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1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(2): 187-191, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074708

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the drug resistance pattern and drug resistance genotypes of Salmonella. spp isolated from fecal specimens and anal swabs of diarrhea cases in Anhui Province. Methods: The 149 strains of Salmonella.spp isolated from feces and anal swabs of diarrhea cases in Anhui Province from April to October 2017 were selected. The serotypes of Salmonella.spp were identified by slide agglutination. The susceptibility of all strains to 14 antibiotics were determined by micro-broth dilution method. Sixty of the cephalosporin-resistant antibiotics were selected. The ß-lactamase encoding genes bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(OXA-1), bla(OXA-2), bla(PER), bla(CMY), bla(CTX-M), and colistin resistance genes mcr-1 and mcr-2 were performed using the multi-PCR method. Results: Of the 149 diarrhea cases, the median (P(25), P(75)) of the age was 5.0 (1.1, 38.5). The 92 of them were male and 54.4% were children. Of the 149 strains of Salmonella.spp, 105 strains had different degrees of resistance to 13 antibiotics other than imipenem. The resistance rate of ampicillin was 55.0% (82/149), which was the highest. 53.0% strains (79 strains) were multidrug resistant, main of which were Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis. A total of 53 resistance patterns were detected, and 10 strains were resistant to ampicillin-ampicillin/sulbactam-tetracycline-chloramphenicol-cefazolin-trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, which was the most common resistance pattern. Among the 60 cephalosporin resistant strains, 45 strains carried bla(TEM-1), 6 of which also carried bla(CTX-M-14) and 3 of which also carried bla(CTX-M-65). All the 32 strains carried only bla(TEM-1) show resistance to ampicillin and 31 of them show resistance to cefazolin. There were 2 strains showing negative results of gene detection. mcr-1 was detected in a multidrug resistant strain. Conclusion: The resistance of Salmonella.spp to ampicillin shows a serious situation in this region, and there were a number of multidrug resistant strains. The bla(TEM-1) was the major drug resistance gene detected in this research. Detection of the mcr-1 suggests the emergence of surveillance to colistin resistance of Salmonella.spp in this area.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Infecções/microbiologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
2.
Food Microbiol ; 87: 103394, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948635

RESUMO

Salmonella is a major pathogen having a public health and economic impact in both humans and animals. Six serotypes of the Salmonella genus are mentioned in the Belgian and European regulation as to be rapidly excluded from the food chain (EU regulation N°2160/2003, Belgian royal decree 27/04/2017). The reference method for Salmonella serotyping, including slide-agglutination and biochemical tests, is time-consuming, expensive, not always objective, and therefore does not match the fast identification criteria required by the legislation. In this study, a molecular method, using genetic markers detected by Multiplex Oligonucleotide Ligation - PCR and Luminex technology, was developed for the identification of the 6 Salmonella serotypes and their variants subjected to an official control. The resulting method was validated with the analysis of 971 Salmonella isolated from different matrixes (human, animal, food or environment) and 33 non-Salmonella strains. The results were compared with the reference identifications, achieving an accuracy of 99.7%. The cost-effective high-throughput genoserotyping assay is performed in 1 day and generates objective results, thanks to the automatic interpretation of raw data using a barcode system. In conclusion, it is fully adapted to the implementation in first line laboratories and meets the requirements of the regulation.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Oligonucleotídeos/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Microbiologia Ambiental , Humanos , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/genética , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 22(4): 793-797, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867930

RESUMO

Salmonellosis is a public health concern worldwide and also causes huge losses to the piggery industry. A total of 457 fecal samples were collected from organized and unorganized farms including indigenous and crossbreed piglets of North East India. Salmonella isolates were serotyped, screened for their virulence genes, characterized for drug resistance pattern and representative isolates were cloned and sequenced for their partial length enterotoxin (stn) gene. A total of 8.31% Salmonella were identified with higher prevalence observed in unorganized compared to organized farms and higher detection level in cross breed compared to indigenous piglets. Salmonella typhimurium (65.78%) was found to be the predominant serovar and irrespective of serovars high number of isolates (68.4%) harboured enterotoxin gene. The isolates were multidrug resistant showing highest resistance against cefalexin (77.31%). Sequence analysis of stn gene showed two isolates having diverse sequence compared to other isolates. Our study revealed the significance of Salmonella as important pathogen with zoonotic potential between porcine and human populations. This is probably the first systematic study of Salmonella species associated with piglet diarrhea in India.


