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1.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(2): 268-273, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635618

RESUMO

Salmonella is one of the major causes of food-borne infections. We investigated the serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolates collected in Korea between January 2016 and December 2017. In total, 669 Salmonella isolates were collected from clinical specimens at 19 university hospitals. Serotyping was performed according to the Kauffmann-White scheme, and antimicrobial susceptibility was tested using Sensititre EUVSEC plates or disk diffusion. Among the strains, C (39.8%) and B (36.6%) were the most prevalent serogroups. In total, 51 serotypes were identified, and common serotypes were S. enterica serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- (16.7%), S. Enteritidis (16.1%), S. Bareilly (14.6%), S. Typhimurium (9.9%), and S. Infantis (6.9%). The resistance rates to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were 32.6%, 12.1%, and 8.4%, respectively. The resistance rates to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin were 8.1% and 3.0%, respectively, while 5.4% were multidrug-resistant. S. enterica serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- and S. Enteritidis were highly prevalent, and there was an increase in rare serotypes. Multidrug resistance and ciprofloxacin resistance were highly prevalent. Periodic investigations of Salmonella serotypes and antimicrobial resistance are needed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Humanos , República da Coreia , Salmonella/genética , Sorogrupo
2.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(9)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516365

RESUMO

Introduction. The identification of enteropathogens is critical for the clinical management of patients with suspected gastrointestinal infection. The FLOW multiplex PCR system (FMPS) is a semi-automated platform (FLOW System, Roche) for multiplex real-time PCR analysis.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. FMPS has greater sensitivity for the detection of enteric pathogens than standard methods such as culture, biochemical identification, immunochromatography or microscopic examination.Aim.The diagnostic performance of the FMPS was evaluated and compared to that of traditional microbiological procedures.Methodology. A total of 10 659 samples were collected and analysed over a period of 7 years. From 2013 to 2018 (every July to September), samples were processed using standard microbiological culture methods. In 2019, the FMPS was implemented using real-time PCR to detect the following enteropathogens: Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Blastocystis hominis, Cryptosporidum spp., Dientamoeba fragilis, adenovirus, norovirus and rotavirus. Standard microbiological culture methods (2013-2018) included stool culture, microscopy and immunochromatography.Results. A total of 1078 stool samples were analysed prospectively using the FMPS from July to September (2019): bacterial, parasitic and viral pathogens were identified in 15.3, 9.71 and 5.29 % of cases, respectively. During the same period of 6 years (2013-2018), the proportion of positive identifications using standard microbiological methods from 2013 to 2018 was significantly lower. A major significant recovery improvement was observed for all bacteria species tested: Shigella spp./enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) (P <0.05), Salmonella spp. (P <0.05) and Campylobacter spp. (P <0.05). Marked differences were also observed for the parasites G. intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and D. fragilis.Conclusion. These results support the value of multiplex real-time PCR analysis for the detection of enteric pathogens in laboratory diagnosis with outstanding performance in identifying labile micro-organisms. The identification of unsuspected micro-organisms for less specific clinical presentations may also impact on clinical practice and help optimize patient management.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Blastocystis hominis/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Dientamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba histolytica/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/parasitologia , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Shigella/isolamento & purificação
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1021, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection is thought to be more severe in cancer patients, but this has not been studied since the development of new cancer therapies, increasing antibiotic resistance and the introduction of new antibiotics. We sought to describe the demographic characteristics, microbiological findings, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of NTS infections in cancer patients at our institution. METHODS: We reviewed microbiology laboratory records and identified patients who had cancer and from whom NTS organisms were recovered between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2013, at a comprehensive cancer center in Houston, Texas. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patient characteristics, clinical presentation and outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 110 isolates from 82 patients with 88 episodes of NTS infection (including five relapses [6%] in four patients, and two consecutive episodes in one patient). Fifty-five patients (67%) had hematologic malignancies. Most NTS isolates were susceptible to the commonly prescribed antimicrobials. Sixty-nine percent of patients had sepsis and one-third had severe sepsis or septic shock. Gastroenteritis, bacteremia, or both were present in 69% of patients, and the rest had focal infection. Mortality at 30 days was low (8%). Relapses occurred only in patients receiving ≤ 10 days of antibiotic therapy. CONCLUSIONS: NTS affects predominantly patients with hematologic malignancies, followed by gastrointestinal and genitourinary cancers. Invasive disease, sepsis, and septic shock are common presentations among admitted patients. Antimicrobial prophylaxis may not prevent NTS infection. Thirty-day mortality and attributable mortality rates were low in our series compared to older case series. Early appropriate antibiotic therapy may have had a role in decreasing mortality. Relapses occurred in patients receiving ≤ 10 days of therapy, suggesting the need for longer duration of antibiotic therapy in cancer patients with uncomplicated NTS infections.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Infecções por Salmonella , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Salmonella , Infecções por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 4134713, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540993

RESUMO

Previous work stated that Khaya senegalensis, Anacardium ouest L., Pterocarpus erinaceus, Diospyros mespiliformis, Ocimum gratissimum, Manihot esculenta, Vernonia amygdalina Delile, and Daniellia oliveri have a great potential for the fight against infectious diarrhea. However, data on their antibacterial activity on strains of bacteria responsible for infectious diarrhea are not available. This study is aimed at elucidating the mechanism of action of the antibacterial effect of these plants on some bacterial strains responsible for diarrheal infections. The design of the study included first evaluating the degree of sensitivity of Salmonella typhimurium 14028, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Shigella spp., and Salmonella spp. strains to aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of each plant, followed by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and antibiotic power (Pa). This screening was completed with the evaluation of the possible mode of action of the extracts by testing the membrane permeability of these bacterial strains. The data collected indicate that the bacterial strains tested were sensitive to the extracts to varying degrees, except Cassia sieberiana DC and Pseudocedrela kotschyi extracts. For the active extracts, inhibition diameters ranged from 18.33 mm to 7 mm. With the exception of Escherichia coli, all strains were sensitive to the aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of Anacardium occidentale. MICs vary between 3.37 and 25 mg/ml. Membrane permeability test data show that all active extracts affect the bacterial strains tested by attacking the stability of their outer membrane. For all active extracts, the high percentage of membrane destabilization of the bacteria is significantly (p < 0.05) better than that of cefixime used as a reference. Thus, it appears that these extracts can destroy Gram-negative bacteria and increase the fluidity and permeability of their cytoplasmic membrane. The knowledge of the mechanism of action of these extracts is an interesting contribution to the fundamental knowledge on the alternative that medicinal plants represent to antibiotics. These extracts can be used in the management of infectious diarrhea.


Assuntos
Membrana Externa Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Disenteria/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , África Ocidental , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Externa Bacteriana/metabolismo , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Africana/métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plantas Medicinais , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Shigella/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 727811, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490148

RESUMO

Objective: This study aims to analyze the molecular epidemiology, resistance, and pathogenicity of Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae isolated from children. Methods: Whole genome sequencing was carried out, and molecular serotypes, sequence types, resistance genes, and virulence genes of S. enterica subsp. diarizonae isolates were analyzed. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was determined by commercialized microdilution method. Results: A total of three isolates of S. enterica subsp. diarizonae were isolated during 2015 to 2020. The molecular serotypes of the three strains were 61:c:z35, 61:l,v:1,5,7:[z57], and 65:k:z, respectively, and the sequence types were ST1845, ST233, and ST1263. All the three isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefepime, amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, ertapenem, imipenem, levofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. No other resistant gene was detected except aac(6')-Iaa. There were no resistant plasmids detected in all the three isolates. A total of 76 genes were present in all isolates, containing 49 genes of Type III Secretion System (T3SS) mediated by SPI-1and SPI-2, 13 genes of adherence (type 1 fimbriae, Agf, and MisL-related genes), 11 genes of iron uptake (Yersiniabactin), two genes of magnesium uptake, and one gene of typhoid toxin(cdtB). Conclusion: The serotypes and sequence types of S. enterica subsp. diarizonae isolates were rarely reported in children; all the S. enterica subsp. diarizonae isolates were susceptible to detected antibiotics; T3SS, adherence, iron uptake, magnesium uptake, and typhoid toxin were responsible for pathogenicity of the S. enterica subsp. diarizonae isolates in children.


Assuntos
Salmonella enterica , Salmonella , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Humanos , Salmonella enterica/genética , Sorogrupo , Virulência
8.
Food Res Int ; 148: 110570, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507724

RESUMO

Soybean milk is an economical substitute for dairy products. Pediococcus pentosaceus has been used as a food additive to improve taste, nutrition, and food safety. In this study, four P. pentosaceus strains (CICC 24444, QK-1, MQ-1 and RQ-1) isolated from various food sources and known to exhibit broad-spectrum antibacterial activities were used to ferment soybean milk, and their fermentation characteristics and the properties of the resulting beverages were evaluated. The results revealed that the P. pentosaceus strains can inhibited the growth of five types of pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteritidis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus), and their in vitro survival rates in the simulated stomach and intestinal environments were above 90%, satisfying the probiotic requirements. Isomaltose oligosaccharide was used as a protective agent to resist low-temperature freeze-drying damage and ensure a high survival rate, and P. pentosaceus was directly injected into fermented soymilk. The acidification of fermented soybean milk was the weakest with P. pentosaceus QK-1, and the viable bacterial counts of all strains were stable after 28 days of storage. After fermentation, the antioxidant ability was enhanced. Arginine and ß-alanine levels increased after fermentation, and the adjunct culture of P. pentosaceus QK-1 increased proline levels. Our data indicate that P. pentosaceus QK-1 is a suitable strain for the development of functional plant-based beverages.


Assuntos
Pediococcus pentosaceus , Probióticos , Animais , Fermentação , Leite , Salmonella , Soja
9.
Food Res Int ; 148: 110601, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507746

RESUMO

Decontamination of low water activity (aw) foods, like pet foods is a challenging task. Treatment using light emitting diode (LED) is an emerging decontamination method, that can induce photodynamic inactivation in bacteria. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of selected product and process parameters on the antibacterial efficacy of treatment using light pulses of 455 nm wavelength on dry powdered Salmonella and pet foods equilibrated to 0.75 aw. The surface temperature increase, weight loss, and aw decrease in the samples were determined after LED treatments with different doses. S. Typhimurium on pet foods showed better sensitivity to 455 nm LED treatment than the powdered S. Typhimurium. For instance, 455 nm LED treatment with 785.7 J/cm2 dose produced a log reduction of 1.44 log (CFU/g) in powdered S. Typhimurium population compared to 3.22 log (CFU/g) on pet food. The LED treatment was less effective against 5-strain cocktail of Salmonella in low aw pet foods. The treated samples showed significant reduction in weight and aw showing the heating and drying potential of 455 nm LED treatment. Significant lipid oxidation was observed in the treated pet foods. Overall, the dose, treatment time, and sample type influenced the Salmonella inactivation efficacy of 455 nm LED treatment in low aw conditions.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Salmonella , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Dessecação , Água/análise
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586306

RESUMO

Salmonella is Gram-negative bacilli that cause a foodborne infections. When the disease occurs in patients living with HIV (PLWHA), salmonellosis is an AIDS defining illness. Here we describe the case of a 26-year-old HIV-infected female patient who was hospitalized for pain in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, and whose explorations revealed a liver abscess due to salmonella enterica enterica that progressed well after needle aspiration and antibiotic treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Abscesso Hepático , Salmonella enterica , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Salmonella
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444611

RESUMO

The current study investigated the distribution of microbial populations and diversity in treated wastewater used for irrigation at the University of Limpopo Experimental Farm (ULEF), from different stages of post treatment disposal at Mankweng Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWTP) in Limpopo Province, South Africa. The study was arranged in a 4 × 5 factorial experiment, which studied the interactive effects of four collection points and five months of sampling, with borehole water used as a reference point. Water samples were analyzed for bacteria, helminths, and protozoa. All data were transformed and subjected to factorial analysis of variance. The site-time interactions were significant for Salmonella spp. and Ascaris lumbricoides, whereas collection point was significant for all variables. In conclusion, movement and storage of water post treatment at MWTP were able to improve the microbial quality of the treated wastewater disposed for irrigation at ULEF.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água , Salmonella , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Água
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2434-2444, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424161

