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1.
JAMA ; 324(14): 1406-1418, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048154

RESUMO

Importance: Persistent smoking may cause adverse outcomes among patients with cancer. Many cancer centers have not fully implemented evidence-based tobacco treatment into routine care. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of sustained telephone counseling and medication (intensive treatment) compared with shorter-term telephone counseling and medication advice (standard treatment) to assist patients recently diagnosed with cancer to quit smoking. Design, Setting, and Participants: This unblinded randomized clinical trial was conducted at Massachusetts General Hospital/Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Adults who had smoked 1 cigarette or more within 30 days, spoke English or Spanish, and had recently diagnosed breast, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, gynecological, head and neck, lung, lymphoma, or melanoma cancers were eligible. Enrollment occurred between November 2013 and July 2017; assessments were completed by the end of February 2018. Interventions: Participants randomized to the intensive treatment (n = 153) and the standard treatment (n = 150) received 4 weekly telephone counseling sessions and medication advice. The intensive treatment group also received 4 biweekly and 3 monthly telephone counseling sessions and choice of Food and Drug Administration-approved cessation medication (nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, or varenicline). Main Outcome and Measures: The primary outcome was biochemically confirmed 7-day point prevalence tobacco abstinence at 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes were treatment utilization rates. Results: Among 303 patients who were randomized (mean age, 58.3 years; 170 women [56.1%]), 221 (78.1%) completed the trial. Six-month biochemically confirmed quit rates were 34.5% (n = 51 in the intensive treatment group) vs 21.5% (n = 29 in the standard treatment group) (difference, 13.0% [95% CI, 3.0%-23.3%]; odds ratio, 1.92 [95% CI, 1.13-3.27]; P < .02). The median number of counseling sessions completed was 8 (interquartile range, 4-11) in the intensive treatment group. A total of 97 intensive treatment participants (77.0%) vs 68 standard treatment participants (59.1%) reported cessation medication use (difference, 17.9% [95% CI, 6.3%-29.5%]; odds ratio, 2.31 [95% CI, 1.32-4.04]; P = .003). The most common adverse events in the intensive treatment and standard treatment groups, respectively, were nausea (n = 13 and n = 6), rash (n = 4 and n = 1), hiccups (n = 4 and n = 1), mouth irritation (n = 4 and n = 0), difficulty sleeping (n = 3 and n = 2), and vivid dreams (n = 3 and n = 2). Conclusions and Relevance: Among smokers recently diagnosed with cancer in 2 National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers, sustained counseling and provision of free cessation medication compared with 4-week counseling and medication advice resulted in higher 6-month biochemically confirmed quit rates. However, the generalizability of the study findings is uncertain and requires further research. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01871506.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Temperança/psicologia , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Idoso , Bupropiona/efeitos adversos , Bupropiona/uso terapêutico , Cotinina/análise , Aconselhamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Entrevista Motivacional , Satisfação do Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes , Saliva/química , Fumar/tratamento farmacológico , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/efeitos adversos , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/uso terapêutico , Telefone , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Vareniclina/efeitos adversos , Vareniclina/uso terapêutico
2.
Pain Physician ; 23(4S): S283-S294, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a common complication associated with epidural steroid injections (ESIs). However, the effect of different doses is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to compare the differences in the duration of HPA suppression following treatment with different doses of ESI; triamcinolone acetate (TA) 40 mg and TA 20 mg. The secondary objectives were to compare the extent of salivary cortisol (SC) reduction, the incidence of adrenal insufficiency (AI), and the differences in a numeric rating scale (NRS) depending on the varying levels of TA dose used for ESI. STUDY DESIGN: A double-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Pain clinics in a university hospital. METHODS: The patients were treated with TA epidurally and divided into 2 groups (T20 and T40) depending on the dose of TA (20 mg and 40 mg). The SC concentration was measured before and after ESI to calculate the duration of HPA axis suppression, the extent of SC concentration reduction, and the SC recovery rate. Additionally, NRS and adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation tests were used. RESULTS: Thirty patients were analyzed. The T40 group showed longer HPA suppression (19.7 ± 3.1 days) compared with that of the T20 group (8.0 ± 2.4 days). The recovery rate of the T40 group was lower than that of the T20 group (P < 0.015). However, there was no difference in the extent of reduction in SC concentration after ESI, the occurrence of AI, and pain reduction. LIMITATIONS: There were selection bias and no placebo control. CONCLUSIONS: Although the difference in pain relief according to the ESI dose is not significant, the HPA suppression is prolonged with a higher dose than a lower dose, and the recovery is slower. Therefore, the time interval between consecutive ESIs should be adjusted depending on the steroid dose to ameliorate the adverse effects of steroids.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Triancinolona/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Adrenal/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/etiologia , Saliva/química , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/complicações , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Triancinolona/efeitos adversos
3.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 815-822, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895666

