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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 131, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965342

RESUMO

A large number of human activities result in the release of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) into the environment, which could lead to the degradation of riparian areas. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of Salix alba, Juglans regia and Populus nigra for the biomonitoring of PTEs in the riparian soils of the Sava River. Levels of seven PTEs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were measured in the soils, roots and leaves of plants at selected sampling sites and evaluated according to bioaccumulation and translocation factors. The obtained results showed that in riparian soils, As, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were at levels considered to be critical for plants. The levels of As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Zn measured in roots of Salix alba and As, Cr, Ni and Zn in its leaves were toxic for plant tissue. Toxic levels of Cr were also measured in the roots of Juglans regia and As in its leaves, as well as As and Cr in the roots of Populus nigra, and Zn in its leaves. Bioconcentration and translocation factors showed that S. alba and P. nigra have potential for the phytoextraction of Zn and Cd, while J. regia has potential for the phytoextraction of As. In terms of phytostabilization potential, S. alba proved to be good for the phytostabilization of Cd and Cu, and J. regia for the phytostabilization of Cr, As, Ni and Pb, while P. nigra showed potential for the phytostabilization of Cr, Ni, Pb and Cu.


Assuntos
Juglans , Metais Pesados , Populus , Salix , Poluentes do Solo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Juglans/química , Populus/química , Rios , Salix/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
2.
Planta Med ; 85(16): 1192-1202, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604354

RESUMO

Willow bark (Salix spp.) is an ingredient in some dietary supplements. No serious adverse effects were reported from trials of willow bark extracts delivering 120 - 240 mg salicin (the purported active constituent) daily for up to 8 weeks. All studies involved adults only; none involved special subpopulations such as pregnant or breastfeeding women, or children. The most common adverse effects associated with willow bark are gastrointestinal; a few allergic reactions were also reported. Some publications advise caution when taking willow bark. There is a risk of increased bleeding in vulnerable individuals, salicylates cross the placenta and are eliminated slowly in newborns, some persons are sensitive or allergic to aspirin, and children are at risk of Reye syndrome. Concurrent use with other salicylate-containing medicines increases these risks. Metabolism of 240 mg salicin from willow bark could yield 113 mg of salicylic acid, yet dietary supplement products are not required to be labeled with warnings. In contrast, over-the-counter low-dose aspirin (81 mg strength), which delivers 62 mg salicylic acid, is required by law to include cautions, warnings, and contraindications related to its use in pregnant and nursing women, children, and other vulnerable subpopulations, e.g., those using anticoagulants. In the interest of protecting public health, the United States Pharmacopeia has included a cautionary labeling statement in the United States Pharmacopeia Salix Species monograph as follows: "Dosage forms prepared with this article should bear the following statement: 'Not for use in children, women who are pregnant or nursing, or by persons with known sensitivity to aspirin.'".


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/metabolismo , Álcoois Benzílicos/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Glucosídeos/química , Casca de Planta/química , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Salix/química , Humanos , Farmacopeias como Assunto , Estados Unidos
3.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 133: 110783, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491430

RESUMO

Migraine is one of the most common neurological disorder, which has long been related to brain serotonin (5-HT) depletion and neuro-inflammation. Despite many treatment options are available, the frequent occurrence of unacceptable adverse effects further supports the research toward nutraceuticals and herbal preparations, among which Tanacetum parthenium and Salix alba showed promising anti-inflammatory and neuro-modulatory activities. The impact of extract treatment on astrocyte viability, spontaneous migration and apoptosis was evaluated. Anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant effects were investigated on isolated rat cortexes exposed to a neurotoxic stimulus. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, nitrite levels and 5-HT turnover were evaluated, as well. A proteomic analysis was focused on specific neuronal proteins and a fingerprint analysis was carried out on selected phenolic compounds. Both extracts appeared able to exert in vitro anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. S. alba and T. parthenium extracts reduced LDH release, nitrite levels and 5-HT turnover induced by neurotoxic stimulus. The downregulation of selected proteins suggest a neurotoxicity, which could be ascribed to an elevated content of gallic acid in both S. alba and T. parthenium extracts. Concluding, both extracts exert neuroprotective effects, although the downregulation of key proteins involved in neuron physiology suggest caution in their use as food supplements.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Salix/química , Tanacetum parthenium/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressão Alastrante da Atividade Elétrica Cortical/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426583

