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1.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 81(1): 34-42, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949161

RESUMO

The kappa-opioid system (KOP) is the key in drug abuse. Of all the compounds isolated from Salvia divinorum (S. divinorum), salvinorin-A (Sal-A) is predominant. Further, Sal-A is the only compound within S. divinorum which is reported to have psychoactive properties as a powerful kappa-opioid receptor (KOPr) agonist. Based on the key role of the KOP system in the consumption of drugs, S. divinorum extract (SDE) and Sal-A may modify the alcohol intake in Wistar rats. Assessing voluntary alcohol intake as a drug consummatory behavior, food intake as natural reward behavior and tonic immobility as indicative of anxiety-like behavior, the present study sought to identify the role of both SDE and Sal-A in the Wistar rat model. Forty-eight adult male rats were randomly divided into six groups: control, alcohol naive and vehicle, alcohol-naive and SDE, alcohol-naive and Sal-A, alcohol-consumption and vehicle, alcohol-consumption and SDE, and alcohol-consumption and Sal-A. Alcohol and food intake were assessed for two weeks. In the middle of these two weeks, vehicle, SDE (containing ~1 mg/kg of Sal-A) or Sal-A was injected intraperitoneally once a day for a week. Tonic immobility testing was performed once. The administration of SDE produced a significant increase in voluntary alcohol intake especially in rats with a history of forced alcohol consumption from a juvenile age, Sal-A elicited an increase in alcohol intake in animals with or without previous alcohol exposure, SDE and Sal-A prolonged the tonic immobility duration and decreased food intake. In conclusion, S. divinorum or Sal-A stimulated alcohol consumption in rats with a history of alcohol intake and independent of previous exposure respectively, also SDE or Sal-A elicited an anorexigenic effect, and increased tonic immobility as indicative of anxious-like behavior.The kappa-opioid system (KOP) is the key in drug abuse. Of all the compounds isolated from Salvia divinorum (S. divinorum), salvinorin-A (Sal-A) is predominant. Further, Sal-A is the only compound within S. divinorum which is reported to have psychoactive properties as a powerful kappa-opioid receptor (KOPr) agonist. Based on the key role of the KOP system in the consumption of drugs, S. divinorum extract (SDE) and Sal-A may modify the alcohol intake in Wistar rats. Assessing voluntary alcohol intake as a drug consummatory behavior, food intake as natural reward behavior and tonic immobility as indicative of anxiety-like behavior, the present study sought to identify the role of both SDE and Sal-A in the Wistar rat model. Forty-eight adult male rats were randomly divided into six groups: control, alcohol naive and vehicle, alcohol-naive and SDE, alcohol-naive and Sal-A, alcohol-consumption and vehicle, alcohol-consumption and SDE, and alcohol-consumption and Sal-A. Alcohol and food intake were assessed for two weeks. In the middle of these two weeks, vehicle, SDE (containing ~1 mg/kg of Sal-A) or Sal-A was injected intraperitoneally once a day for a week. Tonic immobility testing was performed once. The administration of SDE produced a significant increase in voluntary alcohol intake especially in rats with a history of forced alcohol consumption from a juvenile age, Sal-A elicited an increase in alcohol intake in animals with or without previous alcohol exposure, SDE and Sal-A prolonged the tonic immobility duration and decreased food intake. In conclusion, S. divinorum or Sal-A stimulated alcohol consumption in rats with a history of alcohol intake and independent of previous exposure respectively, also SDE or Sal-A elicited an anorexigenic effect, and increased tonic immobility as indicative of anxious-like behavior.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/farmacologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Salvia/metabolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Analgésicos Opioides/metabolismo , Animais , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/metabolismo , Etanol/farmacologia , Masculino , Ratos Wistar
2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(17): 6370-6375, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886312

RESUMO

Perovskones and hydrangenones are a family of structurally complex triterpenoids that were mainly isolated from the genus Salvia medicinal plants. These isoprenoids exhibit a broad range of biological activities, such as antitumor and antiplasmodial activities. Here, we report the collective total synthesis of perovskone, perovskones C, D, F, hydrangenone, and hydrangenone B. The key strategies in this work include the following: (1) an asymmetric photoenolization/Diels-Alder reaction was developed to construct a tricyclic ring bearing three contiguous quaternary centers, which was used to build the core icetexane skeleton; (2) a bioinspired Diels-Alder reaction of perovskatone D with trans-α-ocimene was applied to stereospecifically generate perovskones; (3) late-stage oxidations and ring forming steps were developed to synthesize perovskones and hydrangenones. Our synthetic work suggests that (1) perovskatone D may serve as the precursor of the biosynthesis of perovskones and (2) the formation of hydrangenone and hydrangenone B, containing a five-membered D ring, may involve an oxidative ring cleavage and ring regeneration process.


Assuntos
Norisoprenoides/síntese química , Norisoprenoides/metabolismo , Triterpenos/síntese química , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Reação de Cicloadição , Salvia/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo
3.
Biochem Genet ; 59(5): 1295-1310, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797013

RESUMO

Plastidial Δ12 fatty acid desaturase (FAD6) is a key enzyme for linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) biosynthesis. Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is a revived omega-3 plant source that is richest in ALA level. In this study, based on the RACE method, one full-length cDNA sequence encoding FAD6, named ShFAD6, was isolated from chia. There exist three alternative transcription start sites and five alternative poly(A) tailing sites in ShFAD6. The 5'UTR of ShFAD6 contains a purine-stretch of 44 bp. ShFAD6 has an ORF of 1335 bp encoding a 444 aa protein of 51.33 kDa. ShFAD6 contains a conserved Delta12-FADS-like domain together with three strong trans-membrane helices and three histidine motifs. There also exists a chloroplast transmit peptide in ShFAD6 N-terminal. Phylogenetic analyses validated its identity of dicot FAD6 protein and suggested some critical evolutionary features of plant FAD6 genes. Heterologous yeast expression confirmed the catalytic activity of ShFAD6. The qRT-PCR assay showed that ShFAD6 is mainly expressed in leaves, stems, flowers, buds and early-stage seeds, and also responded to various stresses and hormone treatments. Under Sclerotinia infection, qRT-PCR and fluorescence imaging illustrated the possible correlation of ShFAD6 expression and photosynthesis. This study provides insight for further function study of ShFAD6 in oil quality improvement in staple oilseed crops as well as stress response and adaptation in plants.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Salvia/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Salvia/genética , Salvia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salvia/microbiologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(14): 6010-6019, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is a functional food from Central America. Interest in it is growing rapidly due to the many health benefits from the seed. However, when chia is grown at high latitudes, seed yield may be low whereas a high stem biomass and immature inflorescences are produced. Little is known about the chemical composition and the properties of stems and flowers. In this work, the metabolite profile, the antioxidant activity, and the total polyphenol content of stems and inflorescences were evaluated in a factorial experiment with different chia populations (commercial black chia and long-day flowering mutants G3, G8, and G17) and irrigation (100% and 50% of evapotranspiration). RESULTS: The results show the influence of irrigation and seed source on the antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content of chia flower and stem. Inflorescences exhibit higher antioxidant activity, suggesting their potential use as natural antioxidant. The mutants G3 and G8, at 50% irrigation, contained the highest amounts of compounds with nutraceutical value, especially within the flower. The mutant G17 showed lower antioxidant activity and polyphenol content compared to other seed sources but exhibited high omega 3 content in flowers but low in stems. This indicates that chia varieties should be chosen according to the objective of cultivation. CONCLUSION: These findings, indicating a close relation of metabolite content with irrigation and seed source, may provide the basis for the use of chia flower and stem for their nutraceutical value in the food, feed, and supplement industries. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Salvia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salvia/metabolismo , Irrigação Agrícola , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , América Central , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Flores/química , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Mutação , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Salvia/química , Salvia/genética , Água/análise , Água/metabolismo
5.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 35(8): e5127, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786845