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A novel acute-phase protein, YKL-40, is known as an inflammation-associated glycoprotein. YKL-40 is shown to be linked to inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and tissue remodeling secreted by various cells and is also considered to be stimulated by cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). The present study aimed to investigate YKL-40 and IL-6 levels in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) after non-surgical periodontal therapy for the first time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six CP patients and 26 periodontally healthy individuals were enrolled. Clinical measurements were recorded; saliva and GCF samples were obtained at baseline and 1 and 3 months after non-surgical periodontal therapy. Levels of YKL-40 and IL-6 in saliva and GCF were analysed by ELISA. RESULTS: Salivary and GCF YKL-40 and IL-6 levels were found to be statistically significantly higher in CP patients compared to healthy controls at baseline (p < 0.001). At 1 and 3 months after the completion of treatment, both YKL-40 and IL-6 levels in saliva and GCF had statistically significantly decreased compared with baseline values in CP patients (p < 0.001). On the other hand, no statistically significant difference was observed between 1 and 3 months in terms of salivary and GCF YKL-40 and IL-6 levels or any of the clinical findings (p > 0.016). CONCLUSION: Salivary and GCF YKL-40 levels may be useful to evaluate resolution of periodontal inflammation. Within the limits of this study, YKL-40 acute-phase protein might be a potential biomarker for detection of periodontitis and monitoring the response to periodontal therapy.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Proteína 1 Semelhante à Quitinase-3 , Humanos , Interleucina-6/análise , Saliva/química
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236297, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780750

RESUMO

Naproxen is a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for the control of postoperative inflammatory signs and symptoms in dentistry. Its association with esomeprazole has been widely studied and has yielded good results for the control of acute pain, even with the delayed absorption of naproxen owing to the presence of esomeprazole. To further understand the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of this drug alone and in combination with esomeprazole, we will analyze the pharmacokinetic parameters of naproxen and its major metabolite, 6-O-desmethylnaproxen, in saliva samples. A rapid, sensitive, and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the simultaneous determination of naproxen and 6-O-desmethylnaproxen in saliva will be developed and validated. Sequential saliva samples from six patients will be analyzed before and 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 8, 11, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after the ingestion of one naproxen tablet (500 mg) and esomeprazole-associated naproxen tablets (500 + 20 mg), at two different times. After liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and HCl, the samples will be analyzed using an 8040 Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan). Separation of naproxen and its major metabolic products will be performed using a Shim-Pack XR-ODS 75Lx2.0 column and C18 pre-column (Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan) at 40°C using a mixture of methanol and 10 mM ammonium acetate (70:30, v/v) with an injection flow of 0.3 mL/min. The total analytical run time will be 5 min. The detection and quantification of naproxen and its metabolite will be validated, which elucidate the pharmacokinetics of this drug, thereby contributing to its proper prescription for the medical and dental interventions that cause acute pain.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacocinética , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Esomeprazol/farmacocinética , Naproxeno/análogos & derivados , Saliva/química , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Combinação de Medicamentos , Esomeprazol/administração & dosagem , Esomeprazol/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Absorção Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Metanol/química , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Naproxeno/administração & dosagem , Naproxeno/isolamento & purificação , Naproxeno/farmacocinética , Dor Processual/tratamento farmacológico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comprimidos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237581, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797062

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) in the development of dental disorders. METHODS: The first outcome was review of the role of reflux in the development of dental disorders in adults. The second outcome was review of the potential pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the association between reflux and dental disorders. Three investigators screened publications for eligibility and exclusion based on predetermined criteria through a literature search conducted on PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Scopus according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). RESULTS: From 386 publications, 24 studies were kept for analysis. Objective approaches were used in 16 studies to confirm GERD diagnosis. Pharyngeal reflux episodes (LPR) were considered in 2 studies. No study considered nonacid reflux. The study results supported a higher prevalence of dental erosion and caries in reflux patients compared with healthy individuals. Patients with dental erosion have a higher prevalence of reflux than controls. The pathophysiological mechanisms would involve changes in the saliva physiology. No study investigated the microbiota modifications related to reflux although the findings are supporting the critical role of microbiota change in the development of dental disorders. There is an important heterogeneity between studies about diagnostic methods and clinical outcome evaluation. CONCLUSION: The involvement of reflux in the development of dental disorders is not formally demonstrated and requires future investigations considering pharyngeal acid and nonacid reflux episodes and in particular their potential impact on oral microbiota.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Esofagite Péptica/epidemiologia , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Saliva/química
6.
mSphere ; 5(4)2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611701

