (46 males and 34 females) was included in the study: 40 subjects (aged 20.4±1.7 years) were treated with CA, and 40 (aged 21.3±1.7 years) were treated with MB. Plaque index (PI), salivary flow, buffering power of saliva, and salivary levels of S. mutans and Lactobacilli were evaluated prior to start of orthodontic treatment (t0), after 3 months (t1) and 6 months (t2). RESULTS: CA patients maintained PI at level 0 over time, while MB participants experienced a statistically significant increasing trend of PI over time. In addition, at t2, 37.5% of MB participants (15 subjects over 40) showed risky salivary levels (CFU/ml>105) of S. mutans (odds ratio = 7.40; 95% C.I. = 1.94-28.25; chi-square = 10.32; p = 0.001) as well as Lactobacilli (odds ratio = 23.40; 95% C.I. = 2.91-188.36; chi-square = 15.31; p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Comparing all the data, subjects treated with CA achieved lower salivary microbial colonization after 6 months of treatment compared with MB. Different additional strategies for plaque control and salivary microbial colonization must be triggered considering the type of orthodontic appliance.


Assuntos
Índice de Placa Dentária , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Fixos , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Removíveis , Saliva/microbiologia , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Feminino , Humanos , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Streptococcus mutans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 84, 2020 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been reports of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the oral cavity and it has been suggested that the oral cavity may be a reservoir for H. pylori reflux from the stomach. High-throughput sequencing was used to assess the structure and composition of oral microbiota communities in individuals with or without confirmed H. pylori infection. METHODS: Saliva samples were obtained from 34 H. pylori infected and 24 H. pylori uninfected subjects. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted and examined by sequencing by amplification of the 16S rDNA V3-V4 hypervariable regions followed by bioinformatics analysis. Saliva sampling was repeated from 22 of the 34 H. pylori infected subjects 2 months after H. pylori eradication. RESULTS: High-quality sequences (2,812,659) clustered into 95,812 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% identity). H. pylori was detected in the oral cavity in infected (12/34), uninfected (11/24) and eradicated (15/22) subjects by technique of high-throughput sequencing, occupying 0.0139% of the total sequences. Alpha diversity of H. pylori infected subjects was similar to that of uninfected subjects (Shannon: 1417.58 vs. 1393.60, p > 0.05, ACE: 1491.22 vs. 1465.97, p > 0.05, Chao 1: 1417.58 vs. 1393.60, p > 0.05, t-test). Eradication treatment decreased salivary bacterial diversity (Shannon, p = 0.015, ACE, p = 0.003, Chao 1, p = 0.002, t-test). Beta diversity analysis based on unweighted UniFrac distances showed that the salivary microbial community structure differed between H. pylori infected and uninfected subjects (PERMANOVAR, pseudo-F: 1.49, p = 0.033), as well as before and after H. pylori eradication (PERMANOVAR, pseudo-F: 3.34, p = 0.001). Using LEfSe analysis, 16 differentially abundant genera were defined between infected and uninfected subjects, 12 of which had a further alteration after successful eradication. CONCLUSIONS: Our study using high-throughput sequencing showed that H. pylori was present commonly in the oral cavity with no clear relation to H. pylori infection of the stomach. Both H. pylori infection and eradication therapy caused alterations in community and structure of the oral microbiota. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03730766. Registered 2 Nov 2018 - Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/ NCT03730766.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Microbiota , Saliva/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Amplificação de Genes , Helicobacter pylori/fisiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Boca/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
7.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 80(4): 543-558, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144639