RESUMO

Salvia limbata is of great importance to the pharmaceutical industry owing to its various biological effects. Therefore, it is important to investigate the main factors that affect its essential oil composition. Although some investigations have been performed with regard to the phytochemistry of S. limbata, this study investigates, for the first time, the effect of growth stage and altitude on the content and chemical composition of essential oil extracted from S. limbata. For this purpose, the essential oil was extracted from 45 air-dried samples by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS and GC-flame methods. The highest content of essential oil was obtained from aerial parts in the vegetative stage at an altitude of 1500 m (0.86% v/w). Our findings show that the vegetative stage at 1500 m is the optimal harvest time to extract the highest content of oil while the highest content of monoterpenes (including α-pinene and ß-pinene) could be obtained in the same phenological stage at 2000 m. By contrast, the content of sesquiterpenes increased to the highest values in the ripening stage at 1500 and 2500 m. The results of this study help to find the optimal conditions to obtain the highest content of S. limbata essential oil, but additional studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Salvia , Altitude , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Monoterpenos/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Salvia/química , Salvia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salvia/metabolismo
6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 257: 117606, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541639

RESUMO

Salvia Mirzaiani essential oil (SMEO) was extracted using hydrodistillation and its GC-MS analysis identified 54 compounds. SMEO nanoemulsion (SMEO-NE) was produced using ultrasound. Then, gum-based films extracted from Cordia dichotoma containing SMEO-NE were prepared at concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 1.5 and 2% (v/v). Addition of SMEO-NE increased thickness, contact angle and elongation at break of the films. It decreased moisture content, water solubility, ultimate tensile strength, water vapor permeability, percentage of light transmission in the visible and ultraviolet range with a significant change in color factors. Formation of new hydrogen bonds between SMEO-NE and film matrix was confirmed by FTIR. Besides, dynamic mechanical-thermal analysis showed a decrease in storage modulus and glass transition temperature of the films. Electron microscope images showed that presence of SMEO-NE led to changes in microstructure of the films. Furthermore, increasing the concentration of SMEO-NE increased antioxidant and antibacterial activity of the films.


Assuntos
Cordia/metabolismo , Filmes Comestíveis , Emulsões/química , Nanopartículas/química , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Salvia/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Embalagem de Alimentos , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica , Permeabilidade , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Vapor , Temperatura , Resistência à Tração
7.
Cells ; 10(1)2021 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435339

RESUMO

Subgenus Perovskia of the extended genus of Salvia comprises several Central Asian medicinal and aromatic species, of which S. yangii and S. abrotanoides are the most widespread. These plants are cultivated in Europe as robust ornamentals, and several cultivars are available. However, their medicinal potential remains underutilized because of limited information about their phytochemical and genetic diversity. Thus, we combined an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) based metabolomics with DNA barcoding approach based on trnH-psbA and ITS2 barcodes to clarify the relationships between these two taxa. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that aerial parts are more similar than roots and none of the major compounds stand out as distinct. Sugiol in S. yangii leaves and carnosic acid quinone in S. abrotanoides were mostly responsible for their chemical differentiation, whereas in roots the distinction was supported by the presence of five norditerpenoids in S. yangii and two flavonoids and one norditerpenoid in S. abrotanoides. To verify the metabolomics-based differentiation, we performed DNA authentication that revealed S. yangii and S. abrotanoides to be very closely related but separate species. We demonstrated that DNA barcoding coupled with parallel LC-MS profiling constitutes a powerful tool in identification of taxonomically close Salvia species.


Assuntos
DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional , Metabolômica , Salvia/metabolismo , Ásia , Sequência de Bases , Funções Verossimilhança , Filogenia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Salvia/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 209: 111851, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421673

RESUMO

The herbal plant Salvia sclarea L. (clary sage) is classified to cadmium (Cd) accumulators and considered as a potential plant for phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soil. However, the effect of Cd only treatment on the function of the photosynthetic apparatus of S. sclarea, as well as the mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance have not yet been studied in detail. This study was conducted to examine the integrative responses of S. sclarea plants exposed to a high Cd supply (100 µM) for 3 and 8 days by investigating element nutrient uptake, oxidative stress markers, pigment composition, photosynthetic performance and leaf structure. Measurements of the functional activities of photosystem I (PSI, by P700 photooxidation), photosystem II (PSII, by chlorophyll fluorescence parameters), the oxygen-evolving complex (oxygen evolution by Joliot- and Clark-type electrodes), as well as the leaf pigment and phenolic contents, were used to evaluate the protective mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus under Cd stress. Data suggested that the molecular mechanisms included in the photosynthetic tolerance to Cd toxicity involve strongly increased phenolic and anthocyanin contents, as well as an increased non-photochemical quenching and accelerated cyclic electron transport around PSI up to 61%, which protect the function of the photosynthetic apparatus under stress. Furthermore, the tolerance of S. sclarea to Cd stress is also associated with increased accumulation of Fe in leaves by 25%. All the above, clearly suggest that S. sclarea plants employ several different mechanisms to protect the function of the photosynthetic apparatus against Cd stress, which are discussed here.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Salvia/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Clorofila/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Salvia/metabolismo , Solo
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(4): 1251-1258, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476164