Assuntos
Diarreia/veterinária , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella/classificação , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fezes/microbiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/genética , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Suínos
4.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 456, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella is one of the most important foodborne pathogens, causing outbreaks of human salmonellosis worldwide. Owing to large scales of consumption markets, pork and poultry that contaminated by Salmonella could pose a tremendous threat to public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the contamination of Salmonella from chicken, pork and the environment in slaughtering and retail processes in Chongqing, China. RESULTS: A total of 115 Salmonella isolates were recovered from 1112 samples collected from pork, chicken and the environment. Compared with the isolation rate of samples from chicken (9.50%) and the environment (6.23%), samples from pork had a significant higher isolation rate (44.00%). The isolation rates in slaughterhouses (10.76%) and in supermarkets (10.07%) showed no statistical difference. Thirty different serotypes were identified among all the isolates. S. Derby (n = 26), S. London (n = 16) and S. Rissen (n = 12) were the dominant serotypes. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that 73.04% isolates were resistant to tetracycline, followed by 66.96% to ampicillin and 59.13% to doxycycline. More than half (50.43%) of the isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), and most of the MDR isolates were from supermarkets. Multilocus sequence typing results showed 24 out of 115 isolates were ST40, which was the most prevalent. Furthermore, isolates from supermarkets had 20 different sequence types while isolates from slaughterhouses only had 8 different sequence types. CONCLUSION: Our study highlighted that Salmonella was more frequently isolated in pork production chain than that in chicken. Compared with isolates from slaughterhouses, isolates from supermarkets had more MDR profiles and represented a wider range of serotypes and sequence types, indicating that the retail process had more diverse sources of Salmonella contamination than that of slaughtering process.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Carne de Porco/microbiologia , Salmonella/genética , Matadouros , Animais , China , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Microbiologia Ambiental , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Sorotipagem , Sus scrofa
5.
Vet Microbiol ; 239: 108457, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767083

RESUMO

Pork is one of the most common vehicles of non-typhoid foodborne Salmonella, with the slaughterhouse representing a key point for the infection of pigs and carcass contamination. By comparing matching samples taken from animals at the dirty (skin) and clean (inner and outer carcass surface) areas of the slaughterline, this study aimed to assess potential Salmonella contamination routes of pig carcasses within a Portuguese abattoir. Forty-four Salmonella isolates were retrieved from 120 pigs, and further characterized through pheno and genotypical methods. Most frequent serotypes found were Salmonella 4, [5],12:i:- (47.7%), Salmonella Rissen (40.9%) and Salmonella Derby (11.4%). Isolates were most commonly collected from the skin of pigs sampled at the dirty area (59.1%), followed by the inner (38.1%) and outer (9.1%) carcass surface sampled at the clean area. Most isolates (79.5%) were considered to be multidrug resistant and all harbored the virulence associated genes invA, invH, sopB, stn, slyA, phoP, phoQ and agfA. PFGE analysis revealed that most bacterial isolates belonging to the same serotype, recovered from animals from different farms, and slaughtered at separate days were genetically undistinguishable. Furthermore, our findings suggest that Salmonella Rissen might have an increased ability to endure on the slaughterhouse environment when compared with the other serotypes. Concluding, this study shows that the slaughterhouse may be a key point for the dissemination of resistant and virulent Salmonella strains, which stresses the importance of the implementation of good hygiene practices at the slaughterhouse and of the application of corrective measures to avoid cross-contamination.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Genótipo , Carne/microbiologia , Fenótipo , Portugal , Sorotipagem , Suínos , Tempo , Fatores de Virulência/genética
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683716

