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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(26): 815-819, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614808

RESUMO

In May 2019, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYCDOHMH) detected an unusual cluster of five salmonellosis patients via automated spatiotemporal analysis of notifiable diseases using free SaTScan software (1). Within 1 day of cluster detection, graduate student interviewers determined that three of the patients had eaten prepared food from the same grocery store (establishment A) located inside the cluster area. NYCDOHMH initiated an investigation to identify additional cases, establish the cause, and provide control recommendations. Overall, 15 New York City (NYC) residents with laboratory-diagnosed salmonellosis who reported eating food from establishment A were identified. The most commonly consumed food item was chicken, reported by 10 patients. All 11 clinical isolates available were serotyped as Salmonella Blockley, sequenced, and analyzed by core genome multilocus sequence typing; isolates had a median difference of zero alleles. Environmental assessments revealed food not held at the proper temperature, food not cooled properly, and potential cross-contamination during chicken preparation. Elevated fecal coliform counts were found in two of four ready-to-eat food samples collected from establishment A, and Bacillus cereus was detected in three. The outbreak strain of Salmonella was isolated from one patient's leftover chicken. Establishing automated spatiotemporal cluster detection analyses for salmonellosis and other reportable diseases could aid in the detection of geographically focused, community-acquired outbreaks even before laboratory subtyping results become available.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Adulto , Automação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/diagnóstico , Sorogrupo
2.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235345, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667930

RESUMO

This study was carried out to investigate the risks of simultaneous exposure to pesticide residues and bacteria contaminants in locally produced fresh vegetables and vegetables in Tanzania. A total of 613 samples were analyzed for pesticide residues, out of which 250 were also analyzed for bacterial contamination. Overall, 47.5% had pesticide residues, 74.2% exceeded Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). Organophosphorus (95.2%), organochlorines (24.0%), pyrethroids (17.3%), and carbamates (9.2%) residues dominated. MRL values were mostly exceeded in tomatoes, onions, watermelons, cucumbers, Chinese cabbage, and sweet paper. Tetramethrin (0.0329-1.3733 mg/kg), pirimiphos-methyl (0.0003-1.4093 mg/kg), permethrin (0.0009-2.4537 mg/kg), endosulfan (beta) (0.0008-2.3416 mg/kg), carbaryl (0.0215-1.5068 mg/kg), profenofos (0.0176-2.1377 mg/kg), chlorpyrifos (0.0004-1.2549 mg/kg) and dieldrin (0.0011-0.5271 mg/kg) exceeded MRLs. The prevalence of bacteria contamination was high (63.2%). Enterobacter (55.6%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (32.4%), E. coli (28.2%), Citrobacter (26.8%), Klebsiella oxytoca (14.8%), and Salmonella (7.7%) were isolated. Furthermore, 46.4% tested positive for both pesticide residues and bacterial contaminants. Vegetables from farms (60.7%) contained more dual contaminants than market-based vegetables (41.8%). This may have resulted from excessive pesticide use and unhygienic handling of fresh fruits and vegetables at production level. Binary logistic regression showed that fresh fruits and vegetables with pesticide residues were 2.231 times more likely to have bacteria contaminants (OR: 2.231; 95% CI: 0.501, 8.802). The contamination levels of pesticide residues and bacterial contaminants could be perceived as a serious problem as most fresh fruits and vegetables recorded values of pesticide residues far above the MRLs with pathogenic bacteria isolated in higher proportions. MRLs was higher in most vegetables consumed raw or semi-cooked such as watermelons, carrots, cucumber, tomatoes, onion and sweet paper. There is an urgent need to develop pesticide monitoring and surveillance systems at farmer level, educating farmers and promoting the use of greener pesticides to mitigate the health effects of pesticides and bacterial contaminants.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Verduras/efeitos adversos , Citrobacter/isolamento & purificação , Citrobacter/patogenicidade , Enterobacter/isolamento & purificação , Enterobacter/patogenicidade , Frutas/química , Frutas/microbiologia , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/química , Klebsiella oxytoca/isolamento & purificação , Klebsiella oxytoca/patogenicidade , Resíduos de Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/química , Praguicidas/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Piretrinas/efeitos adversos , Piretrinas/química , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Verduras/química , Verduras/microbiologia
3.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510493