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in China in late 2019 and is caused by newly identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Previous studies had reported the stability of SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture media and deposited onto surfaces under a limited set of environmental conditions. Here, we broadly investigated the effects of relative humidity, temperature, and droplet size on the stability of SARS-CoV-2 in a simulated clinically relevant matrix dried on nonporous surfaces. The results show that SARS-CoV-2 decayed more rapidly when either humidity or temperature was increased but that droplet volume (1 to 50 µl) and surface type (stainless steel, plastic, or nitrile glove) did not significantly impact decay rate. At room temperature (24°C), virus half-life ranged from 6.3 to 18.6 h depending on the relative humidity but was reduced to 1.0 to 8.9 h when the temperature was increased to 35°C. These findings suggest that a potential for fomite transmission may persist for hours to days in indoor environments and have implications for assessment of the risk posed by surface contamination in indoor environments.IMPORTANCE Mitigating the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical settings and public spaces is critically important to reduce the number of COVID-19 cases while effective vaccines and therapeutics are under development. SARS-CoV-2 transmission is thought to primarily occur through direct person-to-person transfer of infectious respiratory droplets or through aerosol-generating medical procedures. However, contact with contaminated surfaces may also play a significant role. In this context, understanding the factors contributing to SARS-CoV-2 persistence on surfaces will enable a more accurate estimation of the risk of contact transmission and inform mitigation strategies. To this end, we have developed a simple mathematical model that can be used to estimate virus decay on nonporous surfaces under a range of conditions and which may be utilized operationally to identify indoor environments in which the virus is most persistent.


Assuntos
Fômites/virologia , Umidade , Modelos Teóricos , Vírus da SARS/fisiologia , Temperatura , Inativação de Vírus , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Plásticos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Porosidade , Saliva/química , Saliva/virologia , Aço Inoxidável , Propriedades de Superfície
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235859, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687494

RESUMO

In our work, we aim to identify new candidate host biomarkers to discriminate between active TB patients (n = 28), latent infection (LTBI; n = 27) and uninfected (NoTBI; n = 42) individuals. For that, active TB patients and their contacts were recruited that donated serum and saliva samples. A multiplex assay was performed to study the concentration of different cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. Proteins with significant differences between groups were selected and logistic regression and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was used to assess the diagnostic accuracy. The best marker combinations that discriminate active TB from NoTBI contacts were [IP-10 + IL-7] in serum and [Fractalkine + IP-10 + IL-1α + VEGF] in saliva. Best discrimination between active TB and LTBI was achieved using [IP-10 + BCA-1] in serum (AUC = 0.83) and IP-10 in saliva (p = 0.0007; AUC = 0.78). The levels of TNFα (p = 0.003; AUC = 0.73) in serum and the combination of [Fractalkine+IL-12p40] (AUC = 0.83) in saliva, were able to differentiate between NoTBI and LTBI contacts. In conclusion, different individual and combined protein markers could help to discriminate between active TB and both uninfected and latently-infected contacts. The most promising ones include [IP-10 + IL-7], [IP-10 + BCA-1] and TNFα in serum and [Fractalkine + IP-10 + IL-1α + VEGF], IP-10 and [Fractalkine+IL-12p40] in saliva.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CX3CL1/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Interleucinas/sangue , Tuberculose Latente/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Quimiocina CX3CL1/análise , Quimiocina CXCL10/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucinas/análise , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Latente/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saliva/química , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/análise
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 536, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread, early, ideally real-time, identification of SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals is pivotal in interrupting infection chains. Volatile organic compounds produced during respiratory infections can cause specific scent imprints, which can be detected by trained dogs with a high rate of precision. METHODS: Eight detection dogs were trained for 1 week to detect saliva or tracheobronchial secretions of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients in a randomised, double-blinded and controlled study. RESULTS: The dogs were able to discriminate between samples of infected (positive) and non-infected (negative) individuals with average diagnostic sensitivity of 82.63% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 82.02-83.24%) and specificity of 96.35% (95% CI: 96.31-96.39%). During the presentation of 1012 randomised samples, the dogs achieved an overall average detection rate of 94% (±3.4%) with 157 correct indications of positive, 792 correct rejections of negative, 33 incorrect indications of negative or incorrect rejections of 30 positive sample presentations. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings indicate that trained detection dogs can identify respiratory secretion samples from hospitalised and clinically diseased SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals by discriminating between samples from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients and negative controls. This data may form the basis for the reliable screening method of SARS-CoV-2 infected people.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Brônquios/química , Brônquios/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cães , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Projetos Piloto , Saliva/química , Saliva/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461278, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709330