RESUMO

A case of baled alfalfa hay contaminated with multiple weeds induced hepatotoxicity and death in cattle. The hepatotoxic compounds were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation using a mouse model and identified as salviarin, salvianduline D, rhyacophiline, and 7-hydroxyrhyacophiline. The structure of 7-hydroxyrhyacophiline has not been previously reported. All compounds were found to induce severe acute hepatic necrosis within 24-48 h after a single oral dosage (260-280 mg/kg). The identified diterpenes are known to be found among different Salvia species which led to finding dried plant parts of Salvia reflexa within bales of weedy hay and subsequently a population of S. reflexa was found along the field edges and irrigation ditch banks of the alfalfa hay field. It was thus determined that S. reflexa was responsible for the hepatotoxicity observed in cattle fed the contaminated hay.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/toxicidade , Hepatopatias/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Salvia/toxicidade , Ração Animal/efeitos adversos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/química , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Salvia/química , Salvia/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375193

RESUMO

Five-day exposure of clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.) to 100 µM cadmium (Cd) in hydroponics was sufficient to increase Cd concentrations significantly in roots and aboveground parts and affect negatively whole plant levels of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), since Cd competes for Ca channels, while reduced Mg concentrations are associated with increased Cd tolerance. Total zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) uptake increased but their translocation to the aboveground parts decreased. Despite the substantial levels of Cd in leaves, without any observed defects on chloroplast ultrastructure, an enhanced photosystem II (PSII) efficiency was observed, with a higher fraction of absorbed light energy to be directed to photochemistry (ΦPSΙΙ). The concomitant increase in the photoprotective mechanism of non-photochemical quenching of photosynthesis (NPQ) resulted in an important decrease in the dissipated non-regulated energy (ΦNO), modifying the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS), through a decreased singlet oxygen (1O2) formation. A basal ROS level was detected in control plant leaves for optimal growth, while a low increased level of ROS under 5 days Cd exposure seemed to be beneficial for triggering defense responses, and a high level of ROS out of the boundaries (8 days Cd exposure), was harmful to plants. Thus, when clary sage was exposed to Cd for a short period, tolerance mechanisms were triggered. However, exposure to a combination of Cd and high light or to Cd alone (8 days) resulted in an inhibition of PSII functionality, indicating Cd toxicity. Thus, the rapid activation of PSII functionality at short time exposure and the inhibition at longer duration suggests a hormetic response and describes these effects in terms of "adaptive response" and "toxicity", respectively.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Salvia/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Hormese , Hidroponia/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Fotoquímica , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Salvia/metabolismo
11.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 17(1): 55, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may alter oxidative status and immune function after exercise. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the probable association between n-3 supplementation and physical exercise, observing the variations in markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. METHODS: Thirty-nine subjects of both sexes aged 17-30 years were divided into two groups: 1) (n = 21) trained Athletes; 2) (n = 18) Sedentary subjects. All subjects were given about 4 g/day of n-3 supplementation, rich in EPA and DHA, for 8 weeks. Blood, saliva and urine samples were collected pre- (T0) and post- (T1) supplementation. Hematological parameters (tryglicerides, total cholesterol, HDL, CPK, LDH, HGH, IGF-1), oxidative markers (MDA, 8-OHdG, PCc), antioxidant parameters (GPx, SOD, CAT, DPPH scavenger), exercise-induced stress markers (testosterone and cortisol) and an inflammatory marker (TNF-α) were measured. All tests were two-sided and a p-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: The results showed that MDA and TNF-αmean values significantly decreased after supplementation in both Athletes and Sedentary subjects: variation was greater in Athletes than in Sedentary control subjects. Generally, our results suggested that supplementation with n-3 PUFAs created a synergic variation in the parameters from a baseline state (T0) to a treated state after supplementation (T1), in terms of size and modality, which was significantly different in Athletes compared to Sedentary subjects. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, supplementation with about 4 g/day of n-3 PUFAs, rich in EPA and DHA, for 8 weeks, seemed to be effective in counteracting some parameters involved in oxidative stress and inflammation, induced by acute strenuous physical exercise.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/administração & dosagem , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Corrida/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/urina , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Projetos Piloto , Salvia/metabolismo , Comportamento Sedentário , Testosterona/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/urina , Adulto Jovem
12.
Planta ; 253(1): 2, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247370

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Methyl jasmonate promotes the synthesis of rosmarinic acid in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and Salvia castanea f. tomentosa Stib, and it promotes the latter more strongly. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SMB) is a traditional Chinese medicinal material, its water-soluble phenolic acid component rosmarinic acid has very important medicinal value. Salvia castanea f. tomentosa Stib (SCT) mainly distributed in Nyingchi, Tibet. Its pharmacological effects are similar to SMB, but its rosmarinic acid is significantly higher than the former. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) as an inducer can induce the synthesis of phenolic acids in SMB and SCT. However, the role of MJ on rosmarinic acid in SMB is controversial. Therefore, this study used SMB and SCT hair root as an experimental material and MJ as a variable. On one hand, exploring the controversial reports in SMB; on the other hand, comparing the differences in the mechanism of action of MJ on the phenolic acids in SMB and SCT. The content of related metabolites and the expression of key genes in the synthesis pathway of rosmarinic acid was analyzed by 1H-NMR combined with qRT-PCR technology. Our research has reached the following conclusions: first of all, MJ promotes the accumulation of rosmarinic acid and related phenolic acids in the metabolic pathways of SMB and SCT. After MJ treatment, the content of related components and gene expression are increased. Second, compared to SMB, SCT has a stronger response to MJ. It is speculated that the different responses of secondary metabolism-related genes to MJ may lead to different metabolic responses of salvianolic acid between the two.


Assuntos
Cinamatos , Depsídeos , Raízes de Plantas , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Salvia , Acetatos/farmacologia , Cinamatos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Depsídeos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Salvia/efeitos dos fármacos , Salvia/metabolismo , Salvia miltiorrhiza/efeitos dos fármacos , Salvia miltiorrhiza/metabolismo , Tibet
13.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(11): 8565-8578, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048323

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to reveal the impact of the plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on the growth, effective components accumulation, and related gene expression of the hairy root of Salvia przewalskii Maxim. Various concentrations of SA (0, 25, 50, 100, 200 µM) or MeJA (0, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600 µM) were added to the culture medium of Salvia przewalskii Maxim. Low concentrations of SA promoted the growth of hairy root, while a high concentration inhibited it. 0 to 400 µM MeJA promoted the growth of hairy root, but 600 µM MeJA starts to inhibit its growth. 50 µM SA and 400 µM MeJA significantly enhanced the production of caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone IIA. In general, 50 µM SA can be used to accumulate of tanshinone in hairy roots of S. przewalskii with 6 days. 400 µM MeJA can be used to accumulate of phenolic acids in hairy roots of S. przewalskii with 3 days. The selected genes in the tanshinone and phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway were upregulated with elicitation. To obtain a higher yield and content of secondary metabolites, it is advisable to use 50 µM SA or 400 µM MeJA as the optimal doses to cultivate the hairy root of S. przewalskii. This study provides, for the first time, an efficient tanshinone and phenolic acid production method for S. przewalskii.


