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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(1): e20170831, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916148

RESUMO

Medicinal plants have long been used as an alternative to traditional drugs for the treatment of inflammatory conditions due to the classical side effects and restricted access of various commercially available drugs, such as steroids (GCs) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Sambucus australis is a Brazilian herb that is commonly used to treat inflammatory diseases; however, few studies have examined the use of this species in the treatment of inflammatory conditions. The present study aims to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory activity of S. australis in vitro. We established spleen cell cultures stimulated with pokeweed mitogen (PWM) to evaluate the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-5, IFN-y, and IL-10 (by ELISA), and the expression of the transcription factor NF-kB (by RT-PCR). In addition, we evaluated the levels of nitric oxide in macrophage cultures and the membrane-stabilizing activity of S. australis methanolic extract (EMSA). Treatment with EMSA at concentrations of 100, 50, 25 and 12.5 µg/ml significantly decreased IL-4 (p<0.001) and IL-5 (p<0.001) levels. Treatment with 100 µg/ml EMSA reduced IFN-у (p<0.001) levels. Moreover, at 100 mg/ml, EMSA also increased IL-10 production and reduced NF-kB expression (p<0.01). In macrophage cultures stimulated with LPS, EMSA decreased nitric oxide levels (p<0.001) at all concentrations tested (100, 50, 25 and 12.5 µg/ml). Additionally, EMSA had a protective effect in the erythrocyte membrane stabilization assay. Taken together, these results suggest that S. australis has anti-inflammatory potential in vitro, characterized by the reduction of both inflammatory cytokines and the expression of NF-kB along with the up-regulation of IL-10.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sambucus/química , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , NF-kappa B/análise , Folhas de Planta/química
2.
Food Chem ; 276: 692-699, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409649

RESUMO

In this study, ten strains of Lactobacillus were used to assess the in vitro metabolism of elderberry juice polyphenols. Total polyphenolic compounds increased after starter addition, especially with three L. rhamnosus and one L. plantarum strains, of dairy origin: quercetin-3-O-rutinoside was the most abundant compound (from 39.02 ±â€¯5.28 to 127.56 ±â€¯11.34 µg/mL) and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols and anthocyanins reached the highest amounts. When L. plantarum were used phenyllactic acids presented a value of 7.05 ±â€¯2.38 µg/mL, while in the other samples it was around 5.56 ±â€¯1.65 µg/mL. Hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids were subjected to lactic acid bacteria metabolism: caffeic and protocatechuic acids were consumed during fermentation while dihydrocaffeic acid and catechol were produced. Anthocyanins increased in a strain-specific way. So, by this study we highlighted that dairy strains can produced (phenyllactic acids), modified (hydroxycinnamic acids) or increased (flavonols glycosides and anthocyanins) phenolic compounds.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Sambucus/química , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Cafeicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Cumáricos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Polifenóis/farmacocinética
3.
Parasite Immunol ; 41(1): e12605, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472741

RESUMO

This is the first study aiming to determine the therapeutic effects of the Sambucus ebulus aquatic extract as an antileishmanial herbal drug and evaluate the immune responses in Leishmania major major infected BALB/c mice. The antileishmanial activity of S ebulus aquatic extract was evaluated using MTT test as well as parasite rescue and transformation assay. Footpad swelling and parasite load of infected mice were measured by several techniques. The immune responses were evaluated by measuring the levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, nitric oxide and arginase. The results indicated that S. ebulus can significantly decrease L. major promastigotes and amastigotes viability, but it was not toxic to macrophages. The lesion size, parasite burden and the level of ARG decreased in the treated infected mice, while the IFN-γ-to-IL-4 ratio and the level of NO increased significantly. Altogether, the S. ebulus extract is an effective compound for killing Leishmania parasite without excessive toxicity to the host cells and can cure the CL by switching the host immune responses towards Th1 response. Thus, it may be a perfect therapeutic option for CL treatment.


Assuntos
Leishmania major , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Sambucus/química , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Arginase/sangue , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Leishmaniose Cutânea/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , Carga Parasitária , Fitoterapia
4.
Molecules ; 23(10)2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297646

RESUMO

In our research we used the extract from dietary supplement of elderberry (EE) and its dominant anthocyanin-cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (Cy 3-gluc). By interacting with a model membrane that reflects the main lipid composition of tumor membranes, the extract components, including Cy 3-gluc, caused an increase in packing order, mainly in the hydrophilic region of the membrane. It can thus be stated that EE caused a rigidifying effect, which is fundamental for understanding its anticancer and antioxidant activity. This study represents the first attempt to unravel the mechanism of interaction of elderberry extract with membranes. The results of the interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) proved that the studied substance quenches the fluorescence of HSA through a static mechanism in which the main interaction forces are Van der Waals and hydrogen bonding. The antioxidant activity of EE and Cy 3-gluc on liposomal membranes, antiradical properties and ability to inhibited the activity of the enzymes cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 were also demonstrated. Moreover, the anticancer activity of EE and Cy 3-gluc on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line were investigated. In addition, EE also exhibited the ability to form lipid aggregates in the form of liposomal capsules that can be applied as carriers of active biological substances, and the highest efficacy of EE encapsulation was obtained for multilayered liposome formulations.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Sambucus/química , Antocianinas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/química , Humanos , Ligações de Hidrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Albumina Sérica Humana/antagonistas & inibidores , Albumina Sérica Humana/química
5.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 47(3): 437-464, 2018 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the protective effect of Sambucus willamsii Hance fruit oil on acute liver injury in mice. METHODS: Sixty male mice were randomly divided into six groups: normal control, model, positive control( salvianolic acid A, SAA) and Sambucus Willamsii Hance fruit oil groups( oil-H, oil-M and oil-L). The mice were daily administered Sambucus willamsii Hance fruit oil at the dosage of 2. 0, 4. 0 and 12. 0 g/kg for the groups of oil-L, oil-M, oil-H, respectively, while the same volume of 1% CMC was given to normal control groups and model ones for four weeks. After twenty-four hours from the last administration, the mice( except the normal control group) were injected intraperitoneally with CCl_4( 20 mg/kg). All the mice were sacrificed sixteen hours later, and serum and liver of the mice were collected for biochemical index determination. RESULTS: The result showed that compared with the model group, the serum aspartate aminotransferase( AST) and alanine aminotransferase( ALT) levels in the Sambucus willamsii Hance fruit oil groups decreased significantly( P < 0. 05). MDA levels reduced( P < 0. 05), while SOD and GSH-Px level increased( P < 0. 05). Moreover, the improvement effect of the above indexes was not different from that of the positive control group( P > 0. 05). CONCLUSION: Therefore, moderate intake of Sambucus willamsii Hance fruit oil exhibits a significantly protective effect on acute liver injury in mice.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Frutas/química , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Sambucus/química , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem
6.
Histol Histopathol ; 33(9): 979-986, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29683470

RESUMO

Ebulin f is a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) present in green fruits of the dwarf elder (Sambucus ebulus L). Since dwarf elder fruits are used for food and as a medicine, we assessed the study of toxicological effects and safety of ebulin f in elderly mice, comparing these results with those reported in young animals and with other RIPs. Female Swiss mice aged 6 and 12 months of age were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose from 1.4 to 4.5 mg/kg ebulin f. Heart, stomach, intestines, lung, kidney, liver, spleen, pancreas, adrenal gland, uterus, ovary and brain were studied. Histology analysis was carried out by staining with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome observed with a light microscope, or apoptosis detection by TUNEL method observed with a confocal laser microscope. Treated animals injected with the lower dose could recover their weights, but after 14 days half of them died. The higher dose caused a progressive loss of body weight leading to death. In the animals of the experimental groups it was found atrophy of Lieberkühn's crypts, pneumonia, nephronal degeneration, myocardial atrophy, centrolobular hepatic necrosis, splenic white pulp necrosis foci and increased rate of apoptosis in the intestines and liver, in which apoptoses were mainly located in the vicinity of the lobular central vein. We conclude that ebulin f affects vital organs in elderly mice.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Proteínas Inativadoras de Ribossomos Tipo 2/toxicidade , Animais , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Sambucus/química
7.
Food Sci Technol Int ; 24(4): 361-369, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29409346

RESUMO

This main focus of this study was to evaluate the thermal degradation kinetics and the phytochemical characterization of the elderberries extract. Pelargonidin-3-sophoroside and delphinidin-3-glucoside were identified as the major anthocyanin compounds and catechin hydrate as the major flavonoid compound. In order to further understand the action of the heat treatment on the bioactive compounds from elderberry extract, fluorescence studies were also carried out. In general, heating at temperatures ranging from 100 to 150 ℃ for up to 90 min caused a decrease in fluorescence intensity, simultaneously with significant redshifts in λmax suggesting important molecular changes inside the anthocyanins structure, affecting the antioxidant activity. Increasing the heating time up to 120 min, the elderberry extract peaked at about 88 nm shifted toward higher wavelengths with respect to that of untreated solutions (peak at 442 nm). The kinetics studies of anthocyanins, fluorescence intensity, and antioxidant activity evidenced a decrease of the degradation rate constants with increased temperature while the activation energies for heat-induced fluorescence intensity, monomeric anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were 39.62 ± 9.60, 49.97 ± 5.61, and 31.04 ± 19.92 kJ/mol, respectively. Our results can be valuable in terms of establishing the appropriate processing and formulation protocols that could lead to a more efficient utilization of these pigments in actual food products and/or nutraceuticals.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Sambucus/química , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Glucosídeos/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise
8.
Nat Prod Res ; 32(17): 2008-2016, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28783968

RESUMO

Chemical investigation of Chinese folk medicine Sambucus williamsii Hance has resulted in the isolation and characterisation of seventeen compounds from the n-BuOH extract of its fruits, including two new phenylethanoid glycosides and fifteen known compounds. Structures of new compounds were elucidated primarily on the basis of their extensive spectroscopic data including 2D NMR. In addition, the n-BuOH extract from the fruits of S. williamsii was found to show a protective effect on D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes. So the hepatoprotective effects of principal constituents from it were tested by MTT assays. The results showed that Compounds 13, 16 and 17 displayed hepatoprotective effects.


Assuntos
Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sambucus/química , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Frutas/química , Galactosamina/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicosídeos/química , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Substâncias Protetoras/isolamento & purificação , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Análise Espectral
9.
J Mass Spectrom ; 53(1): 58-64, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28960779

RESUMO

The ability to rapidly identify and quantitate, over a wide range of concentrations, anthocyanins in food and therapeutic products is important to ensuring their presence at medicinally significant levels. Sensitive, yet mild, analysis conditions are required given their susceptibility to degradation and transformation. Paper spray ionization has been used to detect and quantify the levels of anthocyanin levels in extracts of fresh and dried elderberries, and elderberry stems, as well as 3 commercially available nutraceutical formulations. The component cyanidin glucosides, including cyanidin-3-sambubioside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin-3-sambubioside-5-glucoside, and the aglycone cyanidin, were readily detected in a range of sources. Quantitation was achieved by establishing a calibration plot from dilutions of a stock solution of cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside containing malvidin-3,5-diglucoside as an internal standard at a fixed concentration. The same standard was used to quantify the anthocyanin content in the fruit and nutraceutical formulations. Wide 5-fold variations in anthocyanin concentration were detected in the nutraceutical formulations from different suppliers ranging from 1050 to 5430 mg/100 g. These concentrations compared with 500 to 2370 mg/100 g measured in the dried stems and fruit, respectively.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Sambucus/química , Antocianinas/química , Cromatografia em Papel , Frutas/química , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 89(3 Suppl): 2141-2154, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28876381

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and antigenotoxic activity of Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl. aqueous extracts on the cell cycle of Allium cepa L. as well as determine the phenolic compounds in such extracts. S. australis inflorescences and leaves of two accessions were used for aqueous extract preparation at concentrations: 0.003 g/ml and 0.012 g/ml. A. cepa bulbs were rooted in distilled water and, subsequently, placed in treatments for 24 hours. Rootlets were collected and fixed in modified Carnoy's solution for 24 hours and kept. The squash technique was performed for slide preparation. Root tips were smashed and stained with 2% acetic orcein, and a total of 4000 cells per treatment were analyzed. The phenolic compounds were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and data was analyzed using the Scott-Knott test. The results show that S. australis aqueous extracts have antiproliferative potential. Besides, the extracts prepared from S. australis leaves of both accessions at a concentration of 0.012 g/ml have shown antigenotoxic activity. The phytochemical analysis allowed us to determine the presence of flavonoids and phenolic acids, of which kaempferol and chrologenic acid were the most predominant compounds in the extracts from the inflorescences and leaves, respectively.


Assuntos
Adoxaceae/química , Flavonoides/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Sambucus/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Água/análise
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 206: 347-352, 2017 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28606808

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The leaves of Sambucus ebulus L. (Adoxaceae) are widely used in Turkish folk medicine particularly against inflammatory disorders. The fresh leaves after wilted over fire or the poultices prepared are directly applied externally to heal burns, edema, eczema, urticarial and abscess. Two iridoids were recently isolated (sambulin A, sambulin B) from the leaves of S. ebulus. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to investigate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of these iridoids on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Raw 264.7 macrophages were treated with 12.5, 25 and 50µg/ml Sambulin A and 6.25, 12.5 and 25µg/ml Sambulin B and induced with 1µg/ml lipopolysaccaharides (LPS). Effect of the compounds on nitric oxide (NO) production and cytokines (TNFα, IL-6) were determined by Griess and ELISA assays respectively. iNOS and the phosphorylation levels of MAPKs (ERK, JNK) were examined by Western Blot. RESULTS: Sambulin A and sambulin B inhibited 52.82% and 72.88% of NO production at 50 and 25µg/ml concentrations respectively. The levels of iNOS were significantly decreased by both molecules, sambulin B at 25µg/ml almost completely decreased iNOS levels (97.53%). Both molecules significantly inhibited TNFα productions. However, only sambulin B inhibited IL-6 production. Consequently, it was shown that sambulin B exerted its effect through the inhibition of ERK and JNK phosphorylations. CONCLUSION: The prominent bioactivities exerted by two iridoids will contribute to explanation of the usage of S. ebulus in traditional medicine against rheumatoid diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Iridoides/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Sambucus/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Fosforilação , Folhas de Planta/química
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(20): 4044-4050, 2017 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28475841

RESUMO

The cultivation of American elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis) continues to increase as the use of this botanical has expanded. Elderberries contain a variety of polyphenols, including anthocyanins, which have purported health benefits. However, information is lacking regarding the impact of environmental, management, and genotypic factors on the quantity and type of polyphenols and anthocyanins produced. Quantification of 16 polyphenols including eight anthocyanins present in juice from three genotypes of American elderberry grown at two Missouri sites from 2013 to 2014 was performed. Large variances in anthocyanin and other polyphenol content were observed between the different harvest seasons, locations, and genotypes. Although specific phytochemical trends due to those factors were not apparent, a discriminant analysis was able to correctly identify 45 of 48 juice samples by genotype, based on their polyphenol profiles. This type of characterization could be beneficial in elderberry authentication studies and to help develop and document high-quality dietary supplement products with specific phytochemical contents.


Assuntos
Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/análise , Sambucus/química , Análise Discriminante , Frutas/química , Frutas/classificação , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genótipo , Missouri , Sambucus/classificação , Sambucus/genética , Sambucus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med ; 22(4): 996-1001, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28397551

RESUMO

Dwarf elder ( Sambucus ebulus L) is one of the best known medicinal herbs since ancient times. In view of its benefits as a widely applicable phytomedicine, it is still used in folk medicine of different parts of the world. In addition to its nutritional values, dwarf elder contains different phytochemicals among which flavonoids and lectins are responsible for most of its therapeutic effects. Dwarf elder has been used for different ailments including: joint pains, cold, wounds, and infections. Nevertheless, recent evidence has revealed its potentials for making attempts at treating cancer and metabolic disorders. This review aimed to provide a comprehensive description of dwarf elder regarding its traditional uses and modern findings which may contribute to the development of novel natural-based therapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia , Sambucus , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sambucus/química , Sambucus/toxicidade
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(3)2017 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28282861

RESUMO

Modulation of complement activity and inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production by macrophages and dendritic cells may have therapeutic value in inflammatory diseases. Elderberry and elderflower extracts, constituents, and metabolites were investigated for their effects on the complement system, and on NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages and murine dendritic D2SC/I cells. The EtOH crude extracts from elderberry and elderflower and the isolated anthocyanins and procyanidins possessed strong complement fixating activity and strong inhibitory activity on NO production in RAW cells and dendritic cells. Phenolic compounds in the range of 0.1-100 µM showed a dose-dependent inhibition of NO production, with quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol as the most potent ones. Among the metabolites, caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effects on NO production in both cell lines, without having cytotoxic effect. Only 4-methylcatechol was cytotoxic at the highest tested concentration (100 µM). Elderberry and elderflower constituents may possess inflammatory modulating activity, which increases their nutritional value.