RESUMO

Dermacentor silvarum is widely distributed in northern China and transmits several pathogens that cause diseases in humans and domestic animals. We analysed the comprehensive bacterial community of the saliva and midgut from partially and fully engorged female adult D. silvarum. Dermacentor silvarum samples were collected from Guyuan, China. Bacterial DNA was extracted from the saliva and midgut contents of partially or fully engorged female adult D. silvarum. Sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA genes was performed using the IonS5TMXL platform. The bacterial diversity in saliva was higher than in the midgut. The bacterial diversity of saliva from fully engorged ticks was greater than in partially engorged tick saliva. The bacterial diversity in midguts from partially engorged ticks was greater than in fully engorged tick midguts. Proteobacteria was the most dominant bacterial phylum in all of the samples. Twenty-nine bacterial genera were detected in all of the samples. Rickettsia, Anaplasma, and Stenotrophomonas were the main genera. The symbionts Coxiella, Arsenophonus, and Wolbachia were also detected in all of the samples. Eight bacterial species were identified in all of the experimental samples. Anaplasma marginale was reported for the first time in D. silvarum.


Assuntos
Dermacentor/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Microbiota , Saliva/microbiologia , Animais , China , Feminino , RNA Ribossômico 16S
8.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229791, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150588

RESUMO

Saliva represents an ideal matrix for diagnostic biomarker development as it is readily available and requires no invasive collection procedures. However, salivary RNA is labile and rapidly degrades. Previous attempts to isolate RNA from saliva have yielded poor quality and low concentrations. Here we compare collection and processing methods and propose an approach for future studies. The effects of RNA stabilisers, storage temperatures, length of storage and fasting windows were investigated on pooled saliva samples from healthy volunteers. Isolated RNA was assessed for concentration and quality. Bacterial growth was investigated through RT-PCR using bacterial and human primers. Optimal conditions were implemented and quality controlled in a clinical setting. The addition of RNAlater increased mean RNA yield from 4912 ng/µl to 15,473 ng and RNA Integrity Number (RIN) from 4.5 to 7.0. No significant changes to RNA yield were observed for storage at room temperature beyond 1 day or at -80 °C. Bacterial growth did not occur in samples stored at ambient temperature for up to a week. There was a trend towards higher RNA concentration when saliva was collected after overnight fasting but no effect on RIN. In the clinic, RNA yields of 6307 ng and RINs of 3.9 were achieved, improving on previous reports. The method we describe here is a robust, clinically feasible saliva collection method using preservative that gives high concentrations and improved RINs compared to saliva collected without preservative.


Assuntos
RNA/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/química , Saliva/microbiologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 53, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the randomized double-blinded clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of tooth brushing with Salvadora persica (miswak) sticks on Streptococcus mutans count and the mean plaque score relative to brushing with fluoridated tooth paste (FTP). METHODS: Our sample included 94 healthy, high caries-risk, 8 to 9-year-old students recruited from a government school, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between February and April 2016. Subjects were randomly grouped into test (provided with miswak sticks) and control groups (provided with FTP and soft brushes). Both groups were introduced to a preparatory period (PPP) of 3 weeks. Plaque score and saliva sampling were conducted prior to the PPP and in follow-up visits by a single, calibrated and blinded dentist. RESULTS: Both groups showed a statistically significant decrease in the mean plaque score across the study (P = 0.007 and P = 0.001, respectively). In addition, subjects in the test group with abundant S. sanguinis increased from zero to six after 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Salvadora Persica (miswak) and brushing with FTP significantly reduced plaque scores among school children. In addition, Salvadora persica was found to change the proportions of salivary bacteria in favor of species with less risk of inducing caries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID #: NCT04137393.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Fitoterapia/instrumentação , Salvadoraceae , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Criança , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Saliva/microbiologia , Arábia Saudita
10.
Helicobacter ; 25(2): e12680, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this work was to find a reliable nested PCR for the detection of Helicobacter pylori in biopsy, stool, and saliva specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Novel nested PCR was elaborated and validated on 81 clinical biopsy, stool, and saliva samples from the same individual and compared to available H pylori assays: histology, rapid urease test (RUT), stool antigen test (SAT), 13 C-urea breath test (UBT). RESULTS: The efficiency and selectivity of 17 published nested polymerase chain reactions (PCR) available for Helicobacter pylori detection were re-evaluated. Most of them had serious limitations and mistakes in primer design. Hence, we elaborated a nested PCR for the unambiguous identification of H pylori in biopsy, stool, and saliva, using primers targeted to variable regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Moreover, we determined the detection limit by adding a known number of cells. This number was as low as 0.5 cells in a PCR vial, but due to the DNA isolation procedures, it required 1-5 × 103 cells/g or ml of specimen. The sensitivity for nested PCR from stomach biopsies was on the same scale as 13 C-UBT (93.8%), but it was much lower in amplifications from stool (31.3%). Sequencing of all obtained PCR products exclusively confirmed H pylori-specific DNA sequences. CONCLUSIONS: Elaborated nested PCR assay can serve as an auxiliary method for controversial samples (patients with bleeding or taking proton-pump inhibitor) in laboratories with basic equipment. The sensitivity and specificity for the amplification from gastric biopsies was almost like 13 C-UBT. Despite the good sensitivity, the threshold occurrence and the ability to survive in the oral cavity aside from and independent of the stomach is the reason why H pylori DNA cannot be reliably detected in saliva, stool, and some biopsy samples.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carga Bacteriana , Biópsia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Gastroscopia , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Saliva/microbiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
11.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(5): 1085-1095, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034425