RESUMO

A fast, non-invasive, high-performance liquid chromatographic screening method with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection was developed for the analysis of three major glycine-conjugated bile acids in human saliva. Using a mobile phase composed of 80% methanol and 0.1% formic acid, glycocholic, glycodeoxycholic, and glycochenodeoxycholic acids were separated in less than 4 minutes with sensitivity in the low nM range. Bile acids are thought to contribute to the pathology of various complications in gastroesophageal reflux disease, for instance, Barrett's esophagus, which may eventually lead to esophageal carcinoma. In this pilot study, samples of saliva obtained from 15 patients with Barrett's esophagus of various severities were compared to saliva samples from 10 healthy volunteers. Glycochenodeoxycholic acid was significantly elevated in the patients and principal component analysis of all bile acids could distinguish the most severe Barrett's esophagus patients. We also reported on the detection of glycochenodeoxycholic acid in exhaled breath condensate for the first time. The promising results of this pilot study warrant future investigation, aiming at non-invasive diagnostics of Barrett's esophagus susceptibility in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.


Assuntos
Esôfago de Barrett/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Saliva/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Adulto , Esôfago de Barrett/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Análise de Componente Principal , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
10.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110124, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721813

RESUMO

Utilising biomarkers for COVID-19 diagnosis, prediction of treatment response and overall prognostication have been investigated recently. However, these ventures have only considered the use of blood-based molecular markers. Saliva is another biofluid that warrants being applied in similar fashion with major advantages that centres on its non-invasive and repeatable collection as well as cost-efficiency. To this end, this article presents a hypothesis for the sources of biomarkers useful clinically for COVID-19 disease outcome estimation and identify the likely implications of their detection in saliva.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Biomarcadores/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Modelos Imunológicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Citocinas/análise , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Vesículas Extracelulares , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Humanos , MicroRNAs/análise , Doenças da Boca/complicações , Doenças da Boca/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Saliva/imunologia , Saliva/virologia , Glândulas Salivares/metabolismo , Glândulas Salivares/virologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19017-19025, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719130

RESUMO

To achieve the mission of personalized medicine, centering on delivering the right drug to the right patient at the right dose, therapeutic drug monitoring solutions are necessary. In that regard, wearable biosensing technologies, capable of tracking drug pharmacokinetics in noninvasively retrievable biofluids (e.g., sweat), play a critical role, because they can be deployed at a large scale to monitor the individuals' drug transcourse profiles (semi)continuously and longitudinally. To this end, voltammetry-based sensing modalities are suitable, as in principle they can detect and quantify electroactive drugs on the basis of the target's redox signature. However, the target's redox signature in complex biofluid matrices can be confounded by the immediate biofouling effects and distorted/buried by the interfering voltammetric responses of endogenous electroactive species. Here, we devise a wearable voltammetric sensor development strategy-centering on engineering the molecule-surface interactions-to simultaneously mitigate biofouling and create an "undistorted potential window" within which the target drug's voltammetric response is dominant and interference is eliminated. To inform its clinical utility, our strategy was adopted to track the temporal profile of circulating acetaminophen (a widely used analgesic and antipyretic) in saliva and sweat, using a surface-modified boron-doped diamond sensing interface (cross-validated with laboratory-based assays, R 2 ∼ 0.94). Through integration of the engineered sensing interface within a custom-developed smartwatch, and augmentation with a dedicated analytical framework (for redox peak extraction), we realized a wearable solution to seamlessly render drug readouts with minute-level temporal resolution. Leveraging this solution, we demonstrated the pharmacokinetic correlation and significance of sweat readings.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/análise , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Saliva/química , Suor/química , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234005, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609768