Assuntos
Ativação do Complemento/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sambucus/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fracionamento Químico , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Flavonoides , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
15.
Nutr Cancer ; 69(4): 643-651, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28323490

RESUMO

In Europe, both the fruits and flowers of Sambucus nigra L. have been used against cold, as well as laxative, diaphoretic, and diuretic remedies. There are also a number of commercially available food products that contain elderberry juice, puréed or dried elderberries. Recent comprehensive literature data on pharmacology and chemistry of Sambuci fructus have encouraged us to screen extracts with different polarities from this plant material against cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of the ethyl acetate and aqueous acetone extracts from elderberries as well as detected triterpenoids on human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (LoVo) and human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) was investigated by sulforhodamine B assay. Moreover, cell migration assay was conducted for triterpenoid fraction and pure compounds. Aqueous acetone extract possessed much lower IC50 value in cancer cell lines compared to ethyl acetate extract. The latter manifested high cytotoxicity against studied cell lines, suggesting that nonpolar compounds are responsible for the cytotoxic activity. Indeed, the phytochemical analysis revealed that ursolic and oleanolic acids are the main triterpenoids in the mentioned extract of which ursolic acid showed the highest activity with IC50 values of 10.7 µg/mL on MCF-7 and 7.7 µg/mL on LoVo cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sambucus/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Acetatos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Células MCF-7/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Oleanólico/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Triterpenos/análise , Triterpenos/química
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(13): 2677-2685, 2017 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28303711

RESUMO

Uptake of glucose and fatty acids in skeletal muscle is of interest for type 2 diabetes treatment. The aim was to study glucose and fatty acid uptake in skeletal muscle cells, antioxidant effects, and inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes by elderberries. Enhanced glucose and oleic acid uptake in human skeletal muscle cells were observed after treatment with phenolic elderberry extracts, anthocyanins, procyanidins, and their metabolites. The 96% EtOH and the acidified MeOH extracts were highly active. Of the isolated substances, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside showed highest stimulation of uptake. Phloroglucinol aldehyde was most active among the metabolites. Isolated anthocyanins and procyanidins are strong radical scavengers and are good inhibitors of 15-lipoxygenase and moderate inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. As α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors, they are considerably better than the positive control acarbose. The antidiabetic property of elderberry phenolics increases the nutritional value of this plant and indicates potential as functional food against diabetes.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Biflavonoides/metabolismo , Catequina/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Sambucus/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Biflavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Catequina/isolamento & purificação , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos Oculomotores/citologia , Músculos Oculomotores/metabolismo , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Proantocianidinas/isolamento & purificação , Sambucus/química , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pharm Biol ; 55(1): 991-997, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28166708

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl. (Adoxaceae) is used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat inflammatory disorders. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of S. australis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extracts of the leaf and bark of S. australis (1-100 µg/mL) were studied in lipopolysaccharide/interferon γ stimulated murine macrophages RAW 264.7 cells (24 h incubation) by investigating the release of nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and in the TNF-α-induced nuclear factor kappa (NF-κB) assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the microdilution test (24 h incubation). Antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and the NO scavenging assays. Chemical composition was assessed by LC-MS/MS. RESULTS: Antioxidant activities in the DPPH (IC50 43.5 and 66.2 µg/mL), FRAP (IC50 312.6 and 568.3 µg/mL) and NO radical scavenging assays (IC50 285.0 and 972.6 µg/mL) were observed in the leaf and bark ethanol extracts, respectively. Solely the leaf extract showed significant inhibition of NO and TNF-α production in RAW264.7 cells at concentrations of 2 and 100 µg/mL, respectively, and suppression of TNF-α inhibition of NF-κB by 12.8 and 20.4% at concentrations of 50 and 100 µg/mL, respectively. The extract also exhibited antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 250 µg/mL) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (MIC 250 µg/mL). LC-MS/MS revealed the presence of chlorogenic acid and rutin as major compounds. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the ethanol leaf extract of S. australis exhibit prominent anti-inflammatory effects.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Sambucus/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Cloretos/química , Ácido Clorogênico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Etanol/química , Compostos Férricos/química , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Klebsiella pneumoniae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Fitoterapia , Picratos/química , Casca de Planta , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta , Plantas Medicinais , Células RAW 264.7 , Rutina/isolamento & purificação , Rutina/farmacologia , Salmonella typhimurium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solventes/química , Células Swiss 3T3 , Transfecção , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
18.
Oncotarget ; 8(26): 42238-42251, 2017 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28178684

RESUMO

Anoikis is a form of anchorage-dependent apoptosis, and cancer cells adopt anokis-resistance molecular machinery to conduct metastasis. Here, we report that N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V gene expression confers anoikis resistance during cancer progression. Overexpression of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V protected detached cancer cells from apoptotic death, and suppression or knockout of the gene sensitized cancer cells to the apoptotic death. The gene expression also stimulated anchorage-dependent as well as anchorage-independent colony formation of cancer cells following anoikis stress treatments. Importantly, treatment with the lectin from Sambucus sieboldiana significantly sensitized anoikis-induced cancer cell deaths in vitro as well as in vivo. We propose that the lectin alone or an engineered form could offer a new therapeutic treatment option for cancer patients with advanced tumors.


Assuntos
Anoikis/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/metabolismo , Lectinas de Plantas/farmacologia , Sambucus/química , Animais , Anoikis/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Camundongos , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/genética , Metástase Neoplásica , Transcriptoma , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Pol J Microbiol ; 66(4): 463-472, 2017 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29319517

RESUMO

The scope of the experiments included analysis of the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic, methanolic and aqueous extracts against bacterial and fungal cultures and determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration of plant extracts tested microbial growth. Analysis of the antifungal and antibacterial activity was carried out by the disc diffusion method using paper discs. In the experiment 11 species of microorganisms - 8 bacterial and 3 fungal strains were used. The highest antimicrobial activity against the tested strains was demonstrated by black elder (Sambucus nigra L.), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) extracts. The study showed the diverse morphological activity of specific parts of elderberry and quince, which is the effect of different polyphenolic profile of these plants. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis showed the highest sensitivity to the effect of extracts of the analysed plants. As a positive control three antibiotics - amphotericin B, vancomycin and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid were used.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Robinia/química , Sambucus/química , Vaccinium vitis-Idaea/química
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 97(8): 2657-2663, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27739084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A diet rich in fruit, vegetables and juices is associated with health benefit and reduced risk of certain civilization diseases. Antioxidant properties depend mainly on the total content of polyphenols and their composition. The aim of this study was to perform a multidimensional comparative analysis of phenolic compounds of organic juices with high antioxidant capacity (chokeberry, elderberry, cranberry, pomegranate). RESULTS: All the analyzed juices were a rich source of phenolic compounds. Chokeberry juices had the highest total polyphenol content (up to 7900 mg GAE L-1 ). These juices as well as pomegranate juice were characterized by the highest antioxidant capacity (∼5000 mg Trolox equivalents L-1 ). Other samples had lower total polyphenols content and total antioxidant capacity. Multidimensional analysis of the profiles of phenolic compounds showed that chokeberry juices differ from the other juices. Cranberry and pomegranate juices were similar to each other, and elderberry juice was closer to these samples than to chokeberry. The predominant polyphenols of chokeberry juices were anthocyanins (especially cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyanidin-3-arabinoside) and phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acid). Elderberry juice was an exception by having flavonols (quercetin derivatives) as the principal compounds. CONCLUSION: Chokeberry juices were characterized by the highest antioxidant properties, which predispose them to further clinical research concerning the supporting cardiovascular disease prophylaxis. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Alimentos Orgânicos/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Frutas/química , Lythraceae/química , Sambucus/química
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