RESUMO

Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is a leading cause of foodborne zoonosis. To better understand the epidemiology of human salmonellosis, this study aimed to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and sequence types of Salmonella in retail food and wild birds (proximity to humans) in Singapore. We analyzed 21,428 cooked and ready-to-eat food and 1,510 residual faecal samples of wild birds collected during 2010-2015. Thirty-two Salmonella isolates from food and wild birds were subjected to disc diffusion and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Salmonella was isolated from 0.08% (17/21,428) of food and 0.99% (15/1510) of wild birds. None of the isolates from wild birds (n = 15) exhibited phenotypic resistance, while the isolates from food (47.1%, 8/17) showed a high prevalence of phenotypic resistance to, at least, one antimicrobial. These findings suggested that the avian Salmonella isolates had been subjected to less antimicrobial selection pressure than those from food samples. MLST revealed specific sequence types found in both food and wild birds. The study can guide future studies with whole-genome analysis on a larger number of isolates from various sectors for public health measures.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Aves/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Prevalência , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/genética , Singapura
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(10): e0007782, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis are major causes of bloodstream infection in children in sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed evidence for their zoonotic versus human reservoir. METHODS: Index patients were children with blood culture confirmed Salmonella infection recruited during a microbiological surveillance study in Nanoro, rural Burkina between May 2013 and August 2014. After consent, their households were visited. Stool from household members and livestock (pooled samples per species) as well as drinking water were cultured for Salmonella. Isolates with identical serotype obtained from index patient and any household sample were defined as "paired isolates" and assessed for genetic relatedness by multilocus variable number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). RESULTS: Twenty-nine households were visited for 32/42 (76.2%) eligible index patients: two households comprised two index patients each, and in a third household the index patient had a recurrent infection. Among the 32 index patients, serotypes were Salmonella Typhimurium (n = 26), Salmonella Enteritidis (n = 5) and Salmonella Freetown (n = 1). All Typhimurium isolates were sequence type (ST)313. Median delay between blood culture sampling and household visits was 13 days (range 6-26). Salmonella was obtained from 16/186 (8.6%) livestock samples (13 serotypes) and 18/290 (6.2%) household members (9 serotypes). None of the water samples yielded Salmonella. Paired Salmonella Typhimurium isolates were obtained from three households representing four index patients. MLVA types were identical in two pairs and similar in the third (consisting of two index patients and one household member). WGS showed a strong genetic relatedness with 0 to 2 core genome SNPs difference between pairs on a household level. Livestock samples did not yield any Salmonella Typhimurium or Salmonella Enteritidis, and the latter was exclusively obtained from blood culture. Other serotypes shared by human and/or livestock carriers in the same household were Salmonella Derby, Drac, Tennessee and Muenster. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current study provides further evidence of a human reservoir for invasive non-Typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Características da Família , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Animais , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gado , Masculino , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Salmonella/genética , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella enterica/genética , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella enteritidis/genética , Salmonella enteritidis/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/isolamento & purificação , Sorogrupo , Microbiologia da Água , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 847, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella outbreaks in childcare facilities are relatively rare, most often occurring secondary to contaminated food products or poor infection control practices. We report an outbreak of Salmonella Saintpaul at a pre-school facility in Ayrshire, Scotland with atypical clinical and epidemiological features. METHODS: Following notification of the initial two cases, the multi-disciplinary Incident Management Team initiated enhanced active case finding and two environmental inspections of the site, including food preparation areas. Parent and staff interviews were conducted by the Public Health department covering attendance, symptomatology and risk factors for all probable and confirmed cases. Microbiological testing of stool samples and the facility water tank was conducted. Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) was performed for positive stool samples at the national reference laboratory. Infection control measures were introduced iteratively due to the atypical progression of the outbreak. RESULTS: There were 15 confirmed cases and 3 children admitted to hospital during the outbreak. However, 35.7% of cases reported extremely mild symptoms. The attack rate was 15.2%, and age of affected children ranged from 18 to 58 months (mean 35 months). All cases were the same Multilocus Sequence Type (MLST50). Epidemiological investigation strongly suggested person-to-person spread within the facility. Existing infection control practices were found to be of a high standard, but introduction of additional evidence-based control measures was inadequate in halting transmission. Facility staff reported concerns about lack of parental disclosure of gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly where these were mild, with 50.0% of cases having attended while symptomatic against public health advice. Voluntary two-week closure of the facility was implemented to halt transmission, following which there were no new cases. WGS results were unavailable until after the decision was taken to close the facility. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first reported instance of a Salmonella Saintpaul outbreak at a childcare facility, or where person-to-person transmission is indicated. Clinicians should consider the influence of parental under-reporting on gastrointestinal outbreaks in childcare settings, particularly where perceived severity is low and financial or social pressures to attend work may reduce compliance. WGS cannot yet replace conventional microbiological techniques during short, localised outbreaks due to delays receiving results.


Assuntos
Infecções por Salmonella/diagnóstico , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Creches , Pré-Escolar , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Saúde Pública , Salmonella/genética , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Escócia/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 310: 108310, 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476581

RESUMO

Pigs infected with Salmonella are an important source of contamination at slaughterhouses. We characterized the distribution, virulence genotypes and antimicrobial-resistance phenotypes for Salmonella isolates that were collected from different stages of a pork production chain. Each of ten pig lots were sampled for feed (n = 10), water (n = 10), barn floor (n = 10), lairage floor (n = 10), mesenteric lymph nodes (n = 100), tonsils (n = 100), processing environment (n = 120), pork cuts (n = 40) and carcasses after bleeding (n = 100), after singeing (n = 100), after evisceration (n = 100), and after final rinsing (n = 100). Salmonella was isolated according to ISO 6579, and after confirmation the isolates were subjected to serogrouping, macro-restriction digests and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), detection of virulence-related genes and antimicrobial-resistance phenotyping. Salmonella was recovered from barn floors from 3 pig farms (3/10), lairage floors (7/10), carcasses after bleeding (2/100) and final washing (1/100), palatine tonsils (45/100), mesenteric lymph nodes (43/100), utensils (3/120) and cuts (4/40). The most prevalent serogroup was O: 4 (82%) followed by O:3 (7.7%); O:9 (5.1%); O:8 (2.6%) and O:7 (2.6%). Recovered strains (n = 109) were classified into 24 different pulsotypes (XbaI restriction digest), which were arranged into five different clusters. Fourteen different virulence genotypes were observed based on 15 loci, and all isolates were positive for invA, sitC, pagC and tolC. There was a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance against streptomycin (90.5%), tetracycline (88.1%), ampicillin (81.0%), chloramphenicol (71.4%), and ciprofloxacin (50.0%). No strain was resistant to ertapenem, meropenem or kanamycin. A majority (80.9%) of isolates were considered multidrug resistant (resistant to ≥3 antibiotic classes). This study provides valuable insight about the epidemiology of Salmonella in swine production, and despite the low presence of this pathogen in carcasses and meat cuts, the majority of isolates was multidrug resistant.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Variação Genética , Salmonella , Virulência/genética , Matadouros , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Brasil , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Genótipo , Carne/microbiologia , Tonsila Palatina/microbiologia , Prevalência , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Sorogrupo , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
10.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 54(12): 972-978, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496354

RESUMO

There is limited research concerning the biofilm-forming capabilities of Salmonella Kentucky, a common poultry isolate. The objective was to quantitate pellicle formation of S. Kentucky versus better-characterized Salmonella strains of Enteritidis and Heidelberg. In separate experiments, Salmonella strains and serovars were tested for their biofilm-forming abilities in different Luria-Bertani (LB) broths (1); pellicle formation in different volumes of LB without salt (2); and the potential priming effects on formation after pellicles were transferred three consecutive times (3). Data were analyzed using One-Way ANOVA with means separated using Tukey's HSD (P ≤ 0.05). In the first experiment, there was no significant effect between strain and serovars (P > 0.05), but media type affected pellicle formation significantly with LB Miller and LB minus NaCl plus 2% glucose resulting in no pellicle formation (P < 0.001). When grown in 50 mL, Kentucky 38-0085 produced larger pellicles than Kentucky 38-0055, and Heidelberg strain 38-0127 (P < 0.0001). Serial transfers of pellicles did not significantly affect pellicle formation (P > 0.05); however, Kentucky 38-0084, 38-0085 and 38-0086 produced larger pellicles than Kentucky 38-0055 and 38-0056 and Heidelberg 38-0126, 38-0127 and 38-0152. The current study demonstrates the consistent biofilm forming capabilities of Kentucky and may explain why Kentucky is frequently isolated in poultry processing facilities.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella/fisiologia , Animais , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Aves Domésticas , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Sorogrupo
11.
PLoS Genet ; 15(9): e1008399, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527905

