Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 282
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Aquat Toxicol ; 217: 105335, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706209

RESUMO

One of the categories of environmental contaminants possibly contributing to declining sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada is pesticides. In this 4-month study, the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of a waterborne neonicotinoid, clothianidin (0.15, 1.5, 15 and 150 µg/L), on embryonic, alevin and early swim-up fry sockeye salmon derived from four unique genetic crosses of the Pitt River, BC stock were investigated. There were no significant effects of clothianidin on survival, hatching, growth or deformities, although genetic variation significantly affected these endpoints. Clothianidin caused a significant 4.7-fold increase in whole body 17ß-estradiol levels in swim-up fry after exposure to 0.15 µg/L, but no effects were observed on testosterone levels. In addition, hepatic expression of the gene encoding glucocorticoid receptor 2 was also impacted at the highest concentration of clothianidin tested, and was found to be ∼4-fold lower compared to the sockeye reared in control water. These results indicate additional examination of clothianidin and its effects on salmonid gonad development and the reproductive and stress endocrine axes in general, is warranted.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Guanidinas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Rios/química , Salmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tiazóis/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Migração Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Colúmbia Britânica , Sistema Endócrino/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Endócrino/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estradiol/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmão/metabolismo , Natação
2.
J Fish Biol ; 95(2): 651-654, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038738

RESUMO

The occurrence of non-native pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha in multiple river systems in Ireland in 2017 was unprecedented and reflected similar concurrent events observed in other countries in the North Atlantic region. Thirty-six fish were captured in a total of 11 river systems located in the south-west, west and north-west of Ireland in the period June to September 2017. The biological characteristics of sampled specimens are described and the potential for establishment in Ireland are considered.


Assuntos
Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Salmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Migração Animal , Animais , Feminino , Irlanda , Masculino , Rios , Estações do Ano , Razão de Masculinidade
3.
J Fish Dis ; 42(7): 965-974, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131473

RESUMO

Vertebral fusions are an established economic concern in farmed Atlantic salmon, but have not been studied in detail in farmed Chinook salmon. Two radiographic studies of vertebral fusions were performed in farmed Chinook salmon. Sixteen of 1,301 (1.2%) smolt and 201 of 2,636 (7.6%) harvest fish had fusions. There were no significant differences in the number of fused vertebrae/fusion in smolt compared with harvest fish. Secondly, tagged fish were repeatedly radiographed to determine the progression of the fusions. Nineteen (4.4%), 23 (5.3%) and 39 (9.0%) fish had fusions as smolt, after 129 days in sea water, and at harvest, respectively. There were no significant differences in the average number of vertebra/fusion between the three time points. Of the fusions that were observed in smolt, additional vertebra did not become fused in 81% of the lesions. Within the rare fusions that did progress due to the involvement of adjacent vertebra, an average of 1.6 vertebrae were added per year. Fish with fusions were significantly lighter than non-affected fish at harvest. Fusions are common in farmed Chinook salmon; however, they are typically stable after development. As fish with fusions were lighter at harvest, reducing fusions may have an economic benefit.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Salmão/anormalidades , Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades , Animais , Feminino , Nova Zelândia , Salmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
Mol Ecol ; 28(5): 1138-1153, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614581

RESUMO

Current monitoring methods to assess benthic impacts of marine finfish aquaculture are based on complex biological indices and/or geochemistry data. The former requires benthic macrofauna morpho-taxonomic characterization that is time- and cost-intensive, while the latter provides rapid assessment of the organic enrichment status of sediments but does not directly measure biotic impacts. In this study, sediment samples were collected from seven stations at six salmon farms in British Columbia, Canada, and analyzed for geochemical parameters and by eDNA metabarcoding to investigate linkages between geochemistry and foraminifera. Sediment texture across farm sites ranged from sand to silty loam, while the maximum sediment pore-water sulphide concentration at each site ranged from 1,000 to 13,000 µM. Foraminifera alpha diversity generally increased with distance from cage edge. Adonis analyses revealed that farm site explained the most variation in foraminifera community, followed by sediment type, enrichment status, and distance from cage edge. Farm-specific responses were observed in diversity analyses, taxonomic difference analyses, and correlation analyses. Results demonstrated that species diversity and composition of foraminifera characterized by eDNA metabarcoding generated signals consistent with benthic biodiversity being impacted by finfish farming activities. This substantiates the validity of eDNA metabarcoding for augmenting current approaches to benthic impact assessments by providing more cost-effective and practicable biotic measures than traditional morpho-taxonomy. To capitalize on this potential, further work is needed to design a new nomogram that combines eDNA metabarcoding data and geochemistry data to enable accurate monitoring of benthic impacts of fish farming in a time- and cost-efficient way.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA/genética , Foraminíferos/genética , Salmão/genética , Animais , Aquicultura , Biodiversidade , Colúmbia Britânica , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pesqueiros , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Salmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 19(3): 597-608, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592374

RESUMO

Pacific salmon are a keystone resource in Alaska, generating annual revenues of well over ~US$500 million/year. Due to their anadromous life history, adult spawners distribute amongst thousands of streams, posing a huge management challenge. Currently, spawners are enumerated at just a few streams because of reliance on human counters and, rarely, sonar. The ability to detect organisms by shed tissue (environmental DNA, eDNA) promises a more efficient counting method. However, although eDNA correlates generally with local fish abundances, we do not know if eDNA can accurately enumerate salmon. Here we show that daily, and near-daily, flow-corrected eDNA rate closely tracks daily numbers of returning sockeye and coho spawners and outmigrating sockeye smolts. eDNA thus promises accurate and efficient enumeration, but to deliver the most robust numbers will need higher-resolution stream-flow data, at-least-daily sampling, and a focus on species with simple life histories, since shedding rate varies amongst jacks, juveniles, and adults.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Genética Populacional/métodos , Densidade Demográfica , Salmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmão/genética , Água/química , Alaska , Animais , DNA/química , Genômica/métodos
7.
Physiol Rep ; 6(17): e13809, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175449

RESUMO

We present data from two experiments that examined how the developmental processes of smoltification and sexual maturation proceed in parallel in domesticated Atlantic salmon. Onset of maturation and smoltification was stimulated using temperature and photoperiod. Our observations on gonadosomatic index (GSI), spermatogenic activity, gill Na+, K+-ATPase enzyme (NKA) activity, and plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), Na, Cl, and Ca show that smoltification and maturation were both triggered and developed in parallel in male Atlantic salmon, but that the progressing maturation impaired hypoosmoregulation. Female maturation started after completion of smoltification. Furthermore, we present data showing that domesticated salmon can physiologically smoltify-desmoltify-resmoltify within a short period of time, and that development of a secondary sexual characteristic, such as a kype, depends on size in male postsmolts.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Salmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Maturidade Sexual , Animais , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Brânquias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brânquias/metabolismo , Gônadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gônadas/metabolismo , Masculino , Fotoperíodo , Salmão/metabolismo , Salmão/fisiologia , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Testosterona/análogos & derivados , Testosterona/sangue
8.
J Evol Biol ; 31(12): 1876-1893, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30264932

RESUMO

In oviparous species, maternal carotenoid provisioning can deliver diverse fitness benefits to offspring via increased survival, growth and immune function. Despite demonstrated advantages of carotenoids, large intra- and interspecific variation in carotenoid utilization exists, suggesting trade-offs associated with carotenoids. In Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), extreme variation in carotenoid utilization delineates two colour morphs (red and white) that differ genetically in their ability to deposit carotenoids into tissues. Here, we take advantage of this natural variation to examine how large differences in maternal carotenoid provisioning influence offspring fitness. Using a full factorial breeding design crossing morphs and common-garden rearing, we measured differences in a suite of fitness-related traits, including survival, growth, viral susceptibility and host response, in offspring of red (carotenoid-rich eggs) and white (carotenoid-poor eggs) females. Eggs of red females had significantly higher carotenoid content than those of white females (6× more); however, this did not translate into measurable differences in offspring fitness. Given that white Chinook salmon may have evolved to counteract their maternal carotenoid deficiency, we also examined the relationship between egg carotenoid content and offspring fitness within each morph separately. Egg carotenoids only had a positive effect within the red morph on survival to eyed-egg (earliest measured trait), but not within the white morph. Although previous work shows that white females benefit from reduced egg predation, our study also supports a hypothesis that white Chinook salmon have evolved additional mechanisms to improve egg survival despite low carotenoids, providing novel insight into evolutionary mechanisms that maintain this stable polymorphism.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/administração & dosagem , Aptidão Genética , Pigmentação/genética , Pigmentação/fisiologia , Salmão/fisiologia , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Humanos , Vírus da Necrose Hematopoética Infecciosa , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Óvulo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/virologia , Salmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0204519, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30261018

RESUMO

The IsoFishR application is a data reduction and analysis tool for laser-ablation strontium isotope data, following common best practices and providing reliable and reproducible results. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) are a powerful geochemical tracer commonly applied in a wide range of scientific fields and laser-ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry is considered the method of choice to obtain spatially resolved 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios from a variety of sample materials. However, data reduction and analyses methods are variable between different research groups and research communities limiting reproducibility between studies. IsoFishR provides a platform to standardize these methods and can be used for both spot and time-resolved line transects. Furthermore, it provides advanced data analysis tools and filters for outlier removal, noise reduction, and visualization of time resolved data. The application can be downloaded from GitHub (https://github.com/MalteWillmes/IsoFishR) and the source code is available, encouraging future development and evolution of this software.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/estatística & dados numéricos , Software , Isótopos de Estrôncio/análise , Animais , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenômenos Geológicos , Membrana dos Otólitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Membrana dos Otólitos/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Salmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmão/metabolismo
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(31): 8328-8335, 2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30004220

RESUMO

The conversion of nonedible biomass to protein for use in feed is an attractive strategy toward improved sustainability in aquaculture. We have studied the possibility to produce protein-rich yeast Candida utilis on a medium consisting of enzymatically hydrolyzed sulphite-pulped spruce wood, mainly providing glucose, and enzymatically hydrolyzed brown seaweed, supplemented with ammonium sulfate. The results show that this blend constitutes a complete fermentation medium that enables good growth rates and cell yields. Results from a salmon feeding trial showed that the yeast can replace parts of a traditional fishmeal diet without harmful effects, although the apparent protein digestibility coefficient for the yeast was suboptimal. While further optimization of both the fermentation process and downstream processing is needed, the present proof-of-concept study shows a path to the production of microbial protein based on a simple, local and sustainable fermentation medium.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/metabolismo , Alga Marinha/metabolismo , Madeira/metabolismo , Acrodinia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Aquicultura/métodos , Meios de Cultura , Proteínas Fúngicas/biossíntese , Noruega , Picea , Salmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Aquat Toxicol ; 202: 6-15, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29966910

RESUMO

The early life stages of Pacific salmon are at risk of environmental exposure to diluted bitumen (dilbit) as Canada's oil sands industry continues to expand. The toxicity and latent effects of dilbit exposure were assessed in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) exposed to water-soluble fractions of dilbit (WSFd) from fertilization to the swim-up stage, and then reared in clean water for 8 months. Mortality was significantly higher in WSFd-exposed embryos, with cumulative mortality up to 4.6-fold higher in exposed relative to unexposed embryos. The sublethal effects of WSFd exposure included transcriptional up-regulation of cyp1a, a concentration-dependent delay in the onset and progression of hatching, as well as increased prevalence of developmental deformities at total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (TPAH) concentrations ≥35 µg L-1. Growth and body composition were negatively affected by WSFd exposure, including a concentration-specific decrease in soluble protein concentration and increases in total body lipid and triglyceride concentrations. Mortality continued during the first 2 months after transferring fish to clean water, reaching 53% in fish exposed to 100 µg L-1 TPAH; but there was no latent impact on swimming performance, heart mass, or heart morphology in surviving fish after 8 months. A latent effect of WSFd exposure on brain morphology was observed, with fish exposed to 4 µg L-1 TPAH having significantly larger brains compared to other treatment groups after 8 months in clean water. This study provides comprehensive data on the acute, sub-chronic, and latent impacts of dilbit exposure in early life stage sockeye, information that is critical for a proper risk analysis of the impact of a dilbit spill on this socioeconomically important fish species.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos/toxicidade , Salmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/genética , Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Salmão/metabolismo , Natação , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30017911

RESUMO

Glycogen, as an intracellular deposit of polysaccharide, takes important roles in energy balance of many animals. In fish, however, the role of glycogen during development is poorly understood. In the present study, we assessed changes in glycogen concentration and gene expression patterns of glycogen-metabolizing enzymes in developing masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou masou), a salmonid species inhabiting west side of North Pacific Ocean. As we measured glycogen levels in the bodies and yolk sacs containing the liver separately, the glycogen concentration increased in both parts as the fish developed, whereas it transiently decreased in the yolk sac after hatching, implying glycogen synthesis and breakdown in these tissues. Immunofluorescence staining using anti-glycogen monoclonal antibody revealed localization of glycogen in the liver, muscle and yolk syncytial layer of the pre-hatching embryos and hatched larvae. In order to estimate glycogen metabolism in the fish, the genes encoding homologs of glycogen synthase (gys1 and gys2) and glycogen phosphorylase (pygma, pygmb and pygl) were cloned, and their expression patterns were assessed by quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization. In the fish, gys1 and gys2 were robustly expressed in the muscle and liver, respectively. Also, expression of pyg isoforms was found in muscle, liver and yolk syncytial layer during hatching. With changes in glycogen concentration and expression patterns of relevant genes, our results suggest, for the first time, possible involvement of glycogen in energy balance of fish embryos, especially during hatching.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , Músculos/enzimologia , Salmão/metabolismo , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Glicogênio Fosforilase/metabolismo , Fígado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Salmão/genética , Salmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Theriogenology ; 115: 65-76, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729498

RESUMO

The study tested the efficiency of hydrostatic pressure triploidization methods for Salmo trutta f. lacustris and Salvelinus umbla and investigated the effects on survival rate, skeletal malformation, and on morphometrics and cellular composition of gills, spleen, liver, kidney, intestine, and blood. In Salmo trutta f. lacustris a 100% triploidy rate in combination with high larvae survival rate (80% in comparison to control) was obtained when treating eggs with a pressure of 66 × 103 kPa 360 °C temperature minutes (CTM) post fertilization for 5 min, in Salvelinus umbla with a similar pressure after 270 CTM. Juvenile triploid Salmo trutta f. lacustris and Salvelinus umbla (145 days post hatch) had neither an increased rate of mortality, nor an increased rate of malformations. In triploid Salmo trutta f. lacustris and Salvelinus umbla the erythrocyte volume was 50% higher and the erythrocyte concentration in peripheral blood 25-35% lower relative to diploids. In triploids also the erythrocytes surface area: volume ratio was reduced. Gills of triploid Salmo trutta f. lacustris and Salvelinus umbla had increased width of primary lamellae and increased length of secondary lamellae which might compensate for unfavorable erythrocytes surface area: volume ratio. Length of the digestive tract and histology of kidney, liver, spleen, and gills were only investigated in Salmo trutta f. lacustris. In triploids the hematopoietic tissue of the kidney was decreased by 12%, the spleen index by 53%, and the erythroblast concentrations of the spleen by 42% relative to diploids, possibly indicating reduced erythropoiesis. Length of the digestive tract and cellular arrangement of intestine, liver, and gills were not affected. In summary, the used triploidization procedure seems a reliable method not counteracting the principles of animal welfare.


Assuntos
Aquicultura/métodos , Pressão Hidrostática , Óvulo/fisiologia , Salmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Truta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Diploide , Feminino , Fertilização , Gônadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Morfogênese , Salmão/anatomia & histologia , Triploidia , Truta/anatomia & histologia
14.
Food Chem ; 256: 380-389, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29606463

RESUMO

The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry with carnivorous fish such as salmon has been accompanied by an equally rapid development in alternative feed ingredients. This has outpaced the ability of prevailing authentication method to trace the diet and origins of salmon products at the retail end. To close this gap, we developed a new profiling tool based on amino acid δ13C fingerprints. With this tool, we discriminated with high-accuracy among wild-caught, organically, and conventionally farmed salmon groups, as well as salmon fed alternative diets such as insects and macroalgae. Substitution of fishmeal with macroalgae was detected at 5% difference level. The δ13C fingerprints of essential amino acids appear particularly well suited for tracing protein sources, and the non-essentials for tracing lipid origins (terrestrial vs. aquatic). In an industry constantly developing new feed proteins and functional additives, our method is a promising tool for tracing salmon and other seafood products.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Salmão/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Aquicultura , Isótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Análise Discriminante , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Lipídeos/química , Salmo salar , Salmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
J Fish Dis ; 41(7): 1111-1116, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29600512

RESUMO

Spinal abnormalities can be detected at harvest in around 40% of farmed Chinook salmon in New Zealand. However, whether these abnormalities are present in smolt is unknown. Radiographs of 3,736 smolt were taken immediately prior to transfer to sea water and evaluated for fusions, compressions, vertical shifts, and lordosis, kyphosis and/or scoliosis (LKS). The survey included smolt from two different chilling strategies that had been graded into slow- or fast-growing fish. Overall, 4.34% of Chinook salmon smolt had at least one spinal abnormality, similar to the rates of reported in Atlantic salmon smolt. The rate of abnormality was significantly higher in faster-growing fish. Fusions were most common with 2.68% of smolt affected. Smolt subjected to longer chilling times had lower rates of fusions. Compressions and vertical shifts were both observed in 1.31% of smolt. Although LKS is the most common abnormality of harvested fish, LKS was detected in just five smolt. The results suggest that some fusions in harvest fish have developed at the time of seawater transfer while LKS develops late in the production cycle. Overall, spinal abnormalities are uncommon in Chinook salmon smolt and may be influenced by chilling times and growth rates.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Salmão/anormalidades , Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/congênito , Prevalência , Radiografia/veterinária , Salmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Coluna Vertebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura Ambiente
16.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 260: 41-50, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29462599

RESUMO

Mature male Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) develop a hooknose, as a secondary male sexual characteristic, during the spawning period. It is likely that androgens regulate hooknose formation. However, endocrinological and histochemical details about the relationship between androgens and hooknose formation are poorly understood. In this study, we performed assays of serum androgens, detection of androgen receptor (AR) in hooknose tissues, external morphological measurement of hooknose-related lengths, and microscopic observation of hooknose tissues of pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) at different stages of sexual maturation. Expression of the arß gene was detected in hooknose tissues of males but not females. The elongation of these tissues was mediated directly via androgens. Serum 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) concentrations indicated a significant positive correlation with both jaw lengths during sexual maturation of males. In the upper jaw, cartilage tissue developed during hooknose formation, and AR-immunoreactive chondrocytes were located in the rostal-vetral regions of hooknose cartilage in maturing male. The chondrocytes in maturing males before entering into rivers exhibited rich-cytoplasm with high cell activity than at other sexual development stages. On the other hand, in the lower jaw, the development of the spongiosa-like bone meshworks. AR-immunoreactivity was detected in a proportion of the osteocytes and osteoblast-like cells in the spongiosa-like bone meshworks. These results indicate that hooknose formation in pink salmon, which is associated with the buildup of a structure with sufficient strength that it can be used to attack other males on the spawning ground, is regulated by 11-KT.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial , Boca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmão , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Testosterona/análogos & derivados , Androgênios/sangue , Animais , Cartilagem/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cartilagem/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Arcada Osseodentária , Masculino , Rios , Salmão/sangue , Salmão/genética , Salmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/fisiologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 2830, 2018 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29434264

RESUMO

After a storm, water often runs off of impervious urban surfaces directly into aquatic ecosystems. This stormwater runoff is a cocktail of toxicants that have serious effects on the ecological integrity of aquatic habitats. Zebrafish that develop in stormwater runoff suffer from cardiovascular toxicity and impaired growth, but the effects of stormwater on fish sensory systems are not understood. Our study investigated the effect of stormwater on hair cells of the lateral line in larval zebrafish and coho salmon. Our results showed that although toxicants in stormwater did not kill zebrafish hair cells, these cells did experience damage. Zebrafish developing in stormwater also experienced impaired growth, fewer neuromasts in the lateral line, and fewer hair cells per neuromast. A similar reduction in neuromast number was observed in coho salmon reared in stormwater. Bioretention treatment, intended to filter out harmful constituents of stormwater, rescued the lateral line defects in zebrafish but not in coho salmon, suggesting that not all of the harmful constituents were removed by the filtration media and that salmonids are particularly sensitive to aquatic toxicants. Collectively, these data demonstrate that sub-lethal exposure to stormwater runoff negatively impacts a fish sensory system, which may have consequences for organismal fitness.


Assuntos
Sistema da Linha Lateral/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Filtração , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Chuva , Salmão/embriologia
18.
Aquat Toxicol ; 196: 146-153, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29407800

RESUMO

Given the compound differences between tris(2-butoxyethyl)- and tris(2-cloroethyl) phosphate (TBOEP and TCEP, respectively), we hypothesized that exposure of juvenile salmon to TBOEP and TCEP will produce compound-specific differences in uptake and bioaccumulation patterns, resulting in potential formation of OH-metabolites. Juvenile salmon were exposed to waterborne TCEP or TBOEP (0.04, 0.2 and 1 mg/L) for 7 days. The muscle accumulation was measured and bioconcentration factor (BCF) was calculated, showing that TCEP was less accumulative and resistant to metabolism in salmon than TBOEP. Metabolite formations were only detected in TBOEP-exposed fish, showing seven phase I biotransformation metabolites with hydroxylation, ether cleavage or combination of both reactions as important metabolic pathways. In vitro incubation of trout S9 liver fraction with TBOEP was performed showing that the generated metabolite patterns were similar to those found in muscle tissue exposed in vivo. However, another OH-TBOEP isomer and an unidentified metabolite not present in in vivo exposure were observed with the trout S9 incubation. Overall, some of the observed metabolic products were similar to those in a previous in vitro report using human liver microsomes and some metabolites were identified for the first time in the present study. Toxicological analysis indicated that TBOEP produced less effect, although it was taken up faster and accumulated more in fish muscle than TCEP. TCEP produced more severe toxicological responses in multiple fish organs. However, liver biotransformation responses did not parallel the metabolite formation observed in TBOEP-exposed fish.


Assuntos
Ésteres/química , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Compostos Organofosforados/toxicidade , Salmão/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biotransformação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Humanos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Organofosfatos/análise , Organofosfatos/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Salmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 127: 139-149, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29475645

RESUMO

We evaluated benthic bacterial communities as bioindicators in environmental impact assessments of salmon aquaculture, a rapidly growing sector of seafood industry. Sediment samples (n=72) were collected from below salmon cages towards distant reference sites. Bacterial community profiles inferred from DNA metabarcodes were compared to reference data from standard macrofauna biomonitoring surveys of the same samples. Deltaproteobacteria were predominant in immediate vicinity of the salmon cages. Along the transect, significant shifts in bacterial community structures were observed with Gammaproteobacteria dominating the less-impacted sites. Alpha- and beta-diversity measures of bacterial communities correlated significantly with macrofauna diversity metrics and with five ecological status indices. Benthic bacterial communities mirror the reaction of macrofauna bioindicators to environmental disturbances caused by salmon farming. The implementation of bacterial eDNA metabarcoding in future Strategic Framework Directives is an alternative cost-effective high-throughput biomonitoring solution, providing a basis for management strategies in a matter of days rather than months.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Proteobactérias/genética , Salmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Biodiversidade , Noruega , Proteobactérias/classificação
20.
Glob Chang Biol ; 24(5): 2008-2020, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29341366

RESUMO

A key step in identifying global change impacts on species and ecosystems is to quantify effects of multiple stressors. To date, the science of global change has been dominated by regional field studies, experimental manipulation, meta-analyses, conceptual models, reviews, and studies focusing on a single stressor or species over broad spatial and temporal scales. Here, we provide one of the first studies for coastal systems examining multiple stressor effects across broad scales, focused on the nursery function of 20 estuaries spanning 1,600 km of coastline, 25 years of monitoring, and seven fish and invertebrate species along the northeast Pacific coast. We hypothesized those species most estuarine dependent and negatively impacted by human activities would have lower presence and abundances in estuaries with greater anthropogenic land cover, pollution, and water flow stress. We found significant negative relationships between juveniles of two of seven species (Chinook salmon and English sole) and estuarine stressors. Chinook salmon were less likely to occur and were less abundant in estuaries with greater pollution stress. They were also less abundant in estuaries with greater flow stress, although this relationship was marginally insignificant. English sole were less abundant in estuaries with greater land cover stress. Together, we provide new empirical evidence that effects of stressors on two fish species culminate in detectable trends along the northeast Pacific coast, elevating the need for protection from pollution, land cover, and flow stressors to their habitats. Lack of response among the other five species could be related to differing resistance to specific stressors, type and precision of the stressor metrics, and limitations in catch data across estuaries and habitats. Acquiring improved measurements of impacts to species will guide future management actions, and help predict how estuarine nursery functions can be optimized given anthropogenic stressors and climate change scenarios.


Assuntos
Estuários , Linguados/fisiologia , Salmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Mudança Climática , Dinâmica Populacional , RNA não Traduzido , Poluição da Água
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA