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1.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; mayo 11, 2020. 4 p.
Não convencional em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096872

RESUMO

Esta ficha contiene indicadores y estándares mínimos necesarios para la respuesta a la emergencia en los siguientes temas: cantidad de agua, acceso al agua, calidad del agua, saneamiento, higiene, residuos sólidos, limpieza y desinfección, así como dosificaciones para la preparación de soluciones desinfectantes utilizando hipoclorito de sodio.


This technical note contains indicators and minimum standards necessary for emergency response in the following topics: quantity of water, access to water, quality of water, sanitation, hygiene, solid waste, cleaning and disinfection, as well as dosages for the preparation of solutions disinfectants using sodium hypochlorite.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Qualidade da Água/normas , Higiene , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Saneamento Básico/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Serviços Públicos de Saúde/normas
2.
New York; GBM; 2019.
Não convencional em Espanhol | ODS | ID: biblio-1046840

RESUMO

A nivel mundial, 2400 millones de personas carecen de acceso a servicios de saneamiento mejorados. El Grupo Banco Mundial se compromete a responder a los desafíos en materia de saneamiento, tales como eliminar la práctica de la defecación al aire libre y mejorar la prestación de servicios.


Assuntos
Humanos , Saneamento Básico/organização & administração , Saneamento Básico/políticas , Riscos Ambientais
3.
Geneve; WHO; 2018. 220 p.
Monografia em Inglês, Espanhol, Francês | ODS | ID: biblio-1046859

RESUMO

Safe sanitation is essential for health, from preventing infection to improving and maintaining mental and social well-being. The lack of safe sanitation contributes to diarrhoea, a major public health concern and a leading cause of disease and death among children under five years in low- and middle- income countries; poor sanitation also contributes to several neglected tropical diseases, as well as broader adverse outcomes such as undernutrition. Lack of access to suitable sanitation facilities is also a major cause of risks and anxiety, especially for women and girls. For all these reasons, sanitation that prevents disease and ensures privacy and dignity has been recognized as a basic human right. Sanitation is defined as access to and use of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces. A safe sanitation system is a system designed and used to separate human excreta from human contact at all steps of the sanitation service chain from toilet capture and containment through emptying, transport, treatment (in-situ or off-site) and final disposal or end use. Safe sanitation systems must meet these requirements in a manner consistent with human rights, while also addressing co-disposal of greywater, associated hygiene practices and essential services required for the functioning of technologies.


El saneamiento seguro es esencial para la salud, desde la prevención de la infección hasta la mejora y el mantenimiento del bienestar mental y social. La carencia de saneamiento seguro contribuye a la diarrea, una de las mayores preocupaciones de salud pública y una de las principales causas de enfermedad y muerte entre los niños menores de cinco años en los países de ingresos bajos y medios; el saneamiento deficiente también contribuye a la aparición de varias enfermedades tropicales desatendidas y al surgimiento de resultados adversos más amplios, como la desnutrición. La falta de acceso a instalaciones de saneamiento adecuadas, también es una de las principales causas de riesgo y ansiedad, especialmente para las mujeres y las niñas. Por todas estas razones, el saneamiento que previene la enfermedad y garantiza la privacidad y la dignidad ha sido reconocido como un derecho humano básico. El saneamiento se define como el acceso y uso de instalaciones y servicios para la eliminación segura de la orina y las heces humanas. Un sistema de saneamiento seguro es un sistema diseñado y utilizado para evitar el contacto de las excretas humanas con las personas, en todas las etapas de la cadena de servicios de saneamiento, desde la contención en el inodoro, hasta el vaciado, transporte, tratamiento, (in situ o fuera del sitio) su recepción en los inodoros y su contención a través del vaciado, transporte, tratamiento (in situ o fuera del sitio), hasta su uso y/o disposición final. Los sistemas de saneamiento seguro deben cumplir estos requisitos de manera consistente con los derechos humanos, al tiempo que abordan la codisposición de las aguas grises, l


L'assainissement sûr est essentiel à la santé, de la prévention des infections à l'amélioration et au maintien du bien-être mental et social. L'absence d'assainissement sûr contribue à la survenue de maladies diarrhéiques, lesquelles constituent un problème majeur de santé publique et la principale cause de mortalité chez les enfants de moins de cinq ans dans les pays à revenu faible ou intermédiaire ; un mauvais assainissement contribue à plusieurs maladies tropicales négligées et entraîne des effets indésirables plus généraux comme la sous-nutrition. Le manque d'accès à des installations d'assainissement appropriées est également une cause majeure de risque et d'anxiété, en particulier pour les femmes et les filles. Pour toutes ces raisons, l'assainissement qui prévient les maladies et garantit le respect de la vie privée et la dignité a été reconnu comme un droit humain fondamental. L'assainissement est défini comme l'accès et l'utilisation d'installations et de services pour l'évacuation sûre de l'urine et des excréments humains. Un système d'assainissement sûr est un système conçu et utilisé pour éviter empêcher tout contact entre les utilisateurs et les excreta à toutes les étapes de la chaîne d'assainissement à savoir de la collecte à partir des toilettes et du confinement à la vidange, au transport, au traitement (sur site ou hors site), à leur élimination ou utilisation finale. es systèmes d'assainissement sûrs doivent répondre à ces exigences tout en respectant les droits humains, prennant en compte également l'évacuation mixte des eaux usées, les pratiques d'hygiène et les services essentiels nécessaires au fonctionnement des technologies


Assuntos
Saneamento Básico/educação , Saneamento Básico/organização & administração , Saneamento Básico/políticas , Saúde Ambiental/organização & administração , Riscos Ambientais
4.
s.l; AAN Associates; Dec. 18, 2017. 296 p.
Monografia em Inglês | ODS | ID: biblio-1025799

RESUMO

Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world. With population of 252 million from 360 ethnic groups, Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world. Reportedly, the country managed to meet the water related Millennium Development Goals (MDG) targets, however fell short of achieving ones for sanitation1. To accelerate access to basic sanitation the Government of Indonesia (GoI) launched a national sanitation programme called "Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat"2 in 2010 (henceforth referred to as the STBM programme). UNICEF Indonesia Country Office (henceforth, 'UNICEF' refers to the Indonesia Country Office unless otherwise indicated) is one of the key and longstanding partners extending support to the Government of Indonesia (GOI) for water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)sector. UNICEF, with assistance from Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) has been implementing a two-country programme i.e. Malawi and Indonesia, named 'Scaling-up and Strengthening Community Approaches to Total Sanitation', since 2013. 'UNICEF-BMGF Sanitation Programme in Indonesia' (also referred to as UNICEF support to STBM) is part of this cross-regional partnership. Initially, the programme was planned for three (03) years i.e. 2013-15, however later extended for two more years i.e. November 30, 2017. UNICEF-BMGF Sanitation Programme in Indonesia (2013-17) is object of this 'Endline or End of Programme Evaluation'. The readers may note that it is titled as 'Endline Evaluation Survey' in the evaluation TORs, however this remains an 'End of Programme or Ex-post Evaluation'. The report offers an overview of the 'National STBM Programme', which this UNICEF-BMGF programme set out to strengthen and accelerate delivery.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Saneamento Básico/organização & administração , Políticas Públicas de Saúde , Indonésia
5.
s.l; AEA; May 19, 2017.
Não convencional em Inglês | ODS | ID: biblio-1025693

RESUMO

We study the effect of social and financial incentives on communities' ability to overcome collective action problems. Our specific context is a sample of 107 villages (approximately 19,000 households) in rural Bangladesh, and the collective action problem we study is investment in hygienic latrines and their subsequent maintenance and use. We randomized (1) whether and what type of incentive was provided ­ a financial reward or a non-financial "social recognition" reward, and (2) whether and what type of verbal commitment the households were encouraged to make ­ a private pledge vs. a public pledge. We measure short-term (3 months) and medium-term (12-15 months) effects, and investigate the mechanisms behind the effects.


Assuntos
Latrinas (Saúde Ambiental)/métodos , Saneamento Básico/organização & administração , Bangladesh
6.
New Delhi; 3ie; 2017. 519 p.
Monografia em Inglês | ODS | ID: biblio-1024897

RESUMO

This systematic review shows which promotional approaches are effective in changing handwashing and sanitation behaviour and which implementation factors affect the success or failure of such interventions. The authors find that promotional approaches can be effective in terms of handwashing with soap, latrine use, safe faeces disposal and open defecation. No one specific approach is most effective. However, several promotional elements do induce behaviour change. Different barriers and facilitators that influence implementing promotional approaches should be carefully considered when developing new policy, programming, practice, or research in this area.


Assuntos
Humanos , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Saneamento Básico/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
s.l; 3ie; 2017.
Não convencional em Inglês | ODS | ID: biblio-1025697

RESUMO

The study explores the role that informational constraints and inadequate facilities play in driving the willingness to pay (WTP) for access to community toilets and their use in the context of Indian slums.


Assuntos
Toaletes , Saneamento Básico/organização & administração , Áreas de Pobreza
8.
Trials ; 172016.
Artigo em Inglês | ODS | ID: biblio-1026080

RESUMO

Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of death, killing 1.3 million in 2013 across the globe, of whom, 0.59 million were children under 5 years of age. Globally, about 1 billion people practice open defecation, and an estimated 2.4 billion people were living without improved sanitation facilities in 2015. Much of the previous research investigating the effect of improved sanitation has been based on observational studies. Recent studies have executed a cluster-randomized controlled trial to investigate the effect of improved sanitation. However, none of these recent studies achieved a sufficient level of latrine coverage. Without universal or at least a sufