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1.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 337: 108956, 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189985

RESUMO

There has been an increase in the number of reports on Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis (S. Infantis) isolated from animals and humans. Recent studies using whole genome sequencing (WGS) have provided evidence on the likely contribution of a unique conjugative megaplasmid (pESI; ~280 kb) to the dissemination of this serovar worldwide. In the present study, twenty-two unrelated Salmonella strains [S. Infantis (n = 20) and Salmonella 6,7:r:- (n = 2)] and their plasmids were investigated using next generation sequencing technologies (MiSeq and MinION) to unravel the significant expansion of this bacteria in Turkey. Multi-locus sequence typing, plasmid replicons, resistance gene contents as well as phylogenetic relations between strains were determined. According to the WGS data, all S. Infantis possessed the relevant megaplasmid backbone genes and belonged to sequence type 32 (ST32) with the exception of a single novel ST7091. Tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance were found to be widespread in S. Infantis strains and the resistant strains exclusively carried the tetA, sul1, sul2 and dfrA14 genes. One S. Infantis isolate was also a carrier of the plasmid-mediated ampC via blaCMY-2, gene. Moreover, full genomes of four S. Infantis isolates were reconstructed based on hybrid assembly. All four strains contained large plasmids (240-290 kb) similar to previously published megaplasmid (pESI) and accompanied by several small plasmids. The megaplasmid backbone contained a toxin-antitoxin system, two virulence cassettes and segments associated with heavy metals resistance, while variable regions possessed several antibiotic resistance genes flanked by mobile elements. This study indicated that pESI-like megaplasmid is widely disseminated within the tested S. Infantis strains of chicken meat, warranting further genomic studies on clinical strains from humans and animals to uncover the overall emergence and spread of this serovar.


Assuntos
Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Filogenia , Plasmídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Turquia/epidemiologia , Virulência/genética
2.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 337: 108941, 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181420

RESUMO

Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has made impressive progress in the field of molecular biology. Its most common application for public health is in the area of surveillance of food-borne diseases. WGS has the potential for providing a large amount of information, such as the identification of the strain type, the characterization of antibiotic resistance and virulence, and phylogeny. In our study, thirty-nine non-typhoidal Salmonella strains were isolated from diverse sources in Tunisia. Non-typhoidal Salmonella are among the most common pathogens contaminating food animals. The presence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance determinants in those strains were investigated using whole genome sequencing (WGS) and appropriate data analysis. The genomes were screened for several Salmonella virulence genes using the Virulence Factor Database VFDB. Twelve different virulence profiles, which correspond to the 12 identified serovars, were recognized. Several antimicrobial resistance genes were also detected: aac (6')-Iaa, sul1, tetA, bla-TEM and qnrS genes. Phylogenetic relationships among the strains were further assessed by a cgMLST analysis. The resulting phylogenetic tree consisted of several clusters consistently with the in silico multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and serotyping. Our findings demonstrated that WGS and subsequent data analysis provided an accurate tool for genetic characterization of bacterial strains compared to usual molecular typing techniques. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an application of WGS for genetic characterization of food-borne Tunisian strains.


Assuntos
Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Filogenia , Salmonella , Virulência/genética , Animais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/métodos , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem , Tunísia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244057, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Streptomycin is used as an epidemiological marker in monitoring programs for antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella serovars and indicates the presence of pentaresistance. However, comprehensive data on streptomycin resistant Salmonella among human, animal, and animal products is lacking in Ethiopia. In this review, we aimed to assess heterogeneity and pooled proportion of Salmonella serovars to streptomycin resistance among human, animal and animal products in Ethiopia. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published literature from Ethiopia. We used the MEDLINE/ PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases to identify genetic and phenotypic data on Salmonella isolates. To determine the heterogeneity and pooled proportion, we used metaprop commands and the random-effects model. Relative and cumulative frequencies were calculated to describe the overall preponderance of streptomycin resistance isolates after arcsine-transformed data. Metan funnel and meta-bias using a begg test were performed to check for publication bias. RESULTS: Overall, we included 1475 Salmonella serovars in this meta-analysis. The pooled proportion of streptomycin resistance was 47% (95% CI: 35-60%). Sub-group analysis by target population showed that the proportion of streptomycin resistance in Salmonella serovars was 54% (95% CI: 35-73%) in animal, 44% (95% Cl: 33-59%) in humans and 39% (95% CI: 24-55%) in animals products. The streptomycin resistant Salmonella serovars were statistically increasing from 0.35(95% CI: 0.12-0.58) in 2003 to 0.77(95% CI: 0.64-0.89) in 2018. The level of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella serovars was 50.1% in the meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: We found a high level of streptomycin resistance, including multidrug, Salmonella serovars among human, animals, and animal products. This resistance was significantly increasing in the last three decades (1985-2018). The resistance to streptomycin among Salmonella serovars isolated from animals was higher than humans. This mandates the continuous monitoring of streptomycin use and practicing one health approach to preventing further development of resistance in Ethiopia. REGISTRATION: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis after registration of the protocol in PROSPERO (CRD42019135116) following the MOOSE (Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology).


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Etiópia , Humanos , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Estreptomicina/farmacologia
4.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e7, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787420

RESUMO

Chickens have been implicated in most Salmonella disease outbreaks because they act as carriers of the pathogen in their gut. There are over 2500 serotypes of Salmonella that have been reported worldwide and 2000 of these serovars can be found in chickens. The main objective of this study was to determine the Salmonella serotypes found in poultry farms around Mafikeng district, South Africa. Salmonella was identified according to the guidelines of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (ISO 6579:2002) standard techniques. Faecal samples were collected and analysed for Salmonella using conventional cultural methods and polymerase chain reaction targeting the 16S Ribosomal Deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) gene for Salmonella identification. Out of 130 presumptive Salmonella isolates determined by urease and triple sugar iron tests, only 46 isolates were identified as Salmonella serotypes of which S. Typhimurium was the most frequent with 18 (39.1%), followed by S. Heidelberg with 9 (19.6%), S. bongori with 7 (15.2%), S. Enteritidis with 6 (13.0%) and both S. Paratyphi B and S. Newport with 3 (6.5%) each. Seven virulence genes including invA 100%, spy 39%, hilA 9%, misL 30%, sdfI 13%, orfL 11% and spiC 9% were detected from these Salmonella isolates in this study. The presence of these virulence genes indicates high pathogenicity potential of these isolates which is a serious public health concern because of zoonotic potential of Salmonella.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonella/genética , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Ribossômico/análise , Fezes/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Sorogrupo , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Virulência
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1207: 413-423, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671764

RESUMO

Bacterial infection is a common clinical disease that can affect a variety of organs and tissues. Autophagy, as an important part of the innate immune response and adaptive immune response, plays an important role in the defense against bacterial infection. Bacteria can also evade autophagy by destroying or utilizing autophagy virulence proteins or related molecules. Studying the mechanism of autophagy in bacteria and its interaction with cells help to discover new pathogenic mechanisms of bacterial infection. This chapter introduces the possible mechanisms of autophagy during bacterial infections such as Salmonella and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in order to discover new ways to prevent and control infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Infecções Bacterianas , Autofagia/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Salmonella/imunologia , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Virulência
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235345, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667930

RESUMO

This study was carried out to investigate the risks of simultaneous exposure to pesticide residues and bacteria contaminants in locally produced fresh vegetables and vegetables in Tanzania. A total of 613 samples were analyzed for pesticide residues, out of which 250 were also analyzed for bacterial contamination. Overall, 47.5% had pesticide residues, 74.2% exceeded Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). Organophosphorus (95.2%), organochlorines (24.0%), pyrethroids (17.3%), and carbamates (9.2%) residues dominated. MRL values were mostly exceeded in tomatoes, onions, watermelons, cucumbers, Chinese cabbage, and sweet paper. Tetramethrin (0.0329-1.3733 mg/kg), pirimiphos-methyl (0.0003-1.4093 mg/kg), permethrin (0.0009-2.4537 mg/kg), endosulfan (beta) (0.0008-2.3416 mg/kg), carbaryl (0.0215-1.5068 mg/kg), profenofos (0.0176-2.1377 mg/kg), chlorpyrifos (0.0004-1.2549 mg/kg) and dieldrin (0.0011-0.5271 mg/kg) exceeded MRLs. The prevalence of bacteria contamination was high (63.2%). Enterobacter (55.6%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (32.4%), E. coli (28.2%), Citrobacter (26.8%), Klebsiella oxytoca (14.8%), and Salmonella (7.7%) were isolated. Furthermore, 46.4% tested positive for both pesticide residues and bacterial contaminants. Vegetables from farms (60.7%) contained more dual contaminants than market-based vegetables (41.8%). This may have resulted from excessive pesticide use and unhygienic handling of fresh fruits and vegetables at production level. Binary logistic regression showed that fresh fruits and vegetables with pesticide residues were 2.231 times more likely to have bacteria contaminants (OR: 2.231; 95% CI: 0.501, 8.802). The contamination levels of pesticide residues and bacterial contaminants could be perceived as a serious problem as most fresh fruits and vegetables recorded values of pesticide residues far above the MRLs with pathogenic bacteria isolated in higher proportions. MRLs was higher in most vegetables consumed raw or semi-cooked such as watermelons, carrots, cucumber, tomatoes, onion and sweet paper. There is an urgent need to develop pesticide monitoring and surveillance systems at farmer level, educating farmers and promoting the use of greener pesticides to mitigate the health effects of pesticides and bacterial contaminants.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Verduras/efeitos adversos , Citrobacter/isolamento & purificação , Citrobacter/patogenicidade , Enterobacter/isolamento & purificação , Enterobacter/patogenicidade , Frutas/química , Frutas/microbiologia , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/química , Klebsiella oxytoca/isolamento & purificação , Klebsiella oxytoca/patogenicidade , Resíduos de Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/química , Praguicidas/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Piretrinas/efeitos adversos , Piretrinas/química , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Verduras/química , Verduras/microbiologia
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 436, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyroid gland infections are rare. Their incidence is estimated to be less than 1% in immunocompromised hosts. Most common pathogens isolated are Gram positive aerobic cocci. Infections with Gram negative facultative aerobes such as Salmonella are rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old female with type II diabetes mellitus and a history of a colloid right thyroid lobe nodule presented with neck pain and fever. She was found to have a thyroid abscess 2 weeks following a non-specific diarrheal illness. A needle aspiration for symptomatic and diagnostic purposes was performed. Cultures grew Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg. She was treated with a 12-week course of oral antibiotics and serial aspiration. CONCLUSION: A thyroid abscess is a rare occurrence; however, a high index of suspicion is required to make the diagnosis. The management is directed at minimizing morbidity. The mainstay treatment is medical, but surgery is sometimes necessary to achieve adequate source control, particularly when complications arise.


Assuntos
Abscesso/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/complicações , Infecções por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Tireoidite Supurativa/tratamento farmacológico , Tireoidite Supurativa/microbiologia , Abscesso/diagnóstico , Abscesso/terapia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor/etiologia , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Infecções por Salmonella/diagnóstico , Tireoidite Supurativa/etiologia
8.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(6): 663-673, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393887

RESUMO

The linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), which consists of HOIP, SHARPIN and HOIL-1L, promotes NF-κB activation and protects against cell death by generating linear ubiquitin chains. LUBAC contains two RING-IBR-RING (RBR) ubiquitin ligases (E3), and the HOIP RBR is responsible for catalysing linear ubiquitination. We found that HOIL-1L RBR plays a crucial role in regulating LUBAC. HOIL-1L RBR conjugates monoubiquitin onto all LUBAC subunits, followed by HOIP-mediated conjugation of linear chains onto monoubiquitin, and these linear chains attenuate the functions of LUBAC. The introduction of E3-defective HOIL-1L mutants into cells augmented linear ubiquitination, which protected the cells against Salmonella infection and cured dermatitis caused by reduced LUBAC levels due to SHARPIN loss. Our results reveal a regulatory mode of E3 ligases in which the accessory E3 in LUBAC downregulates the main E3 by providing preferred substrates for autolinear ubiquitination. Thus, inhibition of HOIL-1L E3 represents a promising strategy for treating severe infections or immunodeficiency.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/fisiologia , Morte Celular , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/imunologia , Dermatite de Contato/imunologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/fisiologia , Salmonelose Animal/imunologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/fisiologia , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Dermatite de Contato/metabolismo , Dermatite de Contato/patologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/imunologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Embrião de Mamíferos/patologia , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Camundongos Knockout , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Salmonelose Animal/metabolismo , Salmonelose Animal/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transdução de Sinais , Ubiquitinação
9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231998, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330169

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the immune response of broilers vaccinated with Salmonella chitosan-nanoparticle (CNP) vaccine and challenged with Salmonella. The Salmonella CNP vaccine was synthesized with Salmonella enterica outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and flagellin proteins. In Experiment I, birds were orally gavaged with PBS or 500, 1000, or 2000µg of CNP vaccine 1 and 7d-of-age. At 14d-of-age, birds were orally challenged with 1 X 105 CFU/bird of live S. Enteritidis (SE). Macrophage-nitrite production 11d-post-challenge was higher (P<0.05) in the 500µg group when compared to the control. At d14 (8h-post-challenge), broilers vaccinated with 1000µg CNP had higher (P<0.05) serum anti-OMPs IgG and IgA and cloacal anti-OMP IgA amounts. At 11d-post-challenge, birds vaccinated with 1000µg CNP vaccine had greater (P<0.05) bile anti-OMP and anti-flagellin IgA amounts. At 11d-post-challenge, birds administered 1000µg CNP vaccine has increased (P<0.05) IL-1ß and IL-10 mRNA in cecal tonsils. In Experiment II, birds were orally gavaged with PBS or 1000µg CNP or a live commercial vaccine at 1 and 7d-of-age. At 14d-of-age, birds were orally challenged with 1 X 105 CFU/bird of live SE or S. Heidelberg (SH). Birds vaccinated with CNP showed higher (P<0.05) serum anti-OMPs IgG amounts at 8h-post-challenge. At 4d-post-SH challenge, birds vaccinated with CNP had higher (P<0.05) bile anti-flagellin IgA amounts. CNP decreased (P<0.05) anti-OMPs IgG levels in serum at 2d-post-SE challenge and 4d-post-SH or SE challenge. Salmonella Enteritidis loads in cecal content at 2d-post-challenge was decreased (P<0.05) by 65.9% in birds vaccinated with CNP, when compared to the control. Chitosan-nanovaccine had no adverse effects on bird's production performance. In conclusion, 1000µg CNP vaccine can induce a specific immune response against Salmonella and has the potential to mitigate SE cecal colonization in broiler birds.


Assuntos
Galinhas/imunologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Vacinas contra Salmonella/imunologia , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Ceco/metabolismo , Galinhas/microbiologia , Quitosana/imunologia , Flagelina/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Salmonella/imunologia , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Salmonelose Animal/imunologia , Salmonella enterica/metabolismo , Salmonella enteritidis/imunologia , Vacinas/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
10.
Pol J Microbiol ; 69(1): 5-18, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189480

RESUMO

Probiotics are considered an alternative to antibiotics in the prevention and treatment of Salmonella diseases in poultry. However, to use probiotics as proposed above, it is necessary to evaluate their properties in detail and to select the most effective bacterial strains in the application targeted. In this study, probiotic properties of new Lactobacillus sp. strains were investigated and their antimicrobial activity against 125 environmental strains of Salmonella sp. was determined using the agar slab method. Furthermore, their survival in the presence of bile salts and at low pH, antibiotics susceptibility, aggregation and coaggregation ability, adherence to polystyrene and Caco-2 cells, and cytotoxicity were investigated. Each strain tested showed antagonistic activity against at least 96% of the environmental Salmonella sp. strains and thus representing a highly epidemiologically differentiated collection of poultry isolates. In addition, the probiotic properties of new Lactobacillus strains are promising. Therefore, all strains examined showed a high potential for use in poultry against salmonellosis.Probiotics are considered an alternative to antibiotics in the prevention and treatment of Salmonella diseases in poultry. However, to use probiotics as proposed above, it is necessary to evaluate their properties in detail and to select the most effective bacterial strains in the application targeted. In this study, probiotic properties of new Lactobacillus sp. strains were investigated and their antimicrobial activity against 125 environmental strains of Salmonella sp. was determined using the agar slab method. Furthermore, their survival in the presence of bile salts and at low pH, antibiotics susceptibility, aggregation and coaggregation ability, adherence to polystyrene and Caco-2 cells, and cytotoxicity were investigated. Each strain tested showed antagonistic activity against at least 96% of the environmental Salmonella sp. strains and thus representing a highly epidemiologically differentiated collection of poultry isolates. In addition, the probiotic properties of new Lactobacillus strains are promising. Therefore, all strains examined showed a high potential for use in poultry against salmonellosis.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana , Células CACO-2 , Humanos , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229647, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150574

RESUMO

Probiotic bacteria have the ability to modulate host immune responses and have potent therapeutic functional effects against several diseases, including inflammatory diseases. However, beneficial effects of probiotics are strain specific and their interactions with host immune cells to modulate inflammatory response are largely unknown. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), which are the first line of defense against invading pathogens, and connects between commensals/probiotics and immune system; therefore, in this study, we used human IECs to assess the probiotic effects of three selected Lactobacillus strains in vitro. An HT-29 colonic epithelial cell and HT-29/blood mononuclear cells co-culture system were stimulated with Lactobacillus followed by Salmonella for different hours, after which the mRNA level of cytokines, ß-defensin-2 and negative regulators for TLR signaling and protein levels of ZO-1 and IκB-α were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. L. brevis decreased Salmonella induced IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and IL-1ß levels, whereas L. pentosus suppressed IL-6 and MCP-1 in HT-29 cells. Moreover, L. brevis was able to increase the mRNA levels of A20, Tollip, SIGIRR and IRAKM, while L. pentosus reduced the levels of A20, and IRAKM in response to Salmonella. In addition, decrease in protein level of TNF-α and increase in mRNA level of IL-10 was observed in L. brevis and L. pentosus treated HT-29 cells. Lactobacillus strains were differentially modulated ZO-1 and p-IκB-α in HT-29 cells treated with Salmonella. Overall, the results of this study indicate that Lactobacillus strains attenuate Salmonella induced inflammatory responses through beneficial modulation of TLR negative regulators and the NF-κB pathway.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Salmonella/imunologia , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Células HT29 , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Lactobacillus/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/microbiologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Infecções por Salmonella/imunologia , Infecções por Salmonella/prevenção & controle , Transdução de Sinais , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , beta-Defensinas/metabolismo
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 97, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella species commonly causes infection in humans and on occasion leads to serious complications, such as mycotic aneurysms. Here, we present the first case reported of a patient with a mycotic aneurysm likely secondary to Salmonella Rissen infection. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient presented with 4 weeks of lower back pain, chills and a single episode of diarrhoea 2 months prior during a 14-day trip to Hong Kong and Taiwan. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an aneurysmal left internal iliac artery with adjacent left iliacus rim-enhancing collection. A stool culture was positive for Salmonella Rissen ST 469 EBG 66 on whole genome sequencing. The patient underwent an emergency bifurcated graft of his internal iliac aneurysm and was successfully treated with appropriate antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the importance of considering the diagnosis of a mycotic aneurysm in an unusual presentation of back pain with features of infection.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Infectado/cirurgia , Aneurisma Ilíaco/cirurgia , Infecções por Salmonella/cirurgia , Idoso , Aneurisma Infectado/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Infectado/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Aneurisma Ilíaco/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Ilíaco/tratamento farmacológico , Aneurisma Ilíaco/microbiologia , Artéria Ilíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Ilíaca/microbiologia , Masculino , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Infecções por Salmonella/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Molecules ; 25(2)2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936589

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a commonly used method of processing waste. Regardless of the type of the used digestate (fertilizer, feedstock in case of solid-state fermentation, raw-material in case of thermal treatment) effective pathogen risk elimination, even in the case of high pathogen concentration is essential. An investigation of the survival time and inactivation rate of the Salmonella Senftenberg W775, Enterococcus spp., and Ascaris suum eggs during thermophilic anaerobic digestion performed on laboratory scale and confirmation of hygienization in full-scale operation were performed in this study. Except for sanitization efficiency, the AD process performance and stability were also verified based on determination of pH value, dry matter content, acidity, alkalinity, and content of fatty acids. The elimination of pathogen was met within 6.06 h, 5.5 h, and about 10 h for the Salmonella Senftenberg W775, Enterococcus spp., and Ascaris suum, respectively in the laboratory trials. The obtained results were confirmed in full-scale tests, using 1500 m3 Kompogas® reactors, operating in MBT Plant located in Poland. Sanitization of the digestate was achieved. Furthermore, the process was stable. The pH value, suspended solids, and ammonium content remained stable at 8.5, 35%, and 3.8 g/kg, respectively. The acetic acid content was noted between almost 0.8 and over 1.1 g/kg, while the concentration of propionic acid was noted at maximum level of about 100 mg/kg. The AD conditions could positively affect the pathogen elimination. Based on these results it can be found that anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions results in high sanitation efficiency.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Eliminação de Resíduos/normas , Saneamento/métodos , Esgotos/microbiologia , Anaerobiose , Animais , Ascaris suum/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascaris suum/patogenicidade , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus/patogenicidade , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Fertilizantes/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Polônia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Resíduos Sólidos
14.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(1): 29-38, Jan. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1091660

RESUMO

Salmonella Infantis is frequently associated with human infections worldwide and is transmitted by consumption of contaminated foods, particularly those of animal origin, especially the chicken meat. We aimed to evaluate virulence characteristics, antimicrobial resistance and the genetic similarity of 51 strains of S. Infantis isolated from samples of poultry origin. The strains were isolated from 2009 to 2010 in a company with full cycle of broiler's production in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed and, by PCR, we evaluated the presence of the genes lpfA (hem-adhesion), agfA (hem-biofilm) and sefA (hem-adhesion) and resistance genes to beta-lactams (blaTEM, blaSHV, bla CTX-M and blaAmpC ). The phylogenetic relationship was determined by RAPD-PCR method. Among the drugs tested, the highest percentages of resistance were to amoxicillin (35.3%) and to sulfonamide (15.7%). Eleven antimicrobial resistance patterns were identified (A1 to A11), none of them presented a multiresistance profile (> 3 antimicrobials classes). There was 100% of positivity for the agfA gene, 92.2% for the lpfA gene, and no strain presented the sefA gene. Most of the isolates showed similarities in virulence potential, since they were simultaneously positive for two studied genes, agfA and lpfA (92.2%, 47/51). Of the 18 (35.3%) strains resistant to antimicrobials of the β-lactam class, 10 (55.5%) were positive to blaAmpC gene, five (27.8%) for blaCTX-M , two (11.1%) to blaSHV and no strain presented the blaTEM gene. The phylogenetic evaluation has shown the presence of five clusters (A, B, C, D and E) with similarity greatSalmonella Infantis is frequently associated with human infections worldwide and is transmitted by consumption of contaminated foods, particularly those of animal origin, especially the chicken meat. We aimed to evaluate virulence characteristics, antimicrobial resistance and the genetic similarity of 51 strains of S. Infantis isolated from samples of poultry origin. The strains were isolated from 2009 to 2010 in a company with full cycle of broiler's production in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed and, by PCR, we evaluated the presence of the genes lpfA (hem-adhesion), agfA (hem-biofilm) and sefA (hem-adhesion) and resistance genes to beta-lactams (blaTEM, blaSHV, bla CTX-M and blaAmpC ). The phylogenetic relationship was determined by RAPD-PCR method. Among the drugs tested, the highest percentages of resistance were to amoxicillin (35.3%) and to sulfonamide (15.7%). Eleven antimicrobial resistance patterns were identified (A1 to A11), none of them presented a multiresistance profile (> 3 antimicrobials classes). There was 100% of positivity for the agfA gene, 92.2% for the lpfA gene, and no strain presented the sefA gene. Most of the isolates showed similarities in virulence potential, since they were simultaneously positive for two studied genes, agfA and lpfA (92.2%, 47/51). Of the 18 (35.3%) strains resistant to antimicrobials of the ß-lactam class, 10 (55.5%) were positive to blaAmpC gene, five (27.8%) for blaCTX-M , two (11.1%) to blaSHV and no strain presented the blaTEM gene. The phylogenetic evaluation has shown the presence of five clusters (A, B, C, D and E) with similarity greater than 80%, and three distinct strains which were not grouped in any cluster. Cluster B grouped 33 strains, all positive for lpfA and agfA genes, from both, the broiler farming facility and the slaughterhouse, persistent throughout all the study period. This cluster also grouped 18 strains clones with genetic similarity greater than 99%, all isolated in the slaughterhouse. The presence of virulence genes associated with persistent strains clones for a long period, warns to the possibility of S. Infantis to form biofilm, and should be constantly monitored in broilers' production chain, in order to know the profile of the strains that may contaminate the final product and evaluate the hazards that represents to public health.er than 80%, and three distinct strains which were not grouped in any cluster. Cluster B grouped 33 strains, all positive for lpfA and agfA genes, from both, the broiler farming facility and the slaughterhouse, persistent throughout all the study period. This cluster also grouped 18 strains clones with genetic similarity greater than 99%, all isolated in the slaughterhouse. The presence of virulence genes associated with persistent strains clones for a long period, warns to the possibility of S. Infantis to form biofilm, and should be constantly monitored in broilers' production chain, in order to know the profile of the strains that may contaminate the final product and evaluate the hazards that represents to public health.(AU)


Salmonella Infantis é frequentemente associada a infecções humanas no mundo todo sendo transmitida pelo consumo de alimentos contaminados, principalmente aqueles de origem animal, com destaque para a carne de frango. Objetivou-se avaliar características de virulência, resistência antimicrobiana e a similaridade genética de 51 estirpes de S. Infantis isoladas em amostras de origem avícola. As estirpes foram isoladas no período de 2009 a 2010 em uma empresa com ciclo completo de produção de frango de corte, localizada no estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Foi realizado o teste de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana e pela técnica de PCR, foi avaliada a presença dos genes lpfA (fímbria-adesão), agfA (fímbria-biofilme) e sefA (fímbria-adesão) e os genes de resistência aos beta-lactâmicos (bla TEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M e blaAmpC ). A relação filogenética foi determinada pelo método de RAPD-PCR. Dentre as drogas testadas, os maiores percentuais de resistência foram para amoxacilina com 35,3% e sulfonamida com 15,7%. Onze perfis de resistência aos antimicrobianos foram identificados (A1 a A11), sendo que nenhum deles apresentou perfil de multirresistência (>3 classes de antimicrobianos). Houve 100% de positividade para o gene agfA, 92,2% para o gene lpfA e nenhuma estirpe apresentou o gene sefA. A maioria dos isolados apresentaram semelhanças no potencial de virulência, pois foram positivos simultaneamente para dois genes estudados, agfA e lpfA (92,2% - 47/51). Das 18 (35,3%) estirpes resistentes aos antimicrobianos da classe dos ß-lactâmicos, 10 (55,5%) foram positivas para o gene blaAmpC , cinco (27,8%) para blaCTX-M , duas (11,1%) para blaSHV e nenhuma estirpe apresentou o gene bla TEM . A avaliação filogenética demonstrou a presença de cinco clusters (A, B, C, D e E) com similaridade superior a 80%, e três estirpes distintas que não foram agrupadas em nenhum dos clusters. O cluster B agrupou 33 estirpes, todas positivas para os genes lpfA e agfA, provenientes tanto do aviário quanto do matadouro frigorífico, persistentes durante todo o período do estudo. Este cluster ainda agrupou 18 estirpes clones com similaridade genética superior a 99%, todas isoladas no matadouro frigorífico. A presença dos genes de virulência, associada à persistência das estirpes clones durante um longo período do estudo, alertam para a possibilidade de S. Infantis em formar biofilme, devendo ser constantemente monitorada na cadeia de produção avícola, especialmente no ambiente de abate, de forma a conhecer o perfil das estirpes que podem contaminar o produto final e assim avaliar os perigos que representam para a saúde pública.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Salmonelose Animal , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Galinhas/microbiologia , beta-Lactamas , Amoxicilina , Infecções por Salmonella
15.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 150: 111862, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740256