RESUMO

Rhipicephalus microplus is recognized as a tick species highly prevalent in cattle, with a wide pantropical distribution that seems to continue spreading geographically. However, its role as a biological vector has been scarcely studied in the livestock context. In this study, a 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing analysis was used to determine bacterial diversity in salivary glands and gut of R. microplus from two contrasting livestock agroecosystems in Antioquia, Colombia. Both the culture-independent approach (CI) and the culture-dependent (CD) approach were complementarily adopted in this study. A total of 341 unique OTUs were assigned, the richness showed to be higher in the Northern than in the Middle Magdalena region, and a high diversity was found at the phylum and genus levels in the samples obtained. With the CI approach, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria were the most common phylum of bacteria regardless of the organ, or geographic origin of the specimens analyzed. While the relative abundance of bacteria at a phylum level with the CD approach varied between analyzed samples, the data obtained suggest that a high diversity of species of bacteria occurs in R. microplus from both livestock agroecosystems. Bacterial genera such as Anaplasma, Coxiella, and Ehrlichia, recognized for their implications in tick-borne diseases, were also detected, together with endosymbionts such as Lysinibacillus, previously reported as a potential tool for biological control. This information is useful to deepen the knowledge about microbial diversity regarding the relations between endosymbionts and pathogens and could facilitate the future development of epidemiological surveillance in livestock systems.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Rhipicephalus/genética , Rhipicephalus/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Colômbia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Gado/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Saliva/química , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia
13.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(3): 401-404, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719243

RESUMO

To review the relevance of sialic acid as a tumour marker in oral cancer. Tumour marker are useful in the screening for early malignancy. Sialic acids are important in determining the surface properties of cells and has been implicated in cellular invasiveness, adhesiveness, and immunogenicity. Sialic acids are commonly found at the outermost end of glycan chains of all cell types. Increase in the levels of sialic acid in oral cancer indicates its importance as a tumour marker.Both serum and salivary sialic acid levels can be used as a screening tool and a diagnostic aid for oral cancer. Salivary sialic acid can be used as a non-invasive, cost effective and reliable diagnostic methods for screening and monitoring of oral cancer. In patients with oral cancer, glycoprotein metabolism is altered. Increase in the levels of sialic acid in oral cancer indicate its importance as a tumour marker. Changes in the serum is reflected in saliva. Salivary sialic acid can be used as non-invasive, cost effective and reliable diagnostic methods for screening and monitoring of oral cancer. Early the diagnosis, better the prognosis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/análise , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico , Saliva/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Saliva/química
14.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 237, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared with disease biomarkers in blood and urine, biomarkers in saliva have distinct advantages in clinical tests, as they can be conveniently examined through noninvasive sample collection. Therefore, identifying human saliva-secretory proteins and further detecting protein biomarkers in saliva have significant value in clinical medicine. There are only a few methods for predicting saliva-secretory proteins based on conventional machine learning algorithms, and all are highly dependent on annotated protein features. Unlike conventional machine learning algorithms, deep learning algorithms can automatically learn feature representations from input data and thus hold promise for predicting saliva-secretory proteins. RESULTS: We present a novel end-to-end deep learning model based on multilane capsule network (CapsNet) with differently sized convolution kernels to identify saliva-secretory proteins only from sequence information. The proposed model CapsNet-SSP outperforms existing methods based on conventional machine learning algorithms. Furthermore, the model performs better than other state-of-the-art deep learning architectures mostly used to analyze biological sequences. In addition, we further validate the effectiveness of CapsNet-SSP by comparison with human saliva-secretory proteins from existing studies and known salivary protein biomarkers of cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The main contributions of this study are as follows: (1) an end-to-end model based on CapsNet is proposed to identify saliva-secretory proteins from the sequence information; (2) the proposed model achieves better performance and outperforms existing models; and (3) the saliva-secretory proteins predicted by our model are statistically significant compared with existing cancer biomarkers in saliva. In addition, a web server of CapsNet-SSP is developed for saliva-secretory protein identification, and it can be accessed at the following URL: http://www.csbg-jlu.info/CapsNet-SSP/. We believe that our model and web server will be useful for biomedical researchers who are interested in finding salivary protein biomarkers, especially when they have identified candidate proteins for analyzing diseased tissues near or distal to salivary glands using transcriptome or proteomics.