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently one of the most important challenges to the treatment of bacterial infections. A critical issue to combat AMR is to restrict its spread. In several instances, bacterial plasmids are involved in the global spread of AMR. Plasmids belonging to the incompatibility group (Inc)HI are widespread in Enterobacteriaceae and most of them express multiple antibiotic resistance determinants. They play a relevant role in the recent spread of colistin resistance. We present in this report novel findings regarding IncHI plasmid conjugation. Conjugative transfer in liquid medium of an IncHI plasmid requires expression of a plasmid-encoded, large-molecular-mass protein that contains an Ig-like domain. The protein, termed RSP, is encoded by a gene (ORF R0009) that maps in the Tra2 region of the IncHI1 R27 plasmid. The RSP protein is exported outside the cell by using the plasmid-encoded type IV secretion system that is also used for its transmission to new cells. Expression of the protein reduces cell motility and enables plasmid conjugation. Flagella are one of the cellular targets of the RSP protein. The RSP protein is required for a high rate of plasmid transfer in both flagellated and nonflagellated Salmonella cells. This effect suggests that RSP interacts with other cellular structures as well as with flagella. These unidentified interactions must facilitate mating pair formation and, hence, facilitate IncHI plasmid conjugation. Due to its location on the outer surfaces of the bacterial cell, targeting the RSP protein could be a means of controlling IncHI plasmid conjugation in natural environments or of combatting infections caused by AMR enterobacteria that harbor IncHI plasmids.


Assuntos
Conjugação Genética/genética , Domínios de Imunoglobulina/genética , Fatores R/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Domínios de Imunoglobulina/fisiologia , Plasmídeos/genética , Salmonella/genética
12.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 2907-2915, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513724

RESUMO

In Mexico, there is limited information regarding food consumer behaviors at home. The knowledge of food consumption and food handling practices can help to determine more realistically the exposure to different hazards, such as Salmonella spp. on the population. The main goal of this study was to characterize the food consumption habits of five food groups (fruits and vegetables, fresh meat, dairy products, processed meat products, and seafood), food handling practices, and Salmonella exposure self-perception of the population of the central region of Mexico using an online survey. A total of 1,199 surveys were analyzed. The group of fruits and vegetables is the most consumed and one of the most related to the consumer self-perception of suffering from salmonellosis. Mexican consumers regularly use refrigeration as the principal food storage method for the five food groups (42.2% to 90.8%), and generally, they store the products between 2 and 3 days (26.5% to 38.1%). A total of 86.4% of consumers reported that they always wash their hands prior to food preparation. A total of 16.9% and 13.0% use the same cutting board and knife, respectively, to cut more than one product without applying sanitization. Men, people between 20 and 24 years, and people between 60 and 64 years, had the highest risk food handling practices at home. Finally, age (P < 0.0001), education level (P = 0.0004), and suffering from gastrointestinal diseases (P = 0.0005) showed significant effects with self-perception of having salmonellosis. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Data presented in this study could be used in future risk and exposure assessment research to evaluate the public health risk from the consumption of contaminated food. In addition, it could be used by government agencies to design education campaigns in food safety area.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/psicologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Autoimagem , Adulto , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/microbiologia , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/genética , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Verduras/microbiologia
13.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(6): 1901-1906, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502742

RESUMO

AIMS: Salmonella contamination in the manufacturing process of an overseas oilmeal plant was investigated and countermeasures for Salmonella contamination were evaluated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Salmonella was detected from deposits and adhered materials inside the main processing equipment. Specifically high contamination was observed in the equipment associated with the meal cooler, with several Salmonella serovars being detected. A number of Salmonella serovars were also detected in the equipment of the fine powder recovery process. To prevent Salmonella contamination of oilmeal products, effective countermeasures that have been employed in Japan were implemented. By removing residues from the equipment and disinfecting the interior of the equipment, a significant decrease in the contamination rate of oilmeal products was achieved compared to before sanitation (P < 0·05). CONCLUSIONS: Effective countermeasures to control Salmonella contamination in the overseas manufacturing process of oilmeal were established. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This is the first report focusing on Salmonella countermeasures in an actual oilmeal-manufacturing plant overseas.