RESUMO

The principle of animal wellbeing, which states that animals should be free from pain, injury, and disease, is difficult to maintain, because microorganisms are most frequently found to be resistant or multi-resistant to drugs. The secondary metabolites of plants are an alternative for the treatment of these microorganisms. The aim of this work was to determine the antibacterial effect of Salix babylonica L. hydroalcoholic extract (SBHE) against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, and identify the compounds associated with the activity. The SBHE showed activity against the three strains, and was subjected to a bipartition, obtaining aqueous fraction (ASB) with moderate activity and organic fraction (ACSB) with good activity against the three strains. The chromatographic separation of ACSB, allowed us to obtain ten fractions (F1AC to F10AC), and only three showed activity (F7AC, F8AC and F10AC). In F7AC, five compounds were identified preliminary by GC-MS, in F8AC and F10AC were identified luteolin (1) and luteolin 7-O-glucoside (2) by HPLC, respectively. The best antibacterial activity was obtained with F7AC (Listeria monocytogenes; MIC: 0.78 mg/mL, MBC: 0.78 mg/mL) and F8AC (Staphylococcus aureus; MIC: 0.39 mg/mL; MBC: 0.78 mg/mL). The results indicated that the compounds obtained from SBHE can be used as an alternative treatment against these microorganisms and, by this mechanism, contribute to animal and human health.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Flavonoides/química , Luteolina/química , Salix/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Etanol/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Luteolina/isolamento & purificação , Luteolina/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Solventes/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água/química
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322048

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the evapotranspiration (EVP) rate of the willow species Salix humboldtiana to be used as a plant species for evapotranspirative willow system (EWS) to treat domestic wastewater in highland climate conditions in Latin America. Twelve lysimeters were installed in Bogotá, Colombia (2,600 m.a.s.l.). Two parameters were evaluated to determine the effect on EVP rate as follows: (a) the plant's age at the plantation time (one year or six months), and (b) the type of water (domestic wastewater or fertilized water). The plant's age was the most important parameter influencing the EVP rate. In addition, the growth of plants was similar (p > 0.05) between individuals irrigated with domestic wastewater and fertilized water. Thus, Salix humboldtiana over one-year-old was recommended to be used in EWS because its EVP rate of 1456 mm y-1, can treat 372 mm y-1 of domestic wastewater under the highland climate conditions. Finally, one EWS planted with Salix humboldtiana to treat domestic wastewater for a Colombian family located in these climate conditions would need an area of 400 m2. This value for area, although similar to other parts of the world, is higher when considering the solar radiation in tropical or sub-tropical climate conditions.


Assuntos
Salix/metabolismo , Purificação da Água/métodos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Clima , Colômbia , Salix/química , Salix/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Águas Residuárias/análise , Purificação da Água/instrumentação
6.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(2): 581-592, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081770

RESUMO

Pyrexia occurs due to infection, malignancy and other diseases. Majority of the antipyretic drugs are synthetic in nature which exerts side effects such as gastric ulcer, hepatic necrosis and renal damage. The antipyretic potential of the hydro-alcoholic extracts of Achillea millefolium, Taraxacum officinale, Salix alba and Trigonella foenum were investigated on the yeast-induced pyrexia in albino rats. Paracetamol was used as a positive control. Rectal temperature of albino rats was verified immediately before the administration of the extracts or vehicle or paracetamol and yet again at 1-hour gap for 6 hours using a digital thermometer. The animals having pyrexia were divided into four groups Group1: Paracetamol was given to positive control. Group 2: Distilled water was given to negative control. Group 3: (250mg/kg) extract of the plant was given to rats (treatment group 1). Group 4: (500mg/kg) extracts of the plant was given to albino rats (Treatment group 2). The extracts were also phytochemically screened for alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and phenols. The hydro-alcoholic extracts of plants with the dose of 500mg/kg showed significant (p<0.0001) decrease in yeast-induced pyrexia, as compared with that of set drug paracetamol (150mg/kg) where the extract dose 250mg/kg was less effective than that of standard drug (p<0.05). Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and phenols. This study showed that hydro-alcoholic extracts of all plants under study at a dose of 500mg/kg have significant antipyretic potential in yeast-induced elevated temperature.


Assuntos
Antipiréticos/química , Antipiréticos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Acetaminofen/farmacologia , Achillea/química , Animais , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Feminino , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Febre/etiologia , Masculino , Paquistão , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Ratos , Salix/química , Taraxacum/química , Trigonella/química
7.
Complement Ther Med ; 44: 102-109, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126541

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Primary dysmenorrhea in the absence of pelvic pathology is a common gynecologic disorder affecting the quality of life of women of reproductive age. This study evaluates the effect of salix extract on primary dysmenorrhea. DESIGN: This study was a randomized crossover clinical trial. SETTING: The study population included 96 female students with level two or three of primary dysmenorrhea: 48 students in the treatment group (sequence I) followed by control (sequence II) and 48 students in control group (sequence I) followed by treatment (sequence II). INTERVENTIONS: The intervention was salix capsule (400 mg daily) and the active control was mefenamic acid capsule (750 mg daily) as. MAIN OUTCOMES: Pain intensity, measured by the visual analog scale (VAS), amount of bleeding, and severity of dysmenorrhea symptoms were outcomes. Generalized estimating equations were used for data analysis. RESULTS: The demographic and menstrual characteristics of the students were homogenous between the groups. The results showed that the students in mefenamic acid group had a significantly higher level of VAS than the students in the salix group over time (1.61 ± 0.06, P < 0.001). The estimated odds of the bleeding level in the salix and mefenamic acid group were not significantly different (P = 0.31). In average, 77.39%±16.18 of the students in salix group showed no symptoms followed by 22.18%±14.08 of the students who experienced mild symptoms. Averagely, 44.58%±20.16 of the students in the mefenamic acid group had mild symptoms followed by moderate symptoms (28.12%±15.29). CONCLUSIONS: Salix extract significantly decreased dysmenorrhea in comparison to mefenamic acid, as the standard treatment of dysmenorrhea.


Assuntos
Dismenorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Salix/química , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Mefenâmico/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto Jovem
8.
Molecules ; 24(10)2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137712

RESUMO

Utilizing bioassay- and TLC-guided column chromatography, fifteen secondary metabolites from Populus alba and eight compounds from Salix subserrata were isolated, including a novel plant metabolite salicyl ether and characterized using ultralviolet light (UV) absorbance, mass spectrometry (MS), 1H-, 13C-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), heteronuclear single quantum coherence spectroscopy (HSQC) and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC). The extracts, their sub-fractions and the isolated compounds exhibited promising antioxidant activities in vitro in DPPH and FRAP assays. Also, the extracts of P. alba leaf (PL), shoots (PS), and S. subserrata leaf (SL) demonstrated substantial antioxidant activities in vivo in the multicellular model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. For the first time, the isolated secondary metabolites, aromadendrin, tremuloidin, salicin, isorhamnetin-3-O-ß-d-rutinoside, gallocatechin, triandrin, and chrysoeriol-7-O-glucuronide were investigated. They exhibited substantial antioxidant activities in vivo. Salicin, isorhamnetin-3-O-ß-d-rutinoside and gallocatechin, in particular, protected the worms against a lethal dose of the pro-oxidant juglone (80 µM), decreased the endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) level to 45.34%, 47.31%, 68.09% and reduced juglone- induced hsp-16.2::GFP (green fluorescence protein) expression to 79.62%, 70.17%, 26.77%, respectively. However, only gallocatechin induced higher levels of sod-3 expression. These findings support the traditional use of Populus alba and Salix subserrata for treating inflammation especially when ROS are involved.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenóis/farmacologia , Populus/química , Salix/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/farmacologia , Flavonoides/análise , Recuperação de Fluorescência Após Fotodegradação , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Picratos/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
9.
J Environ Manage ; 239: 352-365, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921754

RESUMO

Phytotechnologies have been used worldwide to remediate and restore damaged ecosystems, especially those caused by industrial byproducts leaching into rivers and other waterways. The objective of this study was to test the growth, physiology, and phytoextraction potential of poplar and willow established in soils amended with heavy-metal contaminated, dredged river sediments from the Great Backa Canal near Vrbas City, Serbia. The sediments were applied to greenhouse-grown trees of Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. clone 'Bora' and Salix viminalis L. clone 'SV068'. Individual pots with trees previously grown for two months were amended with 0, 0.5 and 1.0 kg of sediment containing 400 mg Cr kg-1, 295 mg Cu kg-1, 465 mg Zn kg-1, 124 mg Ni kg-1, 1.87 mg Cd kg-1, and 61 mg Pb kg-1. Following amendment, trees were grown for two seasons (i.e., 2014, 2015), with coppicing after the first season. In addition to growth parameters, physiological traits related to the photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism were assessed during both growing seasons. At the end of the study, trees were harvested for biomass analysis and accumulation of heavy metals in tree tissues and soils. Application of sediment decreased aboveground biomass by 37.3% in 2014, but increased height (16.4%) and leaf area (19.2%) in 2015. Sediment application negatively impacted the content of pigments and nitrate reductase activity, causing them to decrease over time. Generally, the effect of treatments on growth was more pronounced in poplars, while willows had more pronounced physiological activity. Accumulation patterns were similar to previously-published results. In particular, Zn and Cd were mostly accumulated in leaves of both poplar and willow, which indicated successful phytoextraction. In contrast, other metals (e.g., Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu) were mostly phytostabilized in the roots. Differences in metal allocation between poplar and willow were recorded only for Cu, while other metals followed similar distribution patterns in both genera. Results of this study indicated that the composition of heavy metals in the sediments determined the mechanisms of the applied phytoremediation technique.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Populus/química , Populus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rios/química , Salix/química , Salix/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Biomassa , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Populus/metabolismo , Salix/metabolismo , Sérvia , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Árvores/química , Árvores/metabolismo
10.
Molecules ; 24(6)2019 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909533

RESUMO

Salix triandra (almond leaved willow) is an established crop, grown in coppicing regimes for basket-making materials. It is known as a source of non-salicinoid phenolic glycosides, such as triandrin and salidroside. A spontaneous natural hybrid of S. triandra and S. dasyclados was subjected to metabolite profiling by high resolution LC-MS, and 22 phenolic glycosides, including 18 that are new to the Salicaceae, were identified. Structures were determined by HPLC isolation and NMR methods. The hybridisation process has introduced novel chemistry into the Salix phenolic glycoside palette, in particular, the ability to generate disaccharide conjugates where the glycosyl group is further extended by a range of sugars, including apiose, rhamnose, xylose, and arabinose. Also of note is the appearance of chavicol derivatives, also not previously seen in Salix spp. The work demonstrates the plasticity of the phenolic glycoside biosynthetic pathway, and the potential to improve established crops such as S. triandra and S. dasyclados, via high-value metabolites, for both basketry and bioenergy markets.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/química , Metaboloma , Fenóis/química , Salix/química , Compostos Alílicos/química , Arabinose/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glucosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Pentoses/química , Ramnose/química , Madeira/química , Xilose/química
11.
Phytomedicine ; 57: 396-402, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Willow bark (Salicis cortex) is a herbal medicinal drug used to treat fever and pain, such as headaches and lower back pain. Until now, it has not been fully understood which compounds are responsible for the efficacy of the drug. PURPOSE: Although salicylic acid is known as a metabolite of salicylic alcohol derivatives of willow bark in vivo, it has been shown in previous studies that its concentration is too low to account for the overall efficacy of Salicis cortex. The aim this study was to broaden the knowledge regarding phenolic phase-II metabolites after oral intake of a willow bark extract. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: Serum samples of a human pharmacokinetic study (Salicis cortex extract intake corresponding to 240 mg of total salicin, 10 volunteers, 12 h fasting time, controlled diet low in phenolics, and 12 blood withdrawals over a period of 24 h) were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS. A library of 142 possible metabolites associated with salicylic alcohol derivatives, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins was used to characterize possible metabolization products. Their structures were confirmed by LC-ESI-MS experiments with reference compounds after a cleavage reaction using glucuronidase and sulfatase as well as by LC-MS/MS experiments. RESULTS: In the serum samples, phase-II metabolites of naringenin (2x glucuronides, 2x sulfates, 2x mixed glucuronide-sulfates), eriodictyol (3x glucuronides, 1x sulfate), taxifolin (1x sulfate), catechin (1x sulfate, 1x mixed glucuronide sulfate), ferulic acid (1x sulfate), hydroxyphenyl-propionic acid (1x sulfate), dihydroxyphenyl-valerolactone (1x sulfate), saligenin (1x glucuronide, 1x sulfate), salicylic acid (1x sulfate, 1x unconjugated, 1x salicyluric acid), and catechol (1x glucuronide, 1x sulfate) were characterized. Because taxifolin, dihydroxyphenyl-valerolactone, ferulic acid, and hydroxyphenyl-propionic acid could not be detected in the willow bark preparation, they could be metabolization products of genuine flavanones and flavan-3-ols as well as coumaric acid or C-ring cleavage products of flavonoids, which were present in the extract. No phase-II metabolites of procyanidins and no genuine flavonoid glycosides were detected in all serum samples. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to identify human metabolites of flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and salicylic alcohol derivatives of Salicis cortex beside salicylic acid or catechol. For the most characterized metabolites, anti-inflammatory activity has been described in the literature, and the present results are an important step in understanding the anti-inflammatory efficacy of willow bark in vivo.


Assuntos
Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Salix/química , Administração Oral , Álcoois Benzílicos/sangue , Álcoois Benzílicos/farmacocinética , Cromatografia Líquida , Flavonoides/sangue , Flavonoides/farmacocinética , Glicosídeos/análise , Glicosídeos/sangue , Glicosídeos/farmacocinética , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Inativação Metabólica , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
12.
Planta Med ; 85(7): 608-614, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690691

RESUMO

The anti-inflammatory properties of the topical herbal composition VEL-091604 with gentian root, licorice root, and willow bark extract were assessed in a randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blind ultraviolet (UV)-erythema test study with 42 healthy volunteers in comparison to 1% hydrocortisone acetate. The efficacy and tolerability of VEL-091604 cream 2 times daily over 2 wk was evaluated in an open-label, prospective proof of concept study in 10 subjects with atopic dermatitis using a lesional SCORAD severity score. In the UV-erythema test VEL-091604 cream significantly reduced inflammation compared to placebo and was as effective as 1% hydrocortisone acetate. The clinical study with atopic subjects revealed a significant and rapid reduction of the lesional SCORAD severity score in the test areas after 1 and 2 wk. No adverse events were recorded. It is concluded that the herbal cream VEL-091604 with licorice root, willow bark, and gentian root extract display anti-inflammatory properties in vivo. It is a promising new treatment option for atopic dermatitis that warrants further investigation in controlled studies.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Gentiana/química , Glycyrrhiza/química , Medicina Herbária , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Salix/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Raízes de Plantas/química , Estudos Prospectivos , Creme para a Pele/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
13.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 113: 1-8, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391545

RESUMO

Aspirin is currently the most widely used drug worldwide, and has been clearly one of the most important pharmacological achievements of the twentieth century. Historians of medicine have traced its birth in 1897, but the fascinating history of aspirin actually dates back >3500 years, when willow bark was used as a painkiller and antipyretic by Sumerians and Egyptians, and then by great physicians from ancient Greece and Rome. The modern history of aspirin precursors, salicylates, began in 1763 with Reverend Stone - who first described their antipyretic effects - and continued in the 19th century with many researchers involved in their extraction and chemical synthesis. Bayer chemist Felix Hoffmann synthesized aspirin in 1897, and 70 years later the pharmacologist John Vane elucidated its mechanism of action in inhibiting prostaglandin production. Originally used as an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drug, aspirin then became, for its antiplatelet properties, a milestone in preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The aspirin story continues today with the growing evidence of its chemopreventive effect against colorectal and other types of cancer, now awaiting the results of ongoing primary prevention trials in this setting. This concise review revisits the history of aspirin with a focus on its most remote origins.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/história , Antipiréticos/história , Aspirina/história , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/história , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/história , Salix , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/síntese química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antipiréticos/síntese química , Antipiréticos/isolamento & purificação , Antipiréticos/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/síntese química , Aspirina/isolamento & purificação , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/síntese química , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , Humanos , Casca de Planta , Folhas de Planta , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/síntese química , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Salix/química
14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17207, 2018 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464290

RESUMO

Willow (Salix spp.) seeds are able to tolerate desiccation, but differ from typical orthodox seeds in that they lose viability in a few days at room temperature, and in that the chloroplasts in embryo tissues do not dedifferentiate during maturation drying, thus retaining chlorophyll and maintaining intact their thylakoid membranes. In the present study, we investigated the damage generated in willow seeds during storage under appropriate conditions to exclude the eventual generation of reactive oxygen species by photooxidation. To this end, we measured different indicators of molecular damage, such as changes in the fatty acid profile, protein degradation, nuclease activities, and DNA damage, and evaluated normal germination and total germination in seeds stored for one, ten and sixteen years. We found: (i) a decrease in the fraction of unsaturated fatty acids; (ii) changes in the protein profile due to a decrease in protein solubility; (iii) activation of nucleases; and (iv) DNA fragmentation. Taken together, our findings identified programmed cell death as a key mechanism in seed deterioration during storage. We also found that, although the seeds maintained high percentages of total germination, the death program had already started in the seeds stored for ten years and was more advanced in those stored for sixteen years.


Assuntos
Germinação , Preservação Biológica , Salix/fisiologia , Sementes/fisiologia , DNA de Plantas/análise , Dessecação , Exposição Ambiental , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Salix/química , Sementes/química , Análise de Sobrevida , Temperatura Ambiente
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(30): 30720-30727, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194574

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM2.5 with the diameter ≤ 2.5 µm) as one of the most harmful and complex pollutants can reduce environment quality and affect human health. Through acidification by wet deposition, PM2.5 can cause acid rain to impact aquatic ecosystems. However, our understanding of PM2.5 effect on ecosystem functioning is highly limited. This study investigated the relationship between PM2.5 concentration, associated acidity, and leaf litter breakdown of three tree species in laboratory experimental mesocosms, which are weeping willow (Salix babylonica), camphor tree(Cinnamomum camphora), and the south magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora). We found that leaf litter breakdown was significant affected by PM2.5 and associated acidity. With the increase of acidity, the leaf breakdown rate of all three tree species decreased. With the increase of PM2.5 concentration, the leaf breakdown rates of those leaves slowed down. When considering the influence of leaf toughness, willow leaves with lower toughness had a higher breakdown rate than that of camphor tree and the south magnolia. Our study suggests that PM2.5 has significant impact on the aquatic ecosystem functioning through increasing acidification in aquatic environment. Hence, along with ecological restoration of local aquatic habitats, further freshwater ecosystem management should include reducing air pollution through regional efforts of best ecosystem management.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Material Particulado/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Salix/química , Poluição do Ar/análise , Água Doce/química , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Árvores/química
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(23): 23261-23275, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29869211

RESUMO

In order to understand the effect of submergence on nutrient release of the reforested tree leaves and assess the environmental risk of leaf decomposition under submergence, the mass loss and nutrient release rates of three reforestation tree species, Taxodium ascendens Brongn, Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich., and Salix matsudana Koidz., at different elevation in the hydro-fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Dam Reservoir (TGDR) region were tested in situ. Results showed that the initial macroelement contents of the leaves of the three tree species varied among different elevations due to different submergence stresses. All foliar mass loss rates of the three tree species at 165 m a.s.l. were significantly higher than that at 175 m a.s.l. (except that of S. matsudana at 165 m a.s.l.), after 179 days of incubation commenced September 20. After 138 days of incubation commenced October 5, the foliar mass loss rates of the three tree species at 170 m a.s.l. were significantly higher than that at 175 m a.s.l. Moreover, the leaf mass loss rates of S. matsudana were higher than the other two species when compared at the same elevation of the same incubation period. In addition, foliar release rates of N and Ca in T. ascendens, C, N, and Ca in T. distichum as well as Ca in S. matsudana at 165 m a.s.l. after 179 days of incubation and at 170 m a.s.l. after 138 days of incubation were significantly higher than that at 175 m a.s.l., respectively. Leaf mass loss rates of T. ascendens were significantly correlated with its initial leaf K, Ca, and Mg contents. In contrast, leaf mass loss rates of T. distichum had significant correlations with the initial leaf P and K contents, as well as C/P and N/P ratios. However, the mass loss rates of S. matsudana significantly correlated with initial leaf N, P, and Ca contents and C/N, C/P, and N/P ratios. Foliar nutrient release rates, especially the foliar release of C, N, and P of the three tree species, had significant correlations with initial leaf C/P and N/P ratios. Our results suggested that submergence facilitated the decomposition and nutrient release rates of the leaves of the three woody species, especially the broad leaves of S. matsudana, which may potentially cause secondary pollution to the water body of the TGDR. Thus, we suggested that a sustainable harvest of leaves of the reforested forest stands prior to submergence should be considered in the hydro-fluctuation zone so as to protect the water quality of the TGDR.


Assuntos
Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Salix/metabolismo , Taxodium/metabolismo , Árvores , China , Inundações , Florestas , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Salix/química , Taxodium/química
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(28): 7294-7300, 2018 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29932676

RESUMO

Understanding the chemical structure of lignin in willow bark is an indispensable step to design how to separate its fiber bundles. The whole cell wall and enzyme lignin preparations sequentially isolated from ball-milled bark, inner bark, and wood were comparatively investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and three classical degradative methods, i.e., alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation, derivatization followed by reductive cleavage, and analytical thioacidolysis. All results demonstrated that the guaiacyl (G) units were predominant in the willow bark lignin over syringyl (S) and minor p-hydroxyphenyl (H) units. Moreover, the monomer yields and S/G ratio rose progressively from bark to inner bark and wood, indicating that lignin may be more condensed in bark than in other tissues. Additionally, major interunit linkage substructures (ß-aryl ethers, phenylcoumarans, and resinols) together with cinnamyl alcohol end groups were relatively quantitated by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Bark and inner bark were rich in pectins and proteins, which were present in large quantities and also in the enzyme lignin preparations.


Assuntos
Lignina/química , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Salix/química , Parede Celular/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Pectinas/química , Madeira/química
18.
Phytochemistry ; 153: 102-110, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29906656

RESUMO

The phenolic phytochemicals of winter-dormant Salix pyrolifolia were determined from the vegetative buds, and the bark and wood of different-aged twigs by HPLC-DAD and UHPLC-QTOF-MS analyses. All the plant parts were composed of salicylate glucosides and the other Salix-specific, simple phenolic glucosides as well as of phenolic acids, flavonoids and the high molecular-weight condensed tannins. The flavonoid composition was most diverse in buds and they also contained a large amount of chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid IUPAC), while salicylate glucosides and simple phenolic glucosides predominated in bark. The wooden interior part of the twigs contained fewer components and the lowest concentrations of compounds. Salicortin was the main compound in winter-dormant S. pyrolifolia (over 10% of bark biomass), but the concentrations of picein, salireposide, isosalipurposide, catechin and condensed tannins were also high. The flavonoid composition was highly naringenin- and quercetin-biassed. The composition of phytochemicals was organ-specific and remained relatively similar between different-aged trees. However, there were compound-specific fluctuations in the concentrations of phytochemicals with the age of the trees and within plant parts. Generally, the one-year-old plants differed from the older trees in their high concentration of condensed tannins in all the plant parts studied and in the highest concentration of isosalipurposide in bark, while the total amounts of salicylate glucosides in plant parts, and of naringenin glucosides in buds, tended to be highest in 20 year-old-trees.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos/química , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Casca de Planta/química , Salix/química , Madeira/química , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
19.
Water Sci Technol ; 77(11-12): 2555-2565, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29944121

RESUMO

Salix psammophila (SP), a solid waste abundantly available, was applied as a precursor to prepare the activated carbon by chemical activation method using phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the prepared conditions of activated carbon. The effects of concentration of H3PO4, activation temperature and activation time on the adsorption performance (expressed by the adsorption capacity of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR)) were investigated. The optimum conditions were obtained using H3PO4 concentration of 67.83%, activation temperature of 567.44 °C and activation time of 86.61 min. The optimum activated carbon (SPAC) was characterized with scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The adsorption behavior of CIP and NOR on SPAC was carried out and the mechanisms for the adsorption process were proposed. The equilibrium data were fitted by the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models, which resulted in 251.9 mg/g and 366.9 mg/g of the maximum monolayer adsorption for CIP and NOR at 25 °C, respectively. The best fitted kinetic model was pseudo-second-order, implying that chemisorption dominated in the adsorption process. This study indicated that activated carbon based on Salix psammophila (SPAC) was an excellent adsorbent for removing fluoroquinolone antibiotics from aqueous solutions.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Carvão Vegetal/química , Fluoroquinolonas/isolamento & purificação , Salix/química , Resíduos Sólidos , Adsorção , Ciprofloxacino/isolamento & purificação , Fluoroquinolonas/química , Cinética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Norfloxacino/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Fosfóricos/química , Espectrometria por Raios X/métodos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura Ambiente , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 115: 846-852, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704601

RESUMO

Biodegradable porous materials based on natural lignocellulosic biomass have multiple advantages of low cost, lightweight, non-toxicity, and the potential in place of non-biodegradable petrochemical products. However, the fabrication process for the porous materials was complicated by the slow and costly prefreeze or supercritical drying methods. Herein, a facile and green/clean strategy was presented to fabricate corncob and willow wood porous materials in ambient conditions. The effect of biomass solution concentration and preparation condition on porous material morphology structure was investigated systematically by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Further, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to estimate the structure and thermostability of the porous materials. Furthermore, the adsorptive properties of the biomass porous materials towards dye methylene blue and oil were evaluated. The biomass porous materials with a fluffy and porous structure were readily obtained via this procedure and showed effective adsorption capacity for dye methylene blue and oil.


Assuntos
Lignina/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Biomassa , Lignina/metabolismo , Azul de Metileno/química , Azul de Metileno/isolamento & purificação , Óleos/química , Porosidade , Salix/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Temperatura Ambiente , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Madeira/química , Zea mays/química
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