Assuntos
Abietanos/biossíntese , Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Salvia/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzofuranos/metabolismo , Ácidos Cafeicos/metabolismo , Cinamatos/metabolismo , Depsídeos/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fenantrenos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Salvia/genética , Salvia/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16392, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009457

RESUMO

Salvinorin A (SA) is a κ-opioid receptor agonist and atypical dissociative hallucinogen found in Salvia divinorum. Despite the resurgence of hallucinogen studies, the effects of κ-opioid agonists on human brain function are not well-understood. This placebo-controlled, within-subject study used functional magnetic resonance imaging for the first time to explore the effects of inhaled SA on strength, variability, and entropy of functional connectivity (static, dynamic, and entropic functional connectivity, respectively, or sFC, dFC, and eFC). SA tended to decrease within-network sFC but increase between-network sFC, with the most prominent effect being attenuation of the default mode network (DMN) during the first half of a 20-min scan (i.e., during peak effects). SA reduced brainwide dFC but increased brainwide eFC, though only the former effect survived multiple comparison corrections. Finally, using connectome-based classification, most models trained on dFC network interactions could accurately classify the first half of SA scans. In contrast, few models trained on within- or between-network sFC and eFC performed above chance. Notably, models trained on within-DMN sFC and eFC performed better than models trained on other network interactions. This pattern of SA effects on human brain function is strikingly similar to that of other hallucinogens, necessitating studies of direct comparisons.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/farmacologia , Alucinógenos/farmacologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Conectoma/métodos , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores Opioides kappa/agonistas , Salvia/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(7): 759-765, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522943

RESUMO

The current investigation reports the chemical composition of volatile organic compounds emitted from the different aerial organs of two populations of Salvia dominica L. from Jordan collected from Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian bio-geographical zones. Oxygenated monoterpenes dominated the emission profiles of most organs from the two populations but with variable qualitative and quantitative differences. Mediterranean samples contained higher content of oxygenated monoterpenes (stems: 88.37%, leaves 89.95%, pre-flowering buds 67.14%, fully opened flowers 79.43%, sepals 90.93% and petals 92.25%) as compared to those from Irano-Turanian origin (range 39.85% to 75.06%). trans-Sabinene hydrate dominated the emission profiles of all organs from Irano-Turanian zone (range 38.54% to 73.24%) in addition to the stem, sepal and petal samples from the Mediterranean zone (51.37% to 86.98%). The other organs from the Mediterranean zone were dominated by α-terpenyl acetate (27.66-54.87%). Cluster and Principle Component statistical analysis classified the two populations into two clusters based on their origin. The current study evidenced the different VOCs composition in the two populations, that was mainly related to climatic and environmental conditions and suggested the presence of two ecotypes of S. dominica L.in Jordan.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Salvia/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/análise , Clima , Meio Ambiente , Jordânia , Monoterpenos/análise , Oxirredução , Salvia/anatomia & histologia , Salvia/classificação
16.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(12): 1781-1790, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383854

RESUMO

Previous structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies identified the first centrally acting, non-nitrogenous µ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist, kurkinorin (1), derived from salvinorin A. In an effort to further probe the physiological effects induced upon activation of MORs with this nonmorphine scaffold, a variety of analogues were synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their ability to activate G-proteins and recruit ß-arrestin-2 upon MOR activation. Through these studies, compounds that are potent agonists at MORs and either biased toward ß-arrestin-2 recruitment or biased toward G-protein activation have been identified. One such compound, 25, has potent activity and selectivity at the MOR over KOR with bias for G-protein activation. Impressively, 25 is over 100× more potent than morphine and over 5× more potent than fentanyl in vitro and elicits antinociception with limited tolerance development in vivo. This is especially significant given that 25 lacks a basic nitrogen and other ionizable groups present in other opioid ligand classes.


Assuntos
Diterpenos Clerodânicos , Diterpenos , Salvia , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides kappa/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides mu/metabolismo , Salvia/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
J Med Food ; 23(3): 224-232, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928474

RESUMO

Childhood obesity is a medical condition of major public health concern. Chia seeds are used to treat certain noncommunicable diseases, and they are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which contribute to the absorption of vitamins. A randomized double-blind clinical trial of 30 obese children was performed. The sample was composed of prepubertal 5- to 10-year-old children of both sexes with body mass indexes equal to or above the 95th percentile who were recruited through the Pediatric Department of the Faculdade de Medicina do ABC. Blood samples were drawn, the children were weighed and measured, and a 24-h dietary recall was obtained before and after the treatment. Not only were significant differences observed for fibrinogen (P = .011) but a correlation between the changes in markers and the presence of fibers was also observed for two inflammatory parameters: tumor necrosis factor-α (P = .027) and nuclear factor-κß (P = .059). These results indicate that chia seeds may have anti-inflammatory effects related to their fiber content in the context of childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Salvia/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/genética , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Salvia/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
18.
J Food Sci ; 85(2): 226-239, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972052