Assuntos
Desinfecção/métodos , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/normas , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura/normas , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/instrumentação , Índia , Salmonella/genética , Saneamento
14.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(10): 1543-1552, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546299

RESUMO

Salmonella is a common zoonotic and foodborne pathogen that causes high morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In this study, we established and validated a polymerase spiral reaction (PSR) assay which targeted the conserved invasion gene (invA) of Salmonella by SYBR Green I indicator methods. Subsequently, assays for determination of the optimal conditions for optimal specificity and sensitivity of PSR were performed. We performed comprehensive evaluations using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and realtime PCR. A total number of 532 samples of daily food were analyzed by PSR. Twenty-seven bacterial strains were tested in the specificity assay, from which positive results were obtained only for 14-Salmonella strains. However, none of the 13 non-Salmonella strains was amplified. Similarly with LAMP and real-time PCR, the detection limit of the PSR assay was 50 CFU/ml. The PSR method was also successfully applied to evaluate the contamination with Salmonella in 532 samples of daily food, corroborating traditional culture method data. The novel PSR method is simple, sensitive, and rapid and provides new insights into the prevention and detection of foodborne diseases.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Salmonella/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 308: 108305, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476731

RESUMO

In recent years, the number of human salmonellosis cases in Western Australia (WA) has increased more dramatically than in any other Australian state. In 2017, the number of cases in WA was more than double the five-year average, and eggs had emerged as the key culprit for several Salmonella foodborne disease outbreaks. To better understand such an epidemiologically intriguing situation, our research goal was to investigate the prevalence, serovar diversity, multilocus sequence types, and antimicrobial resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella contamination in retail eggs produced and sold in WA. A total of 200 visually clean and intact retail egg samples (each containing a dozen eggs) were purchased for one year (2017-2018) from supermarkets in metropolitan Perth, the capital of WA. For each sample, the contents and shells of the 12 eggs were separately pooled and cultured according to standard methods. Overall, Salmonella was detected in 11.5% (23/200) of the tested egg samples. Salmonella was isolated from 4.5% (9/200) and 3% (6/200) of eggshells and egg contents, respectively. In 4% (8/200) of the samples, Salmonella was recovered from both eggshell and egg contents. Isolates from positive retail egg samples were serotyped as either S. Typhimurium (52.2% [12/23]) or S. Infantis (39.1% [9/23]). Both serotypes were concurrently recovered from two different retail egg samples. We retained a set of both S. Typhimurium (n = 29) and S. Infantis (n = 12) isolates from all Salmonella-positive retail packs (n = 23) for further characterization. Only two (S. Typhimurium) isolates showed resistance to ampicillin, of which one carried ß-lactamase resistance gene blaTEM-1b. The remaining isolates (39/41) were susceptible to all 14 antimicrobials included in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) testing panel. Multilocus sequence typing and serotyping were perfectly mirrored, as all S. Typhimurium isolates were characterized as sequence type (ST)-19, and all S. Infantis isolates were ST-32. This study points to the noteworthy Salmonella prevalence rate in retail egg samples in WA. Our results illustrate minimal public health risks arising from antimicrobial resistance Salmonella from Australian eggs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Casca de Ovo/microbiologia , Ovos/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Austrália , Genômica , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/genética , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
16.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(8): 1083-1090, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417051

RESUMO

Aims: The aim of this study was to provide epidemiological data about the presence of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in raw milk samples collected from different animals. Methods: A total of 231 raw milk samples from 48 cows, 65 goats, 65 sheep, and 53 donkeys were studied. The ISO 6579:2002 and ISO 21567:2004 methods, antimicrobial susceptibility tests, and serotyping were performed. Species and subspecies discriminations were made via matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. After DNA isolation from all samples, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kits. Results: Five samples (2.16%) showed positivity out of 231 raw milk samples for Salmonella spp., and 2 (0.87%) samples were detected to be positive by multiplex real-time PCR design. Conclusion: We found that raw milk samples were not free of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. and need to be tested routinely to avoid public health problems. Rapid and reliable real-time PCR method can be developed and used for this purposes instead of slow bacterial culture processes.


Assuntos
DNA Bacteriano/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Leite/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Shigella/genética , Shigella/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Equidae , Feminino , Cabras , Humanos , Salmonella/classificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ovinos , Shigella/classificação
17.
Analyst ; 144(18): 5413-5419, 2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364999