RESUMO

Antimicrobial use contributes to the global rise of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). In 2014, the poultry industry in Canada initiated its Antimicrobial Use Reduction Strategy to mitigate AMR in the poultry sector. We monitored trends in antimicrobial use and AMR of foodborne bacteria (Salmonella, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter) in broiler chickens during 2013 and 2019. We quantified the effect of antimicrobial use and management factors on AMR by using LASSO regression and generalized mixed-effect models. AMR in broiler chickens declined by 6%-38% after the decrease in prophylactic antimicrobial use. However, the withdrawal of individual compounds, such as cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, prompted an increase in use of and resistance levels for other drug classes, such as aminoglycosides. Canada's experience with antimicrobial use reduction illustrates the potential for progressive transitions from conventional antimicrobial-dependent broiler production to more sustainable production with respect to antimicrobial use.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Campylobacter , Animais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Galinhas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli , Salmonella
13.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 78: 101692, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352638

RESUMO

The understanding on the role of bats in the ecology of zoonotic diseases, especially its relevance as a carrier of pathogens, is important for the determination of preventive measures considering the One Health context. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Salmonella spp. in blood (n = 163), liver (n = 35) and spleen (n = 62) samples from bats captured in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Only Salmonella spp. was found in a blood sample of an insectivorous female bat of the species Lasiurus blossevilli, evidencing the capacity of this animal species to host this pathogen. In conclusion, our results in bats from Montes Claros indicate that they do not act as hosts for Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp., although being potential carriers of Salmonella spp. in a low prevalence.


Assuntos
Brucella , Quirópteros , Leptospira , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Salmonella
14.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110464, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399463

RESUMO

Fresh food products, including fruits, vegetables, raw meat, and poultry, have been associated with safety concerns and quality issues, owing to their susceptibility to rapid deterioration and microbial contamination. This research aimed to develop an integrated process to simultaneously cool and decontaminate high moisture food products. Cold plasma (CP), a novel decontamination technology, was integrated with vacuum cooling to develop a plasma integrated low-pressure cooling (PiLPC) process. To evaluate the rapid cooling and microbial inactivation efficacies of the PiLPC process, fresh cut Granny Smith apples andSalmonella entericaserovarTyphimurium ATCC 13311 were used as the model food and microorganism, respectively. The influence of process parameters including treatment time, pressure, and post-treatment storage, on the inactivation ofSalmonellaon fresh-cut apples was investigated.Inactivation ofSalmonellaincreased with treatment time, with a maximum reduction of 3.21 log CFU/g after 5 min of CP treatment at atmospheric pressure. Inactivationof Salmonellaafter CP treatment at 200 mbar was not significantly different from that at atmospheric pressure for the same treatment time. CP treatment of 3 min at 200 mbar followed by a post-treatment storage of 3 days at 4 °C reduced the totalSalmonellapopulation on cut apple slices by > 6 log CFU/g. The temperature of the cut apples was reduced from room temperature to 2 °Cin 3 to 9 min depending on the sample surface area to volume ratio, when the pressure was reducedto 7 mbar. However, this PiLPC process resulted in moisture loss in cut apples. The results of this study indicate the potential of the PiLPC process for rapid cooling and microbial inactivation of fresh food products in a single process.