RESUMO

Salmonella is the leading risk factor in food safety. Rapid, sensitive and accurate detection of Salmonella is a key to prevent and control the outbreaks of foodborne diseases caused by Salmonella. In this study, we reported a colorimetric biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of Salmonella Typhimurium using a magnetic grid separation column to efficiently separate target bacteria from large volume of sample and platinum loaded zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (Pt@ZIF-8) nanocatalysts to effectively amplify biological signal. The target Salmonella cells in large volume of sample were first separated and concentrated using the magnetic grid separation column with immune magnetic particle chains, then conjugated with the immune Pt@ZIF-8 nanocatalysts to mimic peroxidase for catalysis of hydrogen peroxide-3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine, and finally determined by measuring the catalysate at characteristic wavelength of 450 nm. This proposed biosensor was able to separate ∼70% of target Salmonella cells from 50 mL of bacterial sample and quantitatively detect Salmonella from 101 to 104 CFU/mL in 2.5 h with the lower detection limit of 11 CFU/mL. The mean recovery for Salmonella in spiked chicken carcass was about 109.8%. This new magnetic grid separation method was first time reported for efficient separation of target bacteria from very large volume of sample to greatly improve the sensitivity of this biosensor and could be used with various biosensing assays for practical applications in routine detection of foodborne pathogens without any bacterial pre-enrichment.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Colorimetria , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Magnetismo , Platina/química , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Zeolitas/química
16.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 73(2): 102-110, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666496

RESUMO

The annual number of outbreaks of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella food poisoning and that of patients in Japan, from 2000 to 2018, decreased exponentially even though the size of the individual outbreaks (the number of patients per outbreak) tended to become larger. For food poisonings caused by Campylobacter, the annual number of outbreaks increased exponentially while outbreak size became smaller and the annual number of patients remained almost unchanged. For food poisoning caused by norovirus, both the number of outbreaks and that of patients remained high throughout. Over time, the geographical and seasonal distribution of food poisonings became narrower for Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella, while they became wider for Campylobacter and norovirus. Further analyses using the attack rate-patient number plots suggested that the number of the outbreaks was determined mainly by the levels of microbial contamination of foods before they were brought into the facilities for consumption.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Vibrioses/epidemiologia , Campylobacter/patogenicidade , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Norovirus/patogenicidade , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/patogenicidade
17.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0462019, 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1145888

RESUMO

This study aimed to review aspects of Salmonella spp. in free-living birds and their potential as disseminators for domestic animals, man, and the environment. Isolation of Salmonella spp. have been reported in several species of wild birds from Passeridae and Fringillidae, among other avian families, captured in countries of North America and Europe, where Salmonella ser. Typhimurium is the most frequently reported serotype. The presence of pathogens, including Salmonella, may be influenced by several factors, such as diet, environment, exposure to antibiotics, infection by pathogenic organisms and migration patterns. Researches with wild birds that live in urbanized environment are important, considering that birds may participate in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens, which are more prevalent in cities due to the human activity. Based on the information collected, this article concludes that wild birds are still important disseminators of pathogens in several geographic regions and may affect man, domestic animals, and other birds.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão acerca da Salmonella spp. em aves de vida livre e o potencial delas como disseminadores para animais domésticos, homem e meio ambiente. Casos na literatura relatando Salmonella spp. têm sido descritos em diversas espécies de aves silvestres da família Passeridae e Fringilidae em países da América do Norte e Europa, sendo Salmonella ser. Typhimurium o sorotipo relatado mais frequentemente. A presença de patógenos como Salmonella spp. pode ser influenciada por fatores como dieta, ambiente onde vive, contaminação por antibióticos, infecção por organismos patogênicos e padrões de migração. Pesquisas envolvendo as aves silvestres que vivem em ambiente urbanizado são importantes, pois as aves podem possibilitar a transmissão de patógenos zoonóticos que têm maior prevalência em áreas urbanas devido a mecanismos de ação humana. Com base nas informações coletadas, conclui-se que as aves silvestres continuam sendo importantes na disseminação de patógenos em diversas regiões geográficas, podendo afetar o homem, animais domésticos e outras aves silvestres.(AU)