RESUMO

The aim of this review was to compile evidence and understand chia seed effects on unbalanced diet animal studies and the molecular mechanisms on metabolic biomarker modulation. A systematic review was conducted in electronic databases, following PRISMA recommendations. Risk of bias and quality was assessed using SYRCLE toll and ARRIVE guidelines. Seventeen articles were included. Throughout the studies, chia's main effects are associated with AMPK modulation: improvement of glucose and insulin tolerance, lipogenesis, antioxidant activity, and inflammation. Details about randomization and allocation concealment were insufficient, as well as information about blind protocols. Sample size, chia dose, and number of animals evaluated for each parameter were found to be lacking information among the studies. Based on experimental study data, chia has bioactive potential, and its daily consumption may reduce the risk of chronic disease development, mainly due to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic effects of the seed. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The consumption of chia seeds may improve lipid profile, insulin and glucose tolerance, and reduce risk of cardiovascular disease. Whole seed or its oil presents positive effect, but the effects of chia oil can act faster than the seed.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Salvia/metabolismo , Animais , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/química , Camundongos , Ratos , Salvia/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
19.
Meat Sci ; 161: 108021, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809915

RESUMO

The addition of chia seeds and goji puree (2.5 and/or 5%) was evaluated in terms of their effects on the fatty acid profile, lipid peroxidation, total phenols and antioxidant capacity of cooked beef burgers. In comparison to control burgers, polyunsaturated fatty acids doubled or tripled in samples containing chia seeds; polyphenols and antioxidant capacities (ORAC, ABTS, DPPH) increased up to 70% and malondialdehyde values were reduced up to 50% in burgers formulated with both ingredients. Polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation were also assessed after in vitro digestion. A marked increase of polyphenol bioaccessibility and antioxidant capacity was observed for all samples, but also malondialdehyde values were increased after digestion, especially in samples containing 5% chia seeds. Finally, hedonistic tests were conducted on young (18-30 years), adult (31-60 years) and elderly (>60 years) subjects and the burgers resulted acceptable by all groups, appointing to their potential application as functional burgers.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Lycium/metabolismo , Produtos da Carne/análise , Valor Nutritivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Carne Vermelha/análise , Salvia/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Lycium/química , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Salvia/química , Sementes , Adulto Jovem
20.
Chem Biodivers ; 17(2): e1900553, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869516

RESUMO

The aroma emitted from the different organs of two Salvia verbenaca L. populations from Jordan were extracted by Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) and then analyzed by GC/MS. The emission profile of the stem, leaf and sepal samples from the Mediterranean zone (Al-Salt) was dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons (68.0 %, 33.7 %, and 42.2 %, respectively). The emission profile of flowering parts including pre-flowering buds, fully expanded flowers and petals was dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (58.6 %, 59.3 % and 87.1 %, respectively). The major constituent detected in these organs was trans-sabinene hydrate acetate (range 14.5 %-87.0 %). On the other hand, samples collected from Irano-Turanian zone showed different emission patterns. While the stems, leaves and petal emissions were dominated by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (54.9 %, 76.8 % and 52.6 %, respectively), monoterpene hydrocarbons dominated the emission profiles of the pre-flowering buds (75.1 %) and fully expanded flowers (73.6 %). Petals emissions were characterized by high concentrations of oxygenated monoterpenes (58.8 %). Notably, trans-sabinene hydrate dominated most organs emissions except for leaves (range 20.0 %-58.8 %). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA) revealed two different clusters related to the two different geographical zones. The current investigation revealed two ecotypes of S. verbenaca that could result in two different chemotypes. Trans-sabinene hydrate acetate and trans-sabinene hydrate are suggested compounds for identifying these two chemotypes.


Assuntos
Salvia/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Análise por Conglomerados , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Jordânia , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Salvia/metabolismo , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
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