RESUMO

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has emerged as a powerful nucleic acid amplification test for the rapid detection of numerous bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral agents. Salmonella is a bacterial pathogen of worldwide food safety concern, including food for animals. Presented here is a multi-laboratory-validated Salmonella LAMP protocol that can be used to rapidly screen animal food for the presence of Salmonella contamination and can also be used to confirm presumptive Salmonella isolates recovered from all food categories. The LAMP assay specifically targets the Salmonella invasion gene (invA) and is rapid, sensitive, and highly specific. Template DNAs are prepared from enrichment broths of animal food or pure cultures of presumptive Salmonella isolates. The LAMP reagent mixture is prepared by combining an isothermal master mix, primers, DNA template, and water. The LAMP assay runs at a constant temperature of 65 °C for 30 min. Positive results are monitored via real-time fluorescence and can be detected as early as 5 min. The LAMP assay exhibits high tolerance to inhibitors in animal food or culture medium, serving as a rapid, reliable, robust, cost-effective, and user-friendly method for screening and confirming Salmonella. The LAMP method has recently been incorporated into the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Chapter 5.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Primers do DNA/genética , Limite de Detecção , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 330: 108692, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521291

RESUMO

Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- is a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium, which is responsible for global foodborne disease outbreaks. Here, 255 S. 4,[5],12:i:- strains isolated from humans (11.0%) or food-borne animals (89.0%) between 2010 and 2018 were examined. Tests of susceptibility to 19 antimicrobial agents using the broth micro dilution method showed that 99.2% (n = 253) of the isolates were resistant to at least one compound. Antibiotic susceptibility analysis demonstrated that 91.8% of the isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains with predominant resistance to tetracycline (90.6%), followed by resistance to ampicillin (86.3%), streptomycin (63.5%), chloramphenicol (62.7%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (55.3%). The 5 major distinct patterns of multi-resistance were identified as R-type AST, R-type ACTSxt, R-type ACSTSxt, R-type ACGSTSxt and R-type ASTSxt. Among the PMQR genes examined in this study, oqxAB and aac (6')-Ib-cr were the most prevalent resistance genes in the multi-resistant isolates. Our findings highlight the prevalence of the resistance of S. 4,[5],12:i:- in some regions of China, and several common types of multidrug resistance phenotypes, to provide valuable information for epidemiological studies, risk management, and public health strategies.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia
5.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 330: 108559, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599476

RESUMO

Salmonella Heidelberg resistant to ceftiofur (a third-generation cephalosporin antimicrobial agent) in broiler chicken products pose a risk to public health in Canada. The objective of this study was to assess the extent of that risk and to evaluate the effect of intervention measures along the agri-food chain. A stochastic farm-to-fork quantitative microbial risk assessment model was developed following the Codex Alimentarius Guidelines for Risk Analysis of Foodborne Antimicrobial Resistance. Different scenarios were analyzed to assess the individual relative effects of 18 possible interventions in comparison to a baseline scenario. The baseline scenario represented the first year of on-farm antimicrobial use surveillance in the Canadian broiler industry and the year before an industry-imposed ban on the preventive use of antimicrobials of very high importance to human health (2013), where 31.3% of broiler flocks consisted of birds to which ceftiofur was administered. The baseline scenario predicted an average probability of illness of 1.1 per 100,000 servings (SE: 0.064 per 100,000), corresponding to an average of 22,000 human infections (SE: 1900) with ceftiofur-resistant S. Heidelberg per year, which is likely an overestimation. This risk was reduced by 90% or 20% when two separate scenarios designed to capture the effect of withdrawing preventive ceftiofur use from poultry production were simulated using different approaches; data used for the former scenario were confounded by other potential concomitant control measures (e.g. Salmonella vaccination programme), so the true effect likely lies somewhere between the two estimates. A theoretical 'worst case' scenario where all flocks had birds exposed to ceftiofur increased the risk by 107%. A 50% reduction in the probability of human prior exposure to antimicrobials, which has a selective and competitive effect for Salmonella spp. following ingestion of contaminated products, reduced the risk by 65%. Other promising measures that could be considered for further risk management included improved cleaning and disinfection between broiler flocks on farm (risk reduction by 26%), exclusive use of air chilling (risk reduction by 34%), and the improvement of meat storage and preparation conditions, e.g., no temperature abuse at retail (risk reduction by 88%). These findings showed the importance of a structured approach to assessing and potentially implementing effective interventions to reduce the risk associated with ceftiofur-resistant S. Heidelberg at different steps along the agri-food chain. Major data gaps included information on concentrations of resistant bacteria, cross contamination at processing and how ceftiofur-resistant S. Heidelberg behave in comparison with susceptible ones, e.g., in terms of growth and survival ability, as well as pathogenicity and virulence.


Assuntos
Resistência às Cefalosporinas , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Cefalosporinas/administração & dosagem , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Medição de Risco , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle
6.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(6): 817-823, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459614

RESUMO

Introduction. Identification of typhoidal Salmonella (TS) serovars and their discrimination from non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is conventionally performed by seroagglutination. This method is labour-intensive, requires technical experience and can be inconclusive in some cases. Molecular assays may be reliable alternative diagnostic tools.Aim. This study was designed to evaluate the eazyplex TyphiTyper based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for fast identification of TS and S. Choleraesuis in culture.Methodology. A total of 121 Salmonella strains and 33 isolates of other Enterobacterales species were tested by the eazyplex TyphiTyper. Simulated and clinical blood cultures (BCs) were used to examine the performance of the assay for diagnosis of systemic infection. Sample preparation took about 5 min and the test running time was 20 min. Amplification was measured by real-time fluorescence detection.Results. All TS and S. Choleraesuis strains were correctly identified. The most common NTS S. Typhimurium (n=34) and S. Enteritidis (n=15) were detected as Salmonella species without any false positive result for TS targets. Cross-reactions of NTS with TS were only rarely observed. Direct testing of positive BCs gave correct results. Sensitivities and specificities of the assay were as follows: 100 and 99.3 % for S. Typhi, 100 and 98.7 % for S. Paratyphi A, 100 and 97.3 % for S. Paratyphi B, 100 and 100 % for S. Paratyphi C, 100 and 100 % for S. Choleraesuis, and 100 and 100 % for Salmonella species, respectively.Conclusion. The eazyplex TyphiTyper is very easy to perform and allows the rapid identification of TS and S. Choleraesuis isolates.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella paratyphi A/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella typhi/isolamento & purificação
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 328: 108666, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454365

RESUMO

Although Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are the main microorganisms of concern in peanuts, due to aflatoxin contamination, several Salmonella outbreaks from this product have been reported over the last ten decades. Thus, it is important to understand the relationship between microorganisms to predict, manage and estimate the diversity in the peanut supply chain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin production during the co-cultivation of Aspergillus section Flavi and Salmonella both isolated from peanuts. Three strains of A. section Flavi: A. flavus producing aflatoxin B, A. flavus non-producing aflatoxin and A. parasiticus producing aflatoxin B and G were co-cultivated with seven serotypes of Salmonella of which six were isolated from the peanut supply chain (S. Muenster, S. Miami, S. Glostrup, S. Javiana, S. Oranienburg and S. Yoruba) and one was S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028. First of all, each Salmonella strain was inoculated by pour plate (ca. 5 log cfu/mL) in PDA (potato dextrose agar). Then, each pre-cultured fungus was inoculated in the center of the petri dish. The plates were incubated at 30 °C and the fungal colony diameter was measured once a day for 7 days. As a control each Aspergillus strain was cultivated in the absence of Salmonella culture. All three strains of Aspergillus with absence of Salmonella (control) reached the maximum colony diameter and their growth rate was influenced when co-cultivated (p < 0.05) with all Salmonella serotypes tested. The maximum inhibition in the colony diameter was 20% for A. flavus aflatoxin B producer and A. parasiticus, and 18% for A. flavus non- aflatoxin producer when cultivated with Salmonella. However, no significant difference (p < 0.05) in reduction of colony diameter was observed among the Salmonella serotypes. Aflatoxin production was determined previously, by using the agar plug technique on thin layer chromatography (TLC). The production of aflatoxin G by A. parasiticus in co-cultivation with Salmonella was not observed. On the other hand, A. flavus preserved their characteristics of aflatoxin B production. The quantification of aflatoxin reduction by Salmonella interaction was evaluated using HPLC method. There was a maximum reduction of aflatoxin production of 88.7% and 72.9% in A. flavus and A. parasiticus, respectively, when cultivated with Salmonella. These results indicate that some serotypes of Salmonella may interfere with aflatoxin production and fungal growth of A. flavus and A. parasiticus in the peanut supply chain.


Assuntos
Antibiose/fisiologia , Arachis/microbiologia , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Salmonella/metabolismo , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Aflatoxinas/análise , Aspergillus flavus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação
8.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230676, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231395

RESUMO

Salmonella Heidelberg is commonly reported in foodborne outbreaks around the world, and chickens and poultry products are known as important source of these pathogen. Multidrug-resistant S. Heidelberg strains are disseminated into poultry production chair, which can lead to severe clinical infections in humans and of difficult to treat. This study aimed at evaluating the ß-lactam susceptibility and genotypic relatedness of Salmonella Heidelberg at Brazilian poultry production chain. Sixty-two S. Heidelberg strains from poultry production chain (poultry, poultry meat and poultry farm) were used. All strains were evaluated to antimicrobial susceptibility by diffusion disk test, as well as ß-lactam resistance genes. Genotypic relatedness was assessed by Pulsed-Field Gel Eletrophoresis, using Xba1 restriction enzyme. Forty-one strains were characterized as multidrug-resistant according to phenotype characterization. The resistance susceptibility revealed 31 distinct profiles, with higher prevalence of streptomycin (61/62), nalidixic acid (50/62), tetracycline (43/62) and ß-lactam drugs (37/62). blaCMY-2 was the more frequent ß-lactamase gene found (38/62); other resistance genes found were blaCTX-M (2/62), blaSHV (3/62) and blaTEM-1 (38/62). No carbapenemase genes was found. The Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis showed 58 different profiles. Strains with a larger number of antimicrobial resistance were grouped into ten major clusters apart from others. The spread of resistance by ampC continues to rise, thereby turning concern to public health, since the ß-lactam antimicrobials are used as a therapeutic treatment in humans.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonella/enzimologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Brasil , Galinhas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Genótipo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Ácido Nalidíxico/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Estreptomicina/farmacologia , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , beta-Lactamas/farmacologia
9.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 71(1): 3-25, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304575

RESUMO

Surface water is prone to bacterial contamination as it receives wastes and pollutants from human and animal sources, and contaminated water may expose local populations to health risks. This review provides a brief overview on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance (AR) phenotypes of Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus, found in natural freshwaters. These bacteria are frequently detected in surface waters, sometimes as etiological agents of waterborne infections, and AR strains are not uncommonly identified in both developed and developing countries. Data relating to Salmonella, E. coli and Enterococcus present in environmental water are lacking, and in order to understand their development and dissemination using the One Health approach, understanding the prevalence, distribution and characteristics of the bacteria present in surface water as well as their potential sources is important. Furthermore, AR bacteria in natural watersheds are not well investigated and their impacts on human health and food safety are not well understood. As surface water is a receptacle for AR bacteria from human and animal sources and a vehicle for their dissemination, this is a crucial data gap in understanding AR and minimizing its spread. For this review, Salmonella, E. coli and Enterococcus were chosen to evaluate the presence of primary pathogens and opportunistic pathogens as well as to monitor AR trends in the environmental water. Studies around the world have demonstrated the widespread distribution of pathogenic and AR bacteria in surface waters of both developing and developed countries, confirming the importance of environmental waters as a reservoir for these bacteria and the need for more attention on the environmental bacteria for emerging AR.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Enterococcus/genética , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Água Doce/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Poluição da Água
10.
Food Chem ; 324: 126859, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344343

RESUMO

Here, we constructed a fast, universal, "turn-on" biosensor for the highly sensitive visual detection of Salmonella based on luminescent DNAzyme and a universal blocking linker Super Polymerase Chain Reaction (S-PCR). The primer in this biosensor was specially designed. The G-quadruplex sequence is attached to the 5' end of the primer by a blocking linker and is blocked in the stem part. The S-PCR amplification releases the G-quadruplex, which is incubated with hemin to form DNAzyme to exert peroxide-like activity. The visible colored products are generated by the addition of 3,3',5,5'-Tetramethylbenzidine. Detection sensitivity is high and, even when the concentration of the Salmonella genome in a sample is as low as 1.5 copies/µL, this color change can be seen with the naked eyes. Moreover, this method is simple and fast, as the S-PCR can be completed in less than 10 min using the newly built equipment and without the need for large instruments.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , DNA Catalítico/química , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Quadruplex G , Limite de Detecção , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Salmonella/genética
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231275, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287295

RESUMO

The present study aimed to explore the motivations of Brazilian dog owners and their knowledge about the risks related to raw meat-based diets (RMBD) as well as to evaluate important enteropathogens such as Salmonella spp., C. perfringens, and C. difficile, in feces of dogs fed different diets. The majority of the pet owners (69.3%) reported to have chosen this diet for their dogs, considering it to be more "natural". A large number of owners declared that RMBD do not pose health risks for their animals (87.9%) or humans (98.8%), even though almost one third of the respondents (34.8%) declared having at least one individual at high risk of infection in contact with RMBD-fed dogs. Stool samples from 46 RMBD-fed dogs and 192 dogs fed commercial dry feed were collected. The present study revealed that dogs fed raw meat diets were almost 30 times more likely to be positive for Salmonella spp. than dogs on a conventional diet. Some of the serovars detected were commonly associated with human salmonellosis, such as S. Typhimurium and S. Saintpaul, and were multidrug resistant. RMBD-fed dogs were more likely to be positive for C. perfringens type A (p = 0.008) and one C. perfringens type F was isolated from these animals. Two toxigenic strains (4.3%) of C. difficile were isolated only from raw meat-fed dogs, all of which were under antibiotic therapy. These toxigenic C. difficile isolates were classified as RT106/ST54 and RT600/ST149, previously associated with infection in dogs and humans. The present work revealed that the owners have a tendency to ignore or are unaware of the risks associated with raw meat diets for dogs. Also, the higher fecal shedding of important enteropathogens in dogs fed RMBD suggests that this diet poses a risk for the animals and the people in contact with them.


Assuntos
Derrame de Bactérias , Clostridium difficile/isolamento & purificação , Clostridium perfringens/isolamento & purificação , Dieta/veterinária , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Alimentos Crus/microbiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Dieta/psicologia , Cães , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Motivação , Propriedade
12.
J Food Sci ; 85(5): 1386-1396, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333397

RESUMO

Ultrasound (US) is classified as a nonthermal treatment and it is used in food processing at a frequency range between 20 kHz and 1 MHz. Cavitation bubbles occur when the US strength is high enough to generate rarefaction that exceeds the intermolecular attraction forces in the medium. Currently, US is widely used in meat industries to enhance procedures, such as meat tenderization, emulsification mass transfer, marination, freezing, homogenization, crystallization, drying, and microorganism inactivation. In addition, combining ultrasonic energy with a sanitizing agent has a synergistic effect on microbial reduction. When poultry meat is treated using US, the expected quality is often better than the traditional methods, such as sanitization and freezing. US can be considered as a novel green technology for tenderizing and decontamination of poultry meat since both Escherichia coli and Salmonella are sensible to US. US improves the physical and chemical properties of meat proteins and can lead to a decrease in the α-helix in intramuscular protease complex in addition to a reduction in the viscosity coefficients. Therefore, ultrasonic treatment can be applied to enhance the textural properties of chicken meat. US can also be used to improve the drying rate when used under vacuum, compared with other traditional techniques. This review focuses on the potential of US applications in the management of poultry industries as the demand for good quality meat proteins is increasing worldwide.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/análise , Ultrassom/métodos , Animais , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Congelamento , Aves Domésticas , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Ultrassom/instrumentação , Vácuo
13.
Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc ; 54(2): 217-220, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32254040

RESUMO

Nontyphoidal salmonella (NTS) infection can lead to gastroenteritis, enteric fever, and bacteremia. However, osteoarticular infections caused by NTS are rarely encountered. We report the case of a 53-year-old male patient with bilateral hip infection caused by NTS. We performed a two-stage reconstruction comprising debridement of both hip joints followed by prosthetic replacement with antibiotic-loaded acrylic cement because the patient's diagnosis was delayed for approximately three months and the hip joints were already damaged. At two-year follow-up, the clinical, radiologic, and laboratory findings were within the normal limits, and there was no sign of infection. This case is presented because reports of bilateral hip joint infection due to NTS are rare. Early detection and proper treatment are essential for the eradication of the infection. The use of a prosthesis made of antibiotic-loaded acrylic cement and prolonged antimicrobial therapy can be considered in the management of bilateral hip joint destruction due to delayed diagnosis of NTS infection.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Infecciosa , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Desbridamento/métodos , Diagnóstico Tardio , Articulação do Quadril , Infecções por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Infecciosa/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Infecciosa/etiologia , Artrite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Artrite Infecciosa/cirurgia , Cimentos para Ossos/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Tardio/efeitos adversos , Diagnóstico Tardio/prevenção & controle , Articulação do Quadril/microbiologia , Articulação do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229581, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126103

