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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2169, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846317

RESUMO

Quantifying small, rapidly evolving forces generated by cells is a major challenge for the understanding of biomechanics and mechanobiology in health and disease. Traction force microscopy remains one of the most broadly applied force probing technologies but typically restricts itself to slow events over seconds and micron-scale displacements. Here, we improve >2-fold spatially and >10-fold temporally the resolution of planar cellular force probing compared to its related conventional modalities by combining fast two-dimensional total internal reflection fluorescence super-resolution structured illumination microscopy and traction force microscopy. This live-cell 2D TIRF-SIM-TFM methodology offers a combination of spatio-temporal resolution enhancement relevant to forces on the nano- and sub-second scales, opening up new aspects of mechanobiology to analysis.


Assuntos
Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Fluorescência , Células HeLa , Humanos , Ratos , Salmão
2.
J Environ Manage ; 284: 112012, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556827

RESUMO

The sustained development of hydropower energy in the last century has caused important ecological impacts, promoting recent advances in efficient mitigation measures to be implemented in existing and future hydropower plants. Although upstream fish migration has been largely addressed with the development of fish-pass infrastructures, downstream passage solutions are often missing or inefficient, strengthening the need for their improvement and efficiency assessment. The efficiency of horizontally inclined (26°) low bar spacing racks associated to a bypass was assessed using salmon smolts radiotelemetry along three successive hydropower plants (HPP) in the Ariège River (southern France). In average, nearly 90% of the smolts were successfully protected by the racks and rapidly guided to the bypass, within few minutes in most cases. Furthermore, we detected a significant positive influence of the bypass discharge (Qbp% expressed as the proportion of concurrent HPP discharge) on the probability of successful bypass passage, reaching 85% of successful passage with a Qbp% of only 3%, and more than 92% when the Qbp% exceeded 5%. The probability of bypass passage without hesitation (e.g. passage within the first 5 min) also increased with Qbp%, and reached 90% with 5% of Qbp%. Passage without hesitation was especially detected on the site having larger bypass entrances and transversal currents, providing better guidance into the bypass. High-efficiency results of inclined racks yielded with reduced Qbp% confirmed their relevance to mitigate some of the HPP ecological impacts, re-establishing safe downstream salmon migration with lower impact on energy production than older less efficient solutions.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Salmão , Animais , França , Centrais Elétricas , Água
3.
Mar Environ Res ; 166: 105268, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626460

RESUMO

Incidental mortality of marine birds in fisheries is an international conservation concern, including in Canada where globally significant populations of vulnerable diving species overlap with coastal gillnet fisheries. In British Columbia (BC), commercial salmon gillnet fishing effort was historically very high (>200,000 days fished annually in the early 1950's), and although this fishery has declined, over 6,400 days were fished annually in the 2006-2016 decade. Observations of seabird bycatch within the commercial fishery, however, are limited in both scope (comprising <2% of cumulative effort 2001-2016) and in time (being available only from 1995 onwards and only for a small number of areas). Using onboard fishery observer data from commercial, test and experimental fisheries (1995-2016), we developed two models to estimate the number of marine birds captured per set in sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and chum (O. keta) salmon gillnet fisheries employing a Generalized Linear Mixed Modeling (GLMM) approach in a hierarchical Bayesian framework, with observer data post-stratified by fisheries management area and year. Using estimates of total commercial fishing effort (estimated number of sets, 2001-2016) we applied the models to extrapolate annual take for the main bird species (or groups) of interest. Multinomial probability estimates of species composition were calculated based upon a sample of 852 birds identified to species that were associated with sockeye or chum fisheries, enabling estimates (with CIs) of potential numbers of the mostly commonly observed species (common murres (Uria aalge), rhinoceros auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata), and marbled murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus)) entangled annually in commercial sockeye and chum salmon gillnet fisheries throughout BC. Conservative estimates of annual losses to entanglement were greatest for common murres (2,846, 95% CI: 2,628-3,047), followed by rhinoceros auklets (641, CI: 549-770) and marbled murrelets (228 CI: 156-346). Populations of all three of these alcids species are currently in decline in BC and entanglement mortality is a conservation concern. Gillnet mortality has been identified as a longstanding threat to marbled murrelet populations, which are recognized as Threatened in the Canada and the United States of America (USA). In addition, 622 (CI: 458-827) birds from 12 other species were estimated to be entangled annually. We conclude that cumulative mortality from incidental take in salmon gillnet fisheries is one of the largest sources of human-induced mortality for marine birds in BC waters, a conservation concern impacting both breeders and visiting migrants.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Salmão , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Aves , Colúmbia Britânica , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
4.
Ecotoxicology ; 30(2): 257-267, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534069

RESUMO

The increased use of pyrethroid insecticides raises concern for exposure to non-target aquatic species, such as Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Cypermethrin, a type II pyrethroid, is frequently detected in surface waters and sediments at concentrations that exceed levels that induce toxicity to several invertebrate and salmonid species. To better understand the effects of cypermethrin to salmonids following dietary exposure, juvenile Chinook salmon were dietarily exposed to a 0, 200, or 2000 ng/g cypermethrin diet for a duration of 7, 14, or 21 days and assessed for body burden residues, swimming performance, lipid content, and lipid homeostatic gene expression. The average cypermethrin concentrations in fish dietarily exposed to cypermethrin for 21 days were 155.4 and 952.1 ng cypermethrin/g lipid for the 200 and 2000 ng/g pellet treatments, respectively. Increased trends of fatty acid synthase (fasn, r2 = 0.10, p < 0.05) and ATP citrate lyase (acly, r2 = 0.21, p < 0.001) mRNA expression were found in the fish livers relative to increasing cypermethrin body burden residues, though no significant changes in the mRNA expression of farnesoid X receptor or liver X receptor were observed. Furthermore, Chinook salmon dietarily exposed to cypermethrin did not have a significantly altered burst swimming performance (Umax). These results support studies that have suggested Umax may not be a sensitive endpoint when assessing the effects of certain pesticide classes, such as pyrethroids, but that dysregulation of fasn and acly expression may alter lipid homeostasis and energy metabolism in the liver of fish dietarily exposed to cypermethrin.


Assuntos
Piretrinas , Salmão , Animais , Exposição Dietética , Homeostase , Fígado , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Salmão/genética , Natação
5.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 60, 2021 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574331

RESUMO

Caligus rogercresseyi, commonly known as sea louse, is an ectoparasite copepod that impacts the salmon aquaculture in Chile, causing losses of hundreds of million dollars per year. In this study, we report a chromosome-scale assembly of the sea louse (C. rogercresseyi) genome based on single-molecule real-time sequencing (SMRT) and proximity ligation (Hi-C) analysis. Coding RNAs and non-coding RNAs, and specifically long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) were identified through whole transcriptome sequencing from different life stages. A total of 23,686 protein-coding genes and 12,558 non-coding RNAs were annotated. In addition, 6,308 lncRNAs and 5,774 miRNAs were found to be transcriptionally active from larvae to adult stages. Taken together, this genomic resource for C. rogercresseyi represents a valuable tool to develop sustainable control strategies in the salmon aquaculture industry.


Assuntos
Copépodes/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Cromossomos , Copépodes/patogenicidade , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/genética , Salmão/parasitologia
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145146, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582324

RESUMO

Local differences in trophic structure and composition of organic matter subsidies can influence the capacity of soft sediment communities to assimilate recycled organic matter from processes such as salmon farm enrichment. The present study combines biochemical analysis with biomass density information on soft sediment taxa collected within the depositional footprint of salmon farms and at reference sites in the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand. Distinct biochemical signatures confirmed that the flux of organic matter from salmon farms was an important subsidy for soft sediment communities. Isotopic modelling demonstrated that the proportion of biomass supported by farm-derived organic matter did not change in a consistent pattern along the 300 m gradient from each farm site, whereas the average trophic level of communities decreased with increasing proximity to farms. High variability in both the total biomass and the distribution of biomass across trophic levels occurred among sites downstream of farms and among individual farms. Consequently, estimates of basal organic matter assimilation per unit area by communities differed by several orders of magnitude among sites. Total organic matter assimilation tended to decrease with increasing proximity to farms due to a shift towards a more detrital based community. Differences in basal organic matter assimilation among farms did not appear to be directly related to local flow regime, but instead was closely linked to differences in the soft sediment community composition likely influenced by an array of anthropogenic and environmental factors. The results presented here highlight the importance of considering local variability in basal organic matter source pools, and the potential for synergistic and cumulative effects to drive changes in food web trophodynamics when assessing the impacts of aquaculture on soft sediment communities.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos , Salmão , Animais , Aquicultura , Nova Zelândia , Alimentos Marinhos
7.
Waste Manag ; 124: 102-109, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611154

RESUMO

The 2011-2016 reports from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has stated that annual food loss and waste occurs on a massive scale in fisheries and aquaculture. This study aimed to explore advanced technologies to recycle wasted salmon as an industrial resource with high commercial value by applying enzymatic hydrolysis under HPCD. Our results showed that HPCD treatment at 50 °C and 1 MPa for 16 h effectively prevents salmon from microbial contamination. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that HPCD was also able to inhibit an increase in bacteria at moderate temperatures. Based on NGS analysis, there was a very low abundance of Bacillus and some histamine producers, such as Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, and Klebsiella, detected in samples treated using HPCD at 50 °C and 1 MPa for 16 h. Hydrolysate analysis showed that HPCD treatment at 1 MPa did not affect the hydrolysates from salmon. It is anticipated that the results from this study will support the application of HPCD in industrial enzymatic hydrolysis and increase the sustainability of bio-based materials.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Animais , Descontaminação , Carne , Salmão
8.
Biol Lett ; 17(1): 20200324, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435849

RESUMO

Variation in life history is fundamental to the long-term persistence of populations and species. Partial migration, in which both migratory and resident individuals are maintained in a population, is commonly found across animal taxa. However, human-induced habitat fragmentation continues to cause a rapid decline in the migratory phenotype in many natural populations. Using field and hatchery experiments, we demonstrated that despite both migrants and residents being maintained in captive environments, few individuals of the red-spotted masu salmon, Oncorhynchus masou ishikawae, became migrants in natural streams when released prior to the migration decision. Released fish rarely reached the threshold body size necessary to become migrants in natural streams, presumably owing to lower growth rates in natural than in captive environments. The decision to migrate is often considered a threshold trait in salmonids and other animal taxa. Our findings highlight the need for management programmes that acknowledge the effects of the environment on the determination of the migratory phenotypes of partially migratory species when releasing captive-bred individuals prior to their migratory decisions.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Oncorhynchus , Salmonidae , Animais , Ecossistema , Fenótipo , Salmão , Salmonidae/genética
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(1): 315-326, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fish consumption is increasing nowadays both because of its positive role for health due to the abundant presence of unsaturated fatty acids and for its use in many new food preparations (e.g. raw fillet used for uncooked sushi and sashimi dishes). The growing food industry and increased demand for the long-term storage and preservation of food have created the need to develop methods that can easily track and preserve food freshness and safety throughout shelf-life (production, storage, shipment, and consumption). While E-nose technologies have already been used and tested for these purposes, scarce information is available in the literature on the feasibility of using other food devices to detect changes in perishable food like fish during shelf-life in order to predict and correctly manage all food storage phases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of Food Sniffer® portable devices to define the quality and safety of salmon fillet and burger (Salmo salar) packaged in modified atmosphere at two refrigerated conditions (4 and 8 °C). RESULTS: An increase in biogenic amines and volatile compounds especially ketones and alcohols were observed, with large amounts at final storage times of 8 °C temperature. CONCLUSION: The Food Sniffer® application was able to anticipate unacceptability conditions of salmon samples also correlated with chemical and microbiological parameters. This could represent a valid support for food industry and retail to manage perishable food commodities preventing possible food risk as well. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Embalagem de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Controle de Qualidade , Salmão/microbiologia , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia
10.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128110, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297103

RESUMO

Fish consumption is one of the major ways through which humans receive exposure to mercury (Hg). The existing forms of Hg in food, particularly Hg bound to proteins, may affect the absorption of Hg by humans and subsequently its potentially toxic effects. However, the knowledge regarding Hg-binding proteins in edible fish muscle is scarce. In the present study, salmon and tuna fish muscles, collected from seven different regions and countries, were analyzed using metallomics- and proteomics-based techniques. The concentration of Hg in sashimi samples ranged from 4.4 to 317.4 ng/g. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) showed that beta-actin was a novel Hg-binding protein from the fish muscles, and this protein could also bind bismuth (Bi), silver (Ag), and copper (Cu). Hg bound to beta-actin accounted for approximately 30.2-37.6% of the total Hg in the tuna muscles and was significantly correlated to total Hg in the fish muscles (r = 0.98, p < 0.01) and in the fraction of soluble proteins (r = 0.94, p < 0.01). These findings suggest that proteins act as the main Hg accumulation sites in edible fish; thus, increasing human exposure to Hg following gastrointestinal digestion.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Atum , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Salmão , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
11.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0237052, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332352

RESUMO

Over 1 billion USD are devoted annually to rehabilitating freshwater habitats to improve survival for the recovery of endangered salmon populations. Mitigation often requires the creation of new habitat (e.g. habitat offsetting) to compensate population losses from human activities, however offsetting schemes are rarely evaluated. Anadromous Pacific salmon are ecologically, culturally, and economically important in the US and Canada, and face numerous threats from degradation of freshwater habitats. Here we used a matrix population model of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to determine the amount of habitat offsetting needed to compensate mortality (2-20% per year) caused by a range of development activities. We simulated chronic mortality to three different life stages (egg, parr, smolt/adult), individually and simultaneously, to mimic impacts from development, and evaluated if the number of smolts produced from constructed side-channels demographically offset losses. We show that under ideal conditions, the typical size of a constructed side-channel in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) (3405 m2) is sufficient to compensate for only relatively low levels of chronic mortality to either the parr or smolt/adult stages (2-7% per year), but populations do not recover if mortality is >10% per year. When we assumed lower productivity (e.g.; 25th percentile), we found that constructed channels would need to be 2.5-4.5 fold larger as compared to the typical size built in the PNW, respectively, to maintain population sizes. Moreover, when we imposed mortality to parr and smolt/adult stages simultaneously, we found that constructed side-channels would need to be between 1.8- and 2.3- fold larger that if the extra chronic mortality was imposed to one life stage only. We conclude that habitat offsetting has the potential to mitigate chronic mortality to early life stages, but that realistic assumptions about productivity of constructed side-channels and cumulative effects of anthropogenic disturbances on multiple life stages need to be considered.


Assuntos
Salmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Canadá , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Oncorhynchus kisutch/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rios , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos
12.
Science ; 370(6516): 526-527, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122371

Assuntos
Salmão , Animais , Fenótipo
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111029, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888609

RESUMO

The chitin synthesis inhibitor teflubenzuron (TFB) is a feed antiparasitic agents used to impede molting of the salmon lice, an ecto-parasite that severely affects the salmon industry. Low absorption of oral administered TFB may cause elevated concentrations in the feces discharged from the salmon into the benthic environment. The polychaete Capitella sp. are often dominant in such habitats and consume organic waste deposited on the sediment. In the present study, Capitella sp. were exposed to doses of TFB in salmon feed of 1, 2 and 4 g TFB kg-1 (0 g TFB kg-1 in control group) over an experimental period of 32 days. Cumulative mortality was 12%-15% in both treatment groups with 1 and 2 g TFB kg-1 and reached 27% in the group with 4 g TFB kg-1. Only the highest dose (4 g TFB kg-1) negatively affected feed intake, growth and respiration of the polychaetes while food conversion efficiency was not affected. At the end of the experiment, the concentrations of TFB in the Capitella sp. were high, in the range of 9.24-10.32 µg g-1 for the three treatment groups. It was suggested that a maximum level of absorption rate was reached, also for the lowest dose. High concentrations of TFB in the Capitella sp. might pose a risk to crustaceans that forage for polychaetes in the vicinity of fish farms. We conclude that the effects of TFB on Capitella sp. may therefore primarily be to the predators rather than the Capitella sp.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/toxicidade , Benzamidas/toxicidade , Bioacumulação , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Poliquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antiparasitários/metabolismo , Benzamidas/metabolismo , Copépodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Pesqueiros , Modelos Teóricos , Poliquetos/metabolismo , Salmão/parasitologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
14.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 141: 127-138, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969345

RESUMO

Caligus rogercresseyi is the dominant sea louse parasite affecting the salmon and trout industry in southern Chile. This parasite has a wide range of native and endemic fish hosts. The Patagonian blenny Eleginops maclovinus, which is parasitized mostly by the caligid species Lepeophtheirus spp. and C. rogercresseyi, is presumably responsible for the transmission of C. rogercresseyi to salmonids. The aim of this study was to characterize the transmission of parasites between different fish species and parasite cohort development under laboratory conditions. Parasite abundances and intensities were quantified. Transmission of parasites from Patagonian blenny to Atlantic salmon Salmo salar was lower (~9%, mainly corresponding to C. rogercresseyi) than from salmon to Patagonian blenny (14.7-26.9%, where only C. rogercresseyi were observed). This suggests that the transmission of C. rogercresseyi from salmon individuals is higher than the transmission from a native fish. Parasite cohorts developed successfully on both fish species, but apparently under different developmental rates. Water temperature, oxygen, and juvenile abundances were the variables that better explained cohort development success and variation in C. rogercresseyi adult abundances over time.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Doenças dos Peixes , Salmo salar , Salmonidae , Animais , Chile/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Salmão
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 747: 141097, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781313

RESUMO

Both targeted and non-targeted metabolomic analyses were conducted on juvenile ocean-type fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) residing in two estuaries receiving wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and one reference estuary. The data show that the metabolome patterns for fish from the two WWTP-receiving estuaries were more similar to each other compared to that for the reference site fish. Also, a comparison of the metabolome for fish from the reference site and fish from a hatchery upstream of one of the effluent-receiving estuaries indicated no differences, implying that residency for fish in the contaminated estuary resulted in major changes to the metabolome. Based on general health parameters including whole-body lipid content and condition factor, plus the availability of prey for these fish, we conclude that juvenile Chinook salmon in these contaminated estuaries may have been experiencing metabolic disruption without any overt signs of impairment. Additionally, a non-targeted analysis was performed on hatchery summer Chinook salmon from a laboratory study where fish were dosed for 32 days with feed containing 16 of the most common contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) detected in wild fish. In the laboratory experiment a relationship was observed between dose and the number of liver metabolites that were different between control and treatment fish. Laboratory fish were exposed to only 16 CECs, but are generally exposed to hundreds of these compounds in contaminated aquatic environments. These results have implications for the health of juvenile Chinook salmon and the likelihood of a successful life cycle when exposed to effluent-related chemicals.


Assuntos
Salmão , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Estuários , Peixes , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
16.
Free Radic Res ; 54(7): 517-524, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781874

RESUMO

The present study reports radiation-chemical yields of 2.5-diaminoimidazolone (Iz) derivatives in X-irradiated phosphate-buffered solutions of guanosine and double-stranded DNA. Various gassing conditions (air, N20/O2 (4:1), N2O, vacuum) were employed to elucidate the contribution of several alternative pathways leading to Iz in reactions initiated by hydroxyl radical attack on guanine. In all systems, Iz was identified as the second by abundance guanine degradation product after 8-oxoguanine, formed in 1:5 (guanosine) and 1:3.3 (DNA) ratio to the latter in air-saturated solutions. Experimental data strongly suggest that the addition of molecular oxygen to the neutral guanine radical G(-H)• plays a major in Iz production in oxygenated solutions of double-stranded DNA while in other systems it may compete with recombination of G(-H)• with superoxide and/or alkyl peroxyl radicals. The production of Iz through hydroxyl radical attack on 8-oxoguanine was also shown to take place although the chemical yield of Iz (ca 6%) in this process is too low to compete with the other pathways. The linearity of Iz accumulation with dose also indicates a negligible contribution of this channel to its yield in all systems.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , DNA/química , Radicais Livres/química , Radical Hidroxila/química , Imidazóis/química , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/química , Animais , DNA/efeitos da radiação , Diaminas/química , Guanosina/química , Masculino , Salmão
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 140068, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806345

RESUMO

In the Baltic Sea region, salmon are valued for the ecological, economic, and cultural benefits they provide. However, these fish are threatened due to historical overfishing, disease, and reduced access to spawning rivers. Climate change may pose another challenge for salmon management. Therefore, we conducted a problem-framing study to explore the effects climate change may have on salmon and the socio-ecological system they are embedded within. Addressing this emerging issue will require the cooperation of diverse stakeholders and the integration of their knowledge and values in a contentious management context. Therefore, we conducted this problem framing as a participatory process with stakeholders, whose mental models and questionnaire responses form the basis of this study. By framing the climate change problem in this way, we aim to provide a holistic understanding of the problem and incorporate stakeholder perspectives into the management process from an early stage to better address their concerns and establish common ground. We conclude that considering climate change is relevant for Baltic salmon management, although it may not be the most pressing threat facing these fish. Stakeholders disagree about whether climate change will harm or benefit salmon, when it will become a relevant issue in the Baltic context, and whether or not management efforts can mitigate any negative impacts climate change may have on salmon and their fishery. Nevertheless, by synthesizing the stakeholders' influence diagrams, we found 15 themes exemplifying: (1) how climate change may affect salmon, (2) goals for salmon management considering climate change, and (3) strategies for achieving those goals. Further, the stakeholders tended to focus on the riverine environment and the salmon life stages occurring therein, potentially indicating the perceived vulnerability of these life stages to climate change. Interestingly, however, the stakeholders tended to focus on traditional fishery management measures, like catch quotas, to meet their goals for these fish considering climate change. Further, social variables, like "politics," "international cooperation," and "employment" comprised a large proportion of the stakeholders' diagrams, demonstrating the importance of these factors for salmon management.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Salmão , Animais , Países Bálticos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Pesqueiros
18.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 115083, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806431

RESUMO

Marine and freshwater plastic pollution is a challenging issue receiving large amounts of research and media attention. Yet, few studies have documented the impact of microplastic ingestion to aquatic organisms. In the Pacific Northwest, Chinook salmon are a culturally and commercially significant fish species. The presence of marine and freshwater microplastic pollution is well documented in Chinook salmon habitat, yet no research has investigated the impacts to salmon from microplastic ingestion. The majority of the marine microplastics found in the Salish Sea are microfibers, synthetic extruded polymers that come from commonly worn clothing. To understand the potential impacts of microfiber ingestion to fish, we ran a feeding experiment with juvenile Chinook salmon to determine if ingested fibers are retained or digestion rates altered over a 10 day digestion period. The experiment was completed in two trials, each consisted of 20 control and 20 treatment fish. Treatment fish were each fed an amended ration of 12 food pellets spiked with 20 polyester microfibers and control fish were fed the same ration without added microfibers. Fish were sampled at day 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10 to assess if fibers were retained in their gastrointestinal tract and to determine the rate of digestion. Fibers for the experiment came from washing a red polyester fleece jacket in a microfiber retention bag. Fibers had a mean length of 4.98 mm. Results showed fish were able to clear up to 94% of fed fibers over 10 days. Differences in mean gastrointestinal mass were not statistically significant at any sampled time between treatment and controls, suggesting that the ingestion of microfibers did not alter digestion rates. Further work is needed to understand if repeated exposures, expected in the environment, alter digestion or food assimilation for growth.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microplásticos , Veículos Automotores , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Plásticos/análise , Poliésteres , Salmão
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111111, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795703

RESUMO

Bath treatment chemotherapeutants, used to control sea lice infestations in the salmonid aquaculture industry, are released directly into the marine environment around fish farms and pose a serious risk to non-target species, particularly crustaceans. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the most frequently used bath treatment chemotherapeutant on Norwegian fish farms, however, limited information is available on its toxicity to European lobsters (Homarus gammarus), a commercially important species at risk of exposure due to its distribution overlapping with salmon farm locations. The aim of this study was to investigate the lethal effects of H2O2 on pelagic (stage I-IV) larvae/post-larvae and its sub-lethal effects on the benthic stage V H. gammarus. To assess the lethal effects of H2O2, we carried out a series of 1 h toxicity tests and assessed mortality after a 24 h post-exposure period. Exposure to H2O2 was toxic to all pelagic larval stages tested, with estimated median lethal concentrations (LC50) of 177, 404, 665 and 737 mg/L for stage I, II, III and IV, respectively. These concentrations represent approximately 10, 23, 40 and 43%, of the recommended H2O2 concentrations used for delousing salmon on Norwegian fish farms, respectively. To assess the sub-lethal effects of H2O2 on H. gammarus, stage V juveniles were exposed to H2O2 at concentrations of 85, 170 and 510 mg/L for 1 h and shelter-seeking behaviour and mobility endpoints were assessed. Numerous behavioural parameters including distance travelled to shelter, time to locate shelter and the number of shelter inspections, were negatively affected in lobsters exposed to H2O2 when assessed immediately after the exposure period. However, no differences between control and exposed lobsters were detected after a 24 h post-exposure period. Our results demonstrate that short term exposures to H2O2 are lethal to pelagic H. gammarus life stages and can negatively affect the shelter seeking behaviour of benthic life stages, though these behavioural changes may be short-lived.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Nephropidae/fisiologia , Animais , Aquicultura/métodos , Comportamento Exploratório , Pesqueiros , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Dose Letal Mediana , Nephropidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Noruega , Salmão , Testes de Toxicidade
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4155, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814776

RESUMO

Declines in animal body sizes are widely reported and likely impact ecological interactions and ecosystem services. For harvested species subject to multiple stressors, limited understanding of the causes and consequences of size declines impedes prediction, prevention, and mitigation. We highlight widespread declines in Pacific salmon size based on 60 years of measurements from 12.5 million fish across Alaska, the last largely pristine North American salmon-producing region. Declines in salmon size, primarily resulting from shifting age structure, are associated with climate and competition at sea. Compared to salmon maturing before 1990, the reduced size of adult salmon after 2010 has potentially resulted in substantial losses to ecosystems and people; for Chinook salmon we estimated average per-fish reductions in egg production (-16%), nutrient transport (-28%), fisheries value (-21%), and meals for rural people (-26%). Downsizing of organisms is a global concern, and current trends may pose substantial risks for nature and people.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Salmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores Etários , Alaska , Animais , Clima , Mudança Climática , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Geografia , Dinâmica Populacional , Fatores de Risco , Salmão/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie
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