Assuntos
Salmonella/patogenicidade , Infecções por Salmonella , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Animais Domésticos , Zoonoses , Área Urbana , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Pardais , Meio Ambiente , Sorogrupo
18.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 930, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella bongori infect mainly cold-blooded hosts, but infections by S. bongori in warm-blooded hosts have been reported. We hypothesized that S. bongori might have diverged into distinct phylogenetic lineages, with some being able to infect warm-blooded hosts. RESULTS: To inspect the divergence status of S. bongori, we first completely sequenced the parakeet isolate RKS3044 and compared it with other sequenced S. bongori strains. We found that RKS3044 contained a novel T6SS encoded in a pathogenicity island-like structure, in addition to a T6SS encoded in SPI-22, which is common to all S. bongori strains so far reported. This novel T6SS resembled the SPI-19 T6SS of the warm-blooded host infecting Salmonella Subgroup I lineages. Genomic sequence comparisons revealed different genomic sequence amelioration events among the S. bongori strains, including a unique CTAG tetranucleotide degeneration pattern in RKS3044, suggesting non-overlapping gene pools between RKS3044 and other S. bongori lineages/strains leading to their independent accumulation of genomic variations. We further proved the existence of a clear-cut genetic boundary between RKS3044 and the other S. bongori lineages/strains analyzed in this study. CONCLUSIONS: The warm-blooded host-infecting S. bongori strain RKS3044 has diverged with distinct genomic features from other S. bongori strains, including a novel T6SS encoded in a previously not reported pathogenicity island-like structure and a unique genomic sequence degeneration pattern. These findings alert cautions about the emergence of new pathogens originating from non-pathogenic ancestors by acquiring specific pathogenic traits.


Assuntos
Ilhas Genômicas , Periquitos/microbiologia , Salmonella/classificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Especiação Genética , Tamanho do Genoma , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Filogenia , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Fatores de Virulência/genética
19.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226126, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815949

RESUMO

Salmonella can appear in the bloodstream within CD18 expressing phagocytes following oral ingestion in as little as 15 minutes. Here, we provide evidence that the process underlying this phenomenon is reverse transmigration. Reverse transmigration is a normal host process in which dendritic cells can reenter the bloodstream by traversing endothelium in the basal to apical direction. We have developed an in vitro reverse transmigration assay in which dendritic cells are given the opportunity to cross endothelial monolayers in the basal to apical direction grown on membranes with small pores, modeling how such cells can penetrate the bloodstream. We demonstrate that exposing dendritic cells to microbial components negatively regulates reverse transmigration. We propose that microbial components normally cause the host to toggle between positively and negatively regulating reverse transmigration, balancing the need to resolve inflammation with inhibiting the spread of microbes. We show that Salmonella in part overcomes this negative regulation of reverse transmigration with the Salmonella pathogenicity island-2 encoded type III secretion system, which increases reverse transmigration by over an order of magnitude. The SPI-2 type III secretion system does this in part, but not entirely by injecting the type III effector SpvC into infected cells. We further demonstrate that SpvC greatly promotes early extra-intestinal dissemination in mice. This result combined with the previous observation that the spv operon is conserved amongst strains of non-typhoidal Salmonella capable of causing bacteremia in humans suggests that this pathway to the bloodstream could be important for understanding human infections.


Assuntos
Carbono-Oxigênio Liases/metabolismo , Salmonella/metabolismo , Migração Transendotelial e Transepitelial/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Antígenos CD18/deficiência , Antígenos CD18/genética , Carbono-Oxigênio Liases/genética , Células Dendríticas/microbiologia , Células Dendríticas/fisiologia , Endotélio/citologia , Endotélio/microbiologia , Feminino , Intestinos/microbiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mutagênese , Fagócitos/metabolismo , Fagócitos/microbiologia , Salmonella/patogenicidade
20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19571, 2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862956

RESUMO

We depicted the epidemiological characteristics of infectious diarrhoea in Jiangsu Province, China. Generalized additive models were employed to evaluate the age-specific effects of etiological and meteorological factors on prevalence. A long-term increasing prevalence with strong seasonality was observed. In those aged 0-5 years, disease risk increased rapidly with the positive rate of virus (rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus) in the 20-50% range. In those aged > 20 years, disease risk increased with the positive rate of adenovirus and bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni) until reaching 5%, and thereafter stayed stable. The mean temperature, relative humidity, temperature range, and rainfall were all related to two-month lag morbidity in the group aged 0-5 years. Disease risk increased with relative humidity between 67-78%. Synchronous climate affected the incidence in those aged >20 years. Mean temperature and rainfall showed U-shape associations with disease risk (with threshold 15 °C and 100 mm per month, respectively). Meanwhile, disease risk increased gradually with sunshine duration over 150 hours per month. However, no associations were found in the group aged 6-19 years. In brief, etiological and meteorological factors had age-specific effects on the prevalence of infectious diarrhoea in Jiangsu. Surveillance efforts are needed to prevent its spread.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Campylobacter jejuni/patogenicidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Temperatura , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/patogenicidade , Adulto Jovem
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