RESUMO

Multidrug-resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection has emerged as a prominent cause of invasive infections in Africa. We investigated the prevalence of ceftriaxone-resistant invasive NTS infections, conducted exploratory analysis of risk factors for resistance, and described antimicrobial use in western Kenya. We conducted a secondary analysis of existing laboratory, epidemiology, and clinical data from three independent projects, a malaria vaccine trial, a central nervous system (CNS) study, and the International Emerging Infections Program morbidity surveillance (surveillance program) during 2009-2014. We calculated odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for ceftriaxone-resistant NTS infections compared with ceftriaxone-susceptible infections. We surveyed hospitals, pharmacies, and animal drug retailers about the availability and use of antimicrobials. In total, 286 invasive NTS infections were identified in the three projects; 43 NTS isolates were ceftriaxone-resistant. The absolute prevalence of ceftriaxone resistance varied among these methodologically diverse projects, with 18% (16/90) of isolates resistant to ceftriaxone in the vaccine trial, 89% (16/18) in the CNS study, and 6% (11/178) in the surveillance program. Invasive ceftriaxone-resistant infections increased over time. Most ceftriaxone-resistant isolates were co-resistant to multiple other antimicrobials. Having an HIV-positive mother (OR = 3.7; CI = 1.2-11.4) and taking trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for the current illness (OR = 9.6, CI = 1.2-78.9) were significantly associated with acquiring ceftriaxone-resistant invasive NTS infection. Ceftriaxone and other antibiotics were widely prescribed; multiple issues related to prescription practices and misuse were identified. In summary, ceftriaxone-resistant invasive NTS infection is increasing and limiting treatment options for serious infections. Efforts are ongoing to address the urgent need for improved microbiologic diagnostic capacity and an antimicrobial surveillance system in Kenya.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Resistência às Cefalosporinas , Infecções por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Animais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4002-4012, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113770

RESUMO

In this study, we established a rapid, simple, and sensitive method for visual and point-of-care detection of Salmonella spp., Cronobacter spp., and Staphylococcus aureus in powdered infant formula (PIF) based on multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP) combined with lateral flow dipstick (LFD). Three different species-specific target genes, siiA of Salmonella spp., internal transcribed space (ITS) of Cronobacter spp., and nuc of Staph. aureus, were applied in the mLAMP with biotin-, digoxin-, and Texas Red-modified forward inner primers and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-modified backward inner primers. After mLAMP, a large number of modified amplicons were detected with LFD; one end of the amplicon was conjugated to the anti-FITC antibody on gold nanoparticles and the other end to streptavidin (anti-digoxin or anti-Texas Red antibody) on test lines. Visual inspection of the device relies on the presence of a red band formed by accumulation of sandwich composites. The detection limits of this mLAMP-LFD assay for Salmonella spp., Cronobacter spp., and Staph. aureus in PIF without enrichment were 4.2, 2.6, and 3.4 cfu/g, respectively. The whole method can be completed in less than 1 h. Thus, mLAMP-LFD is a rapid and efficient method for simultaneously detecting Salmonella spp., Cronobacter spp., and Staph. aureus in PIF.


Assuntos
Cronobacter/isolamento & purificação , Fórmulas Infantis/microbiologia , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Cronobacter/genética , Primers do DNA/genética , Ouro , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Pós , Salmonella/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Staphylococcus aureus/genética
16.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1606-1614, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111327

RESUMO

Salmonella screening is a key to ensure food safety in poultry supply chains. Currently available Salmonella detection methods including culture, polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay could not achieve rapid, sensitive, and in-field detection. In this study, different strategies for separation and detection of Salmonella were proposed, compared, and improved based on our previous studies on immunomagnetic separation and impedance biosensor. First, the coaxial capillary for immunomagnetic separation of target bacteria was improved with less contamination, and 3 strategies based on the improved capillary and immunomagnetic nanoparticles were compared to separate the target bacteria from sample and form the magnetic bacteria. The experimental results showed that the strategy of capture in tube and separation in capillary was the most suitable with separation efficiency of approximately 88%. Then, the immune gold nanoparticles coated with urease were used to label the magnetic bacteria, resulting in the formation of enzymatic bacteria, which were injected into the capillary. After the urea was catalyzed by the urease on the enzymatic bacteria in the capillary, different electrodes were compared to measure the impedance of the catalysate and the screen-printed electrode with higher sensitivity and better stability was the most suitable. This impedance biosensor-based bacterial detection strategy was able to detect Salmonella as low as 102 CFU/mL in 2 h without complex operations. Compared to the gold standard culture method for practical screening of Salmonella in poultry supply chains, this proposed strategy had an accuracy of approximately 90% for 75 real poultry samples.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Galinhas , Patos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Separação Imunomagnética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Impedância Elétrica , Microbiologia de Alimentos/instrumentação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
J Food Prot ; 83(4): 605-608, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221562

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Little information has been published on the microbiological aspects of U.S. commercial duck processing. The objective of this study was to measure prevalence and/or levels of bacteria in duck samples representing the live bird and partially or fully processed oven-ready duck meat. At 12 monthly sampling times, samples were collected at six sites along the processing line in a commercial duck slaughter plant. Crop and cecum samples were collected at the point of evisceration. Whole carcass rinse samples were collected before and after carcass immersion chilling plus application of an antimicrobial spray. Leg quarters were collected from the cut-up line before and after application of an antimicrobial dip treatment. All samples (five from each site per monthly replication) were directly plated and/or enriched for Salmonella and Campylobacter. For the last 10 replications, carcass and leg quarter rinse samples were also evaluated for enumeration of total aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and coliforms. Most cecum, crop, and prechill carcass rinse samples were positive for Campylobacter (80, 72, and 67%, respectively). Carcass chilling and chlorinated spray significantly lowered Campylobacter prevalence (P < 0.01), and even fewer leg quarters were positive for Campylobacter (P < 0.01). Passage through a chlorinated dip did not further reduce Campylobacter prevalence on leg quarters. Salmonella was infrequently found in any of the samples examined (≤10%). Total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and E. coli levels were reduced (P < 0.01) on whole carcasses by chilling but were not different after cut-up or leg quarter dip treatment. Overall, current commercial duck processing techniques as applied in the tested plant were effective for reducing the prevalence and levels of Campylobacter on duck meat products.


Assuntos
Campylobacter , Patos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Animais , Bactérias , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Patos/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação
18.
J Food Prot ; 83(4): 628-636, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221567

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The Agricultural Marketing Service procures boneless and ground beef for federal nutrition assistance programs. It tests procured beef for concentrations of standard plate counts (SPCs), coliforms, and Escherichia coli and for the presence of Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. Any lot exceeding predefined critical limits (100,000 CFU g-1 for SPCs, 1,000 CFU g-1 for coliforms, and 500 CFU g-1 for E. coli) or positive for Salmonella or Shiga toxin-producing E. coli is rejected for purchase. Between 1 October 2013 and 31 July 2017, 166,796 boneless beef lots (each approximately 900 kg) and 25,051 ground beef sublots (each approximately 4,500 kg) were produced. Salmonella was detected in 1,955 (1.17%) boneless beef lots and 219 (0.87%) ground beef sublots. Salmonella sample size increased from an individual 25-g sample to a co-enriched 325-g sample on 1 March 2015. Salmonella presence was associated with season (lowest in spring), larger sample size, and increased log SPC in boneless and ground beef. Increased log E. coli was associated with Salmonella presence in boneless beef, but not ground beef. Salmonella Dublin was the most common serotype in boneless beef (743 of 1,407, 52.8%) and ground beef (35 of 171, 20.5%). Salmonella Dublin was generally associated with lower indicator microorganism concentrations compared with other Salmonella serotypes as a group. Relative to other Salmonella, Salmonella Dublin was associated with season (more common in spring) and smaller sample size in boneless and ground beef. Decreased log SPCs and log coliforms were associated with Salmonella Dublin presence in boneless beef, but not in ground beef. Differential associations between Salmonella Dublin and other serotypes with indicator microorganisms were strong enough to cause confounding and suggest that the presence of Salmonella Dublin needs to be accounted for when evaluating indicator performance to assess Salmonella risk in boneless and ground beef.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Almoço , Sorogrupo
19.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(2): 187-191, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074708

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the drug resistance pattern and drug resistance genotypes of Salmonella. spp isolated from fecal specimens and anal swabs of diarrhea cases in Anhui Province. Methods: The 149 strains of Salmonella.spp isolated from feces and anal swabs of diarrhea cases in Anhui Province from April to October 2017 were selected. The serotypes of Salmonella.spp were identified by slide agglutination. The susceptibility of all strains to 14 antibiotics were determined by micro-broth dilution method. Sixty of the cephalosporin-resistant antibiotics were selected. The ß-lactamase encoding genes bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(OXA-1), bla(OXA-2), bla(PER), bla(CMY), bla(CTX-M), and colistin resistance genes mcr-1 and mcr-2 were performed using the multi-PCR method. Results: Of the 149 diarrhea cases, the median (P(25), P(75)) of the age was 5.0 (1.1, 38.5). The 92 of them were male and 54.4% were children. Of the 149 strains of Salmonella.spp, 105 strains had different degrees of resistance to 13 antibiotics other than imipenem. The resistance rate of ampicillin was 55.0% (82/149), which was the highest. 53.0% strains (79 strains) were multidrug resistant, main of which were Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis. A total of 53 resistance patterns were detected, and 10 strains were resistant to ampicillin-ampicillin/sulbactam-tetracycline-chloramphenicol-cefazolin-trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, which was the most common resistance pattern. Among the 60 cephalosporin resistant strains, 45 strains carried bla(TEM-1), 6 of which also carried bla(CTX-M-14) and 3 of which also carried bla(CTX-M-65). All the 32 strains carried only bla(TEM-1) show resistance to ampicillin and 31 of them show resistance to cefazolin. There were 2 strains showing negative results of gene detection. mcr-1 was detected in a multidrug resistant strain. Conclusion: The resistance of Salmonella.spp to ampicillin shows a serious situation in this region, and there were a number of multidrug resistant strains. The bla(TEM-1) was the major drug resistance gene detected in this research. Detection of the mcr-1 suggests the emergence of surveillance to colistin resistance of Salmonella.spp in this area.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Infecções/microbiologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 135, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonellosis remains an important public health problem globally. The disease is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries that experience poor hygiene and lack of access to clean and safe water. There was an increase in reported cases of Salmonellosis in Njombe Region, Southern Highland of Tanzania between 2015 and 2016 based on clinical diagnosis. Nevertheless, little is known about the factors contributing to the transmission of this disease in the region. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and factors associated with Salmonella infection among patients who report gastrointestinal complaints. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2017 to February 2018 among patients with gastrointestinal complaints at Kibena Regional Hospital. Stool samples were submitted for isolation of Salmonella spp. Identification was based on conventional biochemical tests and serotyping to differentiate typhoid and non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS). Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the factors independently associated with Salmonella infection. RESULTS: The prevalence of Salmonella infection among participants with gastrointestinal complaints was 16.5% (95% CI: 12.7-21.1) of them, 83.7, 95% CI: 70.9-91.5 were NTS while 16.3, 95% CI: 8.5-29.0 were Typhoid Salmonella species. All isolates were sensitive to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin, whereas 27.8 and 100% were resistant to co-trimoxazole and ampicillin respectively. The odd of Salmonella infection was fourfold higher among participants with formal employment (AOR 3.8, 95% CI, 1.53-9.40). Use of water from wells/rivers (AOR 2.2, 95% CI, 1.07-4.45), drinking untreated water (AOR 2.6, 95% CI, 1.21-5.48) and often eating at a restaurant (AOR 3.4, 95% CI, 1.28-8.93) had increased odds of Salmonella infection. Likewise, having abdominal pain (AOR 8.5, 95% CI, 1.81-39.78) and diarrhea (AOR 2.3, 95% CI, 1.12-4.68) were independent symptoms that predict Salmonella infection. CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of Salmonella infection among people who report gastrointestinal complaints and it is clinically predicated by diarhoea and abdominal pain. Employed participants and those eating at restaurant and drinking unsafe water had higher risk of infection. Salmonella spp. causing gastroenteritis has developed resistance to commonly used antibiotics.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ampicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
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