RESUMO

Herein, a chip imitating the desert beetle shell was presented for naked eye nucleic acid quantification. The hydrophobic photonic crystal substrate treated by ultraviolet local irradiation could effectively disperse the sample into hundreds of droplets for digital loop-mediated isothermal amplification (dLAMP). Pyrophosphate (PPI), a by-product of the LAMP reaction, combined with magnesium ions to form a poorly soluble precipitate. It could be fixed on a silica substrate due to complexation, resulting in the disappearance of the structural color of the photonic crystals. The number of points without structural color contains the information of the copy number of nucleic acids in the sample. This chip could achieve the naked eye quantitative detection of Salmonella DNA without fluorescence or other chromogenic reagents. Thus, the chip designed in this study can help the development of digital nucleic acid detection under limited resource settings (LRS) and can be suitable for POCT (point of care test) standards.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/química , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Silanos/química , Colorimetria/métodos , Difosfatos/química , Fluorcarbonetos/efeitos da radiação , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Compostos de Magnésio/química , Nanopartículas/química , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Salmonella/genética , Silanos/efeitos da radiação , Dióxido de Silício/química , Raios Ultravioleta
18.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 108: 104434, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374229

RESUMO

In silico chemical safety assessment can support the evaluation of hazard and risk following potential exposure to a substance, thus stimulating an increased interest for the use of Structure-Activity based approaches by regulatory authorities, particularly QSAR and Read Across. Whereas the longer history of QSAR led to recognize the crucial requirements for predictivity, there are still challenges faced by adopting Read Across to a larger extent in a regulatory setting, namely standardization and objective criteria. In previous research, suitable conditions for applying Read Across to the prediction of the Ames mutagenicity of metabolites and degradation products of pesticides were established: a standardized similarity criterion based simultaneously on basic molecular properties and Structural Similarity was successfully applied to a number of case studies. Here the investigation is extended to a large database of curated Ames mutagenicity results. For around 2,000 chemicals for which the similarity criterion was applicable, the predictivity of Read Across was high: specificity 0.72, sensitivity 0.90, accuracy 0.85. This compares favourably with the Ames test intra-assay variability, and with the predictivity of QSAR models. The need for standardization and rigorous validation of Read Across is emphasized.


Assuntos
Mutagênicos/química , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Salmonella/genética
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(33): 713-717, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437141

RESUMO

In September 2018, CDC identified Salmonella enterica serotype Newport (Newport) infections that were multidrug resistant (MDR), with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin, a recommended oral treatment agent. Until 2017, decreased susceptibility to azithromycin had occurred in fewer than 0.5% of Salmonella isolates from U.S. residents. This report summarizes the investigation of a multistate MDR Salmonella outbreak conducted by CDC, state and local health departments, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service. During June 2018-March 2019, 255 cases of infection with the outbreak strain were identified in 32 states; 43% of patients (89 of 206 with information on travel) reported recent travel to Mexico. Infections were linked to consumption of soft cheese obtained in Mexico and beef obtained in the United States. Consumers should avoid eating soft cheese that could be made from unpasteurized milk, regardless of the source of the cheese. When preparing beef, a food thermometer should be used to ensure that appropriate cooking temperatures are reached. When antibiotic treatment is needed for a patient, clinicians should choose antibiotics based on susceptibility testing wherever possible.


Assuntos
Azitromicina/farmacologia , Surtos de Doenças , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Queijo/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Salmonella/genética , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Microbiol Res ; 229: 126311, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446332

RESUMO

Microorganisms are able to adapt to multiple adverse environmental conditions that facilitate their survival. These microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, algae, fungi, and protozoans are exposed to different abiotic and biotic challenges throughout their life. Adaptations help these organisms to overcome the challenges and evolve as successful pathogens which at the same time might lead to severe disease outcome. The intracellular gram-negative pathogen Salmonella, the causative agent of typhoid fever has evolved into a successful pathogen and shows increasing host mortality and morbidity every year across the globe. Salmonella adapts itself in the different extreme host and non-host environments both at genetic and phenotypic level leading to their better survival and propagation. The uncontrolled and improper use of antibiotics against several Salmonella serovars has not only given rise to various multidrug resistance strains but also the emergence of hyper-infectious Salmonella strains adds to the severity of disease manifestation and treatment. Besides, several disadvantages in the existing Salmonella vaccines stand against the current therapeutic interventions against the bug. This review deals with the wide array of stresses that Salmonella encounter in its life cycle and outlines the adaptations occurring in Salmonella upon exposure to such stresses as well as how adaptations help the pathogen to withstand such extreme conditions. Insights in these aspects will help to understand Salmonella pathogenesis and associated consequences which might help in the development of new strategies in combating Salmonella infection.


Assuntos
Salmonella/fisiologia , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Febre Tifoide/microbiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Humanos , Salmonella/genética , Virulência
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