RESUMO

The current study aimed at the determination of the impact of obesity on the salivary microbiome in adolescents. Sixty subjects ranging 14-17 years old were enrolled (obese: n = 30-50% females, and normal weight: n = 30-50% females). Stimulated saliva was collected for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) band patterns and massive 16S rRNA gene sequencing using the Ion Torrent platform. Overall, data analysis revealed that male subjects harbored a higher diverse salivary microbiome, defined by a significant higher richness (32.48 versus 26.74) and diversity (3.36 versus 3.20), higher Simpson values (0.96 versus 0.95) and distinct bacterial community structure considering either sex or condition (p < 0.05). Bacterial community fingerprinting analysis in human saliva showed a positive correlation with increased body mass index (BMI) in adolescents. Veillonella, Haemophilus and Prevotella occurrence was found to be affected by BMI, whereas Neisseria and Rothia occurrence was significantly impacted by sex in obese subjects. Our findings suggest that male and female adolescents may harbor a naturally distinct salivary microbiota and that obesity may specifically have an impact on their oral bacterial community. The potential dysbiotic oral microbiome in obese adolescents raises new insights on the etiology and prevention of future conditions in these populations.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota/genética , Obesidade/microbiologia , Saliva/microbiologia , Adolescente , Bactérias/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Gradiente Desnaturante , Feminino , Haemophilus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Micrococcaceae/isolamento & purificação , Neisseria/isolamento & purificação , Prevotella/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Veillonella/isolamento & purificação
12.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227198, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935228

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The first 90 of the 90-90-90 initiative introduced by the World Health Organization(WHO) in 2015 requires 90% of people with HIV be aware of their status by 2020. In South Africa, conventional facility-based testing had reached 84.9% in 2018; innovative new methods, like HIV self-testing(HIVST) may close the testing gap. This study aimed to determine the usability of seven HIVST kits among untrained South Africans. METHODS: This cross-sectional study of 1400 adults in Johannesburg evaluated the usability of five blood fingerstick and two oral fluid HIVSTs, using WHO prequalification criteria, from June 2016 to June 2018. Participants were handed one kit, with no further information about the device or test procedure, and asked to perform the test in front of an observer. The observer used product-specific semi-structured questionnaires organized into a composite usability index(UI) using a HIVST process checklist, a contrived results interpretation and a post-test interview that expanded on participant experiences with the device and instructions-of-use(IFU). Participants were not tested themselves, but provided with contrived results to interpret. RESULTS: The average UI was 92.8%(84.2%-97.6%); the major difficulty was obtaining and transferring the specimen. Participants correctly interpreted 96.1% of the non-reactive/negative, 97.0% of the reactive/positive, 98.0% of the invalid and 79.9% of the weak positive results. Almost all participants(97.0%) stated they would visit a clinic or seek treatment for positive results; with negative results, half(50.6%) stated they should re-test in the next three months while one-third(36.1%) said they should condomize. Nearly all found the devices easy to use(96.6%), the IFUSs easy to understand(97.9%) and felt confident using the test unassisted(95.9%) but suggested improvements to packaging/IFUs to further increase usability; 19.9% preferred clinic-based testing to HIVST. CONCLUSION: The UI and interpretation of results was high and in-line with previous usability studies, suggesting that these kits are appropriate for use in the general, untrained and unsupervised public.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/instrumentação , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/virologia , Saliva/microbiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto Jovem
13.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 682: 108278, 2020 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981541

RESUMO

Oral microbes are a contributing factor to hyperglycemia by inducing an increase in insulin resistance resulting in uncontrolled blood glucose levels. However, the relationship between the distribution of oral flora and hyperglycemia is still controversial. Combining the power of MALDI-Biotyper with anaerobic bacterial culture, this study explores the correlation between anaerobic bacteria in the oral cavity and blood glucose levels. The results demonstrated that altered blood glucose levels contributed to a varied bacterial distribution in the oral cavity. Specifically, Veillonella spp. and Prevotella spp. were identified in a higher proportion in people with elevated blood glucose levels. Six bacterial species identified in this study (Prevotella melaninogenica, Campylobacter rectus, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, and Veillonella parvula) not only demonstrated a positive association with higher blood glucose levels, but also likely contribute to the development of the condition. The data demonstrated MALDI-TOF MS to be a simpler, faster, and more economical clinical identification tool that provides clarity and depth to the research on blood glucose and oral microbiota.


Assuntos
Gengiva/microbiologia , Hiperglicemia/microbiologia , Microbiota , Saliva/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias Anaeróbias , Glicemia/análise , Campylobacter rectus , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevotella/metabolismo , Prevotella melaninogenica , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Streptococcus gordonii , Streptococcus mitis , Streptococcus salivarius , Veillonella/metabolismo
14.
Oral Dis ; 26(3): 677-687, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to characterize the composition of the salivary microbiota and quantify salivary levels of inflammation-related proteins (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL] and transferrin) in patients with psoriasis and compare data to those obtained in patients with periodontitis and orally healthy controls, respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stimulated saliva samples from patients with psoriasis (n = 27), patients with periodontitis (n = 58), and orally healthy controls (n = 52) were characterized by means of next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Salivary levels of NGAL and transferrin were quantified using immunoassays. RESULTS: Linear discriminant effect size analysis showed that 52 (22 psoriasis-associated and 30 periodontitis-associated) and 21 (8 psoriasis-associated and 13 orally healthy control-associated) bacterial taxa differentiated the salivary microbiota in patients with psoriasis from that of patients with periodontitis and orally healthy controls, respectively. Significantly lower mean salivary levels of NGAL (psoriasis: 996 [std. error 320], periodontitis: 2,072 [295], orally healthy controls: 2,551 [345] ng/ml, p < .0001) and transferrin (psoriasis: 4.37 [0.92], periodontitis: 7.25 [0.88], orally healthy controls: 10.02 [0.94] ng/ml, p < .0001) were identified in patients with psoriasis. CONCLUSIONS: Psoriasis associates with characteristics of the salivary microbiota and salivary levels of inflammation-related proteins, which are different from characteristics in patients with periodontitis and orally healthy controls, respectively.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Periodontite , Psoríase/microbiologia , Saliva/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Lipocalina-2/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Transferrina/metabolismo
15.
Oral Dis ; 26(2): 473-483, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418980