Assuntos
Proteínas/química , Saliva/química , Humanos
15.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 121(6): 428-430, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Many studies use stimulated saliva for the assessment of cortisol. However, it is not yet clear how stimulation affects the flow of specific markers. The aim was to assess whether stimulation of salivation affects the physiological flow of cortisol during a stressing day as compared to an ordinary day. The second aim was to show how the normalising factor affects the outcome of the study. METHODS: Stimulated saliva was taken from 42 children at 8:00 a.m. and 12:00 a.m. on two separate days one month apart. During the first day, the children were exposed to stress situation, while the second day was considered a control day. The concentration of cortisol was analysed using ELISA. RESULTS: The highest level of cortisol was observed in the morning of the stress day (p 0.99). CONCLUSION: Based on our results, the examination of the cortisol diurnal rhythm is not reliable in stimulated saliva. Moreover, the effect of saliva stimulation has to be taken into account for every marker individually (Fig. 2, Ref. 22).


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Saliva , Estresse Fisiológico , Biomarcadores , Criança , Ritmo Circadiano , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Saliva/química
16.
J Infect Dis ; 222(4): 564-571, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525979

RESUMO

Aerosols represent a potential transmission route of COVID-19. This study examined effect of simulated sunlight, relative humidity, and suspension matrix on stability of SARS-CoV-2 in aerosols. Simulated sunlight and matrix significantly affected decay rate of the virus. Relative humidity alone did not affect the decay rate; however, minor interactions between relative humidity and other factors were observed. Mean decay rates (± SD) in simulated saliva, under simulated sunlight levels representative of late winter/early fall and summer were 0.121 ±â€…0.017 min-1 (90% loss, 19 minutes) and 0.306 ±â€…0.097 min-1 (90% loss, 8 minutes), respectively. Mean decay rate without simulated sunlight across all relative humidity levels was 0.008 ±â€…0.011 min-1 (90% loss, 286 minutes). These results suggest that the potential for aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2 may be dependent on environmental conditions, particularly sunlight. These data may be useful to inform mitigation strategies to minimize the potential for aerosol transmission.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Betacoronavirus/efeitos da radiação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Luz Solar , Aerossóis , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Simulação por Computador , Meios de Cultura , Umidade , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Pandemias , Análise de Regressão , Saliva/química , Saliva/virologia , Células Vero
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235358, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a multifactorial disease and represents a global and relevant health problem. The aim of the study was to assess the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8)) and other selected proteins as well as enzymes (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM1), calprotectin, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), toll like receptor 2 (TLR2)) detectable in the saliva of women who varied in body composition. It was debated whether there are marker factors in saliva that could indicate metabolic obesity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The pilot study included 10 women with obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2) and 6 women with normal body weight (control group). The levels of TNF-α, IL-8, sICAM1, calprotectin, MMP-9, MMP-2, and TLR2 were checked by using the ELISA technique. We proved that women with metabolic obesity had significantly increased concentrations of IL-8, calprotectin, and MMP-2 in comparison with healthy subjects. Significant positive correlations of BMI with TNF-α, IL-8, and MMP-2 were observed. Similarly, the content of fat (in kg and %) in the bodies of the women correlated positively with TNF-α, IL-8, and MMP-2. Whereas, the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) correlated positively only with TNF-α and MMP-2, similarly to VAT/SAT. The WHR (waist hip ratio) was also positively correlated with TNF-α and MMP-2. Interestingly, we found that the level of insulin positively correlated with TNF- α concentration, which additionally confirmed metabolic obesity. CONCLUSIONS: We found that positive correlations of body mass index were observed only with salivary concentrations of TNF-α, MMP-2, and IL-8. Thus, it is worth conducting a study among a larger number of people taking into account these three salivary components.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Citocinas/metabolismo , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Saliva/química , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Projetos Piloto
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2911, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518308

RESUMO

During blood-feeding, mosquito saliva is injected into the skin to facilitate blood meal acquisition. D7 proteins are among the most abundant components of the mosquito saliva. Here we report the ligand binding specificity and physiological relevance of two D7 long proteins from Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito, the vector of filaria parasites or West Nile viruses. CxD7L2 binds biogenic amines and eicosanoids. CxD7L1 exhibits high affinity for ADP and ATP, a binding capacity not reported in any D7. We solve the crystal structure of CxD7L1 in complex with ADP to 1.97 Å resolution. The binding pocket lies between the two protein domains, whereas all known D7s bind ligands either within the N- or the C-terminal domains. We demonstrate that these proteins inhibit hemostasis in ex vivo and in vivo experiments. Our results suggest that the ADP-binding function acquired by CxD7L1 evolved to enhance blood-feeding in mammals, where ADP plays a key role in platelet aggregation.