Assuntos
Malus , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Salmonella
15.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110480, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399476

RESUMO

This study describes the characterization and genomic analysis of six lytic Salmonella phages. To examine the feasibility of using these phages as biocontrol agents, we analyzed their genomes and compared them to those of similar phages. These six phages belong to genus Epseptimavirus, family Demerecviridae. We identified the genes of these six phages by comparing their genomes with those of three type phages in subfamily Markadamsvirinae. All six phages examined in this study were obligately lytic and did not carry undesirable genes. Two phages (vB_SalS_1-23 and vB_SalS_3-29) were selected as the representative phages for general characterization and physiological tests. The biocontrol efficacy of the representative phages was determined by comparing the viable counts of recovered host Salmonella ser. Newlands ZC-S1 from treatment and phage-free control samples. The biocontrol experiment showed that the representative phages were able to reduce the counts of ZC-S1 to below 2 log10 CFU/mL (~4.3 log10 CFU/mL reduction) at 3 h post-infection at 37 °C. Furthermore, we investigated the application of these two phages in the control of ZC-S1 contamination in chicken products and on eggshells. When applied to the surfaces of the samples, the phage cocktail (MOI = 100) reduced the ZC-S1 count to below 2 log10 CFU/mL on chicken skin and to undetectable levels (1 log10 CFU/mL) in chicken breast meat, ground chicken meat and eggshell samples (p < 0.01). Compared to the initial experiment, the phage cocktail reduced the ZC-S1 count by 2-4.08 log10 CFU/mL when applied at an MOI = 1 (except in the ground chicken meat group) and by 4.48-5.67 log10 CFU/mL at an MOI = 100 after 7 h. In conclusion, these two phages with lytic effects show a high potential to inhibit the growth of Salmonella contaminants and can be used as candidate biocontrol agents.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Fagos de Salmonella , Bacteriófagos/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne , Salmonella , Fagos de Salmonella/genética
16.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110492, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399488

RESUMO

Salmonella is one of the most common foodborne pathogens around the world. Phages are envisioned as a new strategy to control foodborne pathogenic bacteria and food safety. A Salmonella specific lytic phage vB_SalS-LPSTLL (LPSTLL) was selected for food applications on the basis of lytic range, lytic efficiency, functional stability and characteristics. Phage LPSTLL was able to lyse 11 Salmonella serotypes, which represents the broadest range reported Salmonella phages, and was able to suppress the growth of Salmonella enterica in liquid culture over nine hours. LPSTLL exhibited rapid reproductive activity with a short latent period and a large burst size in one-step growth experiment. LPSTLL remained active over a pH range of 3.0 to 12.0, and at incubation temperatures up to 60 °C for 60 min, indicating wide applicability for food processing and storage. Significant reductions of viable Salmonella were observed in diverse foods (milk, apple juice, chicken and lettuce) with reductions up to 2.8 log CFU/mL recorded for milk. Sensory evaluation indicated that treatment with phage LPSTLL did not alter the visual or tactile quality of food matrices. Genome analysis of LPSTLL indicated the absence of any virulence or antimicrobial resistance genes. Genomic comparisons suggest phage LPSTLL constitutes a novel member of a new genus, the LPSTLLvirus with the potential for Salmonella biocontrol in the food industry.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Fagos de Salmonella , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Salmonella , Sais
17.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110548, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399525

RESUMO

Salmonella contamination of low-water activity (aw) foods poses a serious concern worldwide. The present study was conducted to assess the effects of drying conditions, food composition, and water activity on the desiccation tolerance and thermal resistance of S. Enteritidis FUA1946, S. Senftenberg ATCC43845 and S. Typhimurium ATCC13311 in pet food, binder formulation, and skim milk powder. The samples were wet inoculated with the individual Salmonella strains and were equilibrated to aw 0.33 and 0.75, followed by an isothermal treatment at 70 °C. The thermal inactivation data was fitted to the Weibull model. Irrespective of the aw, food composition and physical structure of the selected foods, strain S. Enteritidis FUA1946 displayed the highest desiccation and thermal resistance, followed by S. Senftenberg ATCC43845 and S. Typhimurium ATCC13311. The food matrix and strain type significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the thermal resistance of microorganisms in foods along with aw change during thermal treatments. To further study the effect of food composition, an additional set of experiments using dry inoculation of the resistant Salmonella strain in the low-aw foods was designed. Significant (p < 0.05) matrix-dependent interaction on Salmonella reduction was observed. The water adsorption isotherms of selected low-aw foods were measured at 20 and 70 °C to relate the thermal inactivation kinetics with the change in the aw. The characterization of thermal resistance of the Salmonella serovars in low-aw products with different compositions and aw in this study may be used for the validation of thermal challenge studies.


Assuntos
Salmonella enterica , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Salmonella , Água/análise
18.
Microb Pathog ; 159: 105113, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333073

RESUMO

Improving the health and immunity of pets is a concern of the guardians, while maintaining the health of the animals directly impacts the owners' health and public health. The objective of this study was to produce a dog feed containing a microencapsulated phytogenic blend, as well as determine the impact of the additive on animal health and its intestinal microbiota. The composition included microencapsulated thymol, carvacrol, and cinnamaldehyde, at 300 mg/kg of feed. Ten male beagle dogs were divided into two groups, identified as follows: the control group (C; ingested the feed without the additive) and the treated group (T; consumed feed containing the phytogenic blend). The dogs received 300 g of feed/day divided into two meals. Greater neutrophil counts in group T and lymphocyte counts were observed at the end of the experiment, as well as levels of α2-globulins and γ-globulin, while ß1 and ß2-globulins levels were lower in group T. Serum nitrogen oxide levels were higher in group T. Levels of reactive oxygen species were lower in group T at days 30 and 45, unlike activity of glutathione peroxidase that was higher. We found less bacterial contamination in the feces of dogs in group T, i.e., total bacterial count, total coliform counts, and counts of Salmonella and Escherichia coli were lower on days 30 and 45. Phytogenic blend intake reduces bacterial counts in stool and improves antioxidant/oxidative status and immune responses.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Salmonella , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Cães , Fezes , Imunidade , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 546, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338921

RESUMO

The study focused on assessing drinking water quality from different sources in Gweru urban. Seventy six samples were collected from 6 different locations and analysed for physicochemical parameters and microbial quality. Bacteria isolates were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and antibiotic susceptibility was determined for 4 isolates that had been identified as Escherichia coli (2) and Salmonella spp. (2). Although most samples were within World Health Organisation limits for most parameters, none met coliform limits. pH ranged between 6.2 and 6.9. Salmonella prevalence was 2%. Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. isolates were resistant to at least three antibiotics. The study showed inconsistent water quality across the city and contamination in alternative water sources.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Escherichia coli , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Salmonella , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Qualidade da Água , Zimbábue
20.
Nature ; 596(7871): 262-267, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349263

RESUMO

Regulated cell death is an integral part of life, and has broad effects on organism development and homeostasis1. Malfunctions within the regulated cell death process, including the clearance of dying cells, can manifest in diverse pathologies throughout various tissues including the gastrointestinal tract2. A long appreciated, yet elusively defined relationship exists between cell death and gastrointestinal pathologies with an underlying microbial component3-6, but the direct effect of dying mammalian cells on bacterial growth is unclear. Here we advance a concept that several Enterobacteriaceae, including patient-derived clinical isolates, have an efficient growth strategy to exploit soluble factors that are released from dying gut epithelial cells. Mammalian nutrients released after caspase-3/7-dependent apoptosis boosts the growth of multiple Enterobacteriaceae and is observed using primary mouse colonic tissue, mouse and human cell lines, several apoptotic triggers, and in conventional as well as germ-free mice in vivo. The mammalian cell death nutrients induce a core transcriptional response in pathogenic Salmonella, and we identify the pyruvate formate-lyase-encoding pflB gene as a key driver of bacterial colonization in three contexts: a foodborne infection model, a TNF- and A20-dependent cell death model, and a chemotherapy-induced mucositis model. These findings introduce a new layer to the complex host-pathogen interaction, in which death-induced nutrient release acts as a source of fuel for intestinal bacteria, with implications for gut inflammation and cytotoxic chemotherapy treatment.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Enterobacteriaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Acetiltransferases/genética , Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Animais , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 7/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Vida Livre de Germes , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/microbiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Mucosite/induzido quimicamente , Salmonella/enzimologia , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmonella/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Proteína 3 Induzida por Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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