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This 6-month prospective clinical study assessed the impacts of Invisalign appliances on the oral bacterial community and oral health of patients. METHODS: Salivary samples were obtained from twenty-five adult patients receiving Invisalign aligner treatment before the treatment (Group B) and at a 6-month follow-up (Group P). The bacterial composition of each sample was determined using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA. Intra- and intergroup biodiversity was analyzed. Clinical periodontal parameters and daily oral hygiene habits were recorded. RESULTS: Reduction in plaque, increased daily brushing frequency, and decreased dessert intake were observed in Group P compared with that in Group B. A total of 1,853,952 valid reads were obtained from the 50 salivary samples, with 37,904 sequences per sample. No significant differences were detected in the intra- and intergroup biodiversity comparisons between the two groups. By clustering, 8,885 OTUs were identified and categorized into six major phyla: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Candidate_division_TM7_norank. At the genus level, compared with Group B, Group P demonstrated significantly increased Bacillus abundance and decreased Prevotella abundance. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that the general biodiversity and salivary microbial community structure did not change significantly and that patients had increased beneficial oral hygiene habits and awareness during the first six months of Invisalign treatment. Hence, on the basis of this study, it appears that Invisalign aligner treatment did not induce deterioration of oral health nor significant biodiversity changes in oral bacterial communities, assuming that detailed oral hygiene instructions for both teeth and aligners were provided.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Saúde Bucal , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Removíveis , Saliva/microbiologia , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
Recent Pat Biotechnol ; 14(1): 41-48, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early childhood caries is a sugar-dependent disease with multifactorial modulating factors affecting deciduous dentition. It is defined as the presence of at least one decayed tooth, absence of a tooth due to caries or the existence of a temporary restoration in a tooth in a child between zero and 71 months of age. No BRP varnish was found in intellectual property banks, therefore it was registered and deposited with patent number BR1020160190142. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the dose-response concentration of alcoholic extract of Brazilian red propolis (BRP), in the form of dental varnish, against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in children. METHODS: Twenty-four children, aged between 36 and 71 months, of both genders and without caries, were selected to participate in this pilot study and grouped randomly into four groups to receive different concentrations of BRP varnish (1%, 2.5%, 5% and 10%). The varnish was applied to the surface of all second deciduous molars. The antimicrobial activity was observed in saliva, which was collected in two phases: before applying the BRP varnish and after use. RESULTS: There was microbiological reduction of S. mutans in the oral cavity of the children in all the tested concentrations. The highest percentage reduction of S. mutans was observed at the concentration of 2.5% (P = 0.0443). CONCLUSION: The BRP extract in the form of dental varnish has antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and constitutes a possible alternative in the prevention of dental caries.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Própole , Cariostáticos/administração & dosagem , Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Patentes como Assunto , Projetos Piloto , Própole/administração & dosagem , Própole/farmacologia , Própole/uso terapêutico , Saliva/microbiologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(4): 785-805, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832691

RESUMO

The highest number (35.1% of global incident cases) of new oropharyngeal (OP) and hypopharyngeal (HP) cancer cases was reported in South-Central Asia. The highest incidence of HP cancer in India was reported in East Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya, Aizawl District of Mizoram, and Kamrup Urban District of Assam. HP and OP cancer showed the highest mortality rate, worst prognoses and the highest rate of nodal metastases and distant metastases. Thus, research is required to detect specific biomarkers for early prevention and diagnosis for these cancers. Oral microbiome signatures in saliva are considered as a potential diagnostic biomarker for OP and HP cancer. Bacterial profile alterations in OP and HP cancer have not been reported in India population, to establish the association of oral bacteria in the progression of OP and HP cancer; we studied bacterial communities in saliva of eight OP and seven HP cancer patients as compared to healthy controls using 16S rRNA V3-V4 region sequencing. The higher abundance of Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Haemophilus influenzae and Prevotella copri and lower abundance of Rothia mucilaginosa, Aggregatibacter segnis, Veillonella dispar, Prevotella nanceiensis, Rothia aeria, Capnocytophaga ochracea, Neisseria bacilliformis, Prevotella nigrescens and Selenomonas noxia in saliva of OP and HP cancer patients may be considered as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for OP and HP cancer patients. Streptococcus anginosus may be considered as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for OP cancer patients only. Therefore, evaluation of salivary microbial biomarkers may be informative to understand the pathobiology and carcinogenesis of OP and HP cancer.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/microbiologia , Neoplasias Hipofaríngeas/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/microbiologia , Saliva/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
19.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110077, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821940

RESUMO

Forensic samples are commonly influenced by various environmental factors, including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation; thus, forensic applications of DNA repair (e.g., PreCR™, Restorase®) have been investigated, focusing on short tandem repeat typing. However, current DNA-based examinations are used for both human and body fluid identification. This study thus aims to clarify the efficacy of a DNA repair approach for Streptococcus salivarius DNA-based identification of saliva from UV-damaged samples. Artificial UV-damaged genomic DNA of S. salivarius, drop saliva stains, and buccal swabs were used to evaluate the effects of DNA repair on S. salivarius DNA detection by using PreCR™ repair reagent. To evaluate forensic applications, we prepared mock forensic samples by exposing them to environmental conditions. Melting curve analysis following real-time PCR was applied for qualitatively detecting S. salivarius DNA with a specific melting peak of 80.5°C±0.4°C (n=10, mean ± 3SD). Single PCR was used for quantitative and qualitative analyses, whereas dual PCR was used for S. salivarius DNA qualitative detection. DNA repair experiments using artificial UV-damaged samples revealed a significant increase of only the quantitative value of genomic DNA samples by DNA repair. Moreover, significant quantitative DNA repair effects were not observed in all mock forensic samples, indicating the limitations of DNA repair for actual cell-derived DNA samples. Whereas, differences of qualitative results (with or without detection) were generated for mock forensic samples; thus, we consider the DNA repair strategy as an additional approach for S. salivarius DNA-based identification of saliva from environmentally damaged evidence.


Assuntos
Reparo do DNA , Saliva/microbiologia , Streptococcus salivarius/genética , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Dano ao DNA , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Indicadores e Reagentes , Repetições de Microssatélites , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
20.
Oral Dis ; 26(2): 295-301, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514257

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study systematically aims to evaluate the salivary microbiome in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) using 16S rRNA sequencing approach. METHODS: DNA isolation and 16S rRNA sequencing was performed on saliva of 37 pSS and 35 control (CC) samples on HiSeq 2500 platform. 16S rRNA sequence analysis was performed independently using two popular computational pipelines, QIIME and less operational taxonomic units scripts (LoTuS). RESULTS: There were no significant changes in the alpha diversity between saliva of patients and controls. However, four genera including Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Dialister and Leptotrichia were found to be differential between the two sets, and common between both QIIME and LoTuS analysis pipelines (Fold change of 2 and p < .05). Bifidobacterium, Dialister and Lactobacillus were found to be enriched, while Leptotrichia was significantly depleted in pSS compared to the controls. Exploration of microbial diversity measures (Chao1, observed species and Shannon index) revealed a significant increase in the diversity in patients with renal tubular acidosis. An opposite trend was noted, with depletion of diversity in patients with steroids. CONCLUSION: Our analysis suggests that while no significant changes in the diversity of the salivary microbiome could be observed in Sjögren's syndrome compared to the controls, a set of four genera were significantly and consistently differential in the saliva of patients with pSS. Additionally, a difference in alpha diversity in patients with renal tubular acidosis and those on steroids was observed.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Microbiota , Saliva/microbiologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/microbiologia , Acidose Tubular Renal/tratamento farmacológico , Acidose Tubular Renal/microbiologia , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
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