Assuntos
Difosfato de Adenosina/química , Culex/química , Mosquitos Vetores , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/química , Trifosfato de Adenosina/química , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Eicosanoides/química , Comportamento Alimentar , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hemostasia , Humanos , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Ligantes , Nucleotídeos/química , Agregação Plaquetária , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Saliva/química , Termodinâmica
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233718, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Person and environment-related childhood adverse events have been demonstrated to increase the risk of impaired mental health in later life differently for boys and girls. Altered hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis functioning has been suggested as a key mechanism underlying this association. Cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are both output hormones of the HPA-axis. DHEA may have a protective function against long-term exposure to increased levels of cortisol, but has been little investigated in relation to childhood adversity. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test the associations between person-, and environment-related childhood adversity and levels of cortisol, DHEA and cortisol/DHEA ratio in adolescent boys and girls. METHODS: A total of 215 Dutch adolescents participated in the study and filled out the 27-item Adverse Life Events Questionnaire for the assessment of childhood adversity, which was split up in separate scores for person-related and environment-related events. Cortisol and DHEA concentrations and cortisol/DHEA ratio were determined in proximal 3 cm long hair segments. Additionally, saliva samples were collected immediately and 30 minutes after waking up, at noon and at 8 pm. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to test associations between childhood adversity and cortisol and DHEA concentrations, for boys and girls separately, with age, BMI and pubertal development as covariates. RESULTS: Data were available for 74 boys and 116 girls with a mean age of 15.7 years (SD = 2.0). Higher levels of person-related childhood adversity were associated with higher hair DHEA levels in girls and with higher hair cortisol levels in boys. A trend towards a significant association was observed between higher levels of environment-related childhood adversity and higher DHEA levels in boys. Neither person- nor environment related childhood adversity was associated with cortisol/DHEA ratio. A trend was observed for environment-related childhood adversity and lower daily cortisol output in boys. CONCLUSION: We found differential associations between childhood adversity and cortisol and DHEA levels in girls and boys, for respectively person-related and environment-related childhood adversity. Our findings suggest that different types of childhood adversity are not only linked to levels of cortisol, but also to DHEA concentrations, in a sex-specific manner, with possible future implications for mental health.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Desidroepiandrosterona/análise , Hidrocortisona/análise , Adolescente , Desidroepiandrosterona/metabolismo , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Masculino , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234971, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584863

RESUMO

Intensive pig management involves in a commercial setting the housing and implementation of certain procedures, such as castration and tail docking, which may be stressful for the animal. Good farming practices include the reduction of stress due to management processes, but assessing the level of stress perceived entirely through behavioural observations can be challenging. The monitoring stress-related physiological markers, like glucocorticoids (GC), can be an accurate alternative that would presumably be more objective. In order to avoid an additional stressor by taking blood, a non-invasive approach is advisable. We used an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test and the effect of transport to examine the suitability of different enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for monitoring adrenocortical function in domestic pigs using saliva and faeces as sample matrices. An assay measuring faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCMs) with a 3ß,11ß-diol group has proven suited to determine adrenocortical activity, showing an overall increase of 180% in fGCM concentrations related to ACTH administration and of 70% related to transport, respectively. A cortisol EIA was used to detect salivary glucocorticoid (sGC) concentrations, revealing a 1100% increase in sGC concentrations after ACTH administration. The stability of fGCM concentrations post-defecation was determined to assess possible changes in measured fGCM concentrations in unpreserved faecal material over time, with fGCM concentrations being relatively stable (maximal 12% change) under natural conditions for approximately two days after defecation. This implicates that untreated faecal material from pigs can be analysed for up to two days after collection without appreciable level of depreciation in fGCM concentrations. Being able to assess the physiological stress response of domestic pigs non-invasively can help to improve the well-being of commercially reared pigs.


Assuntos
Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/análise , Bem-Estar do Animal , Hidrocortisona/análise , Estresse Fisiológico , Sus scrofa , Córtex Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/metabolismo , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Feminino , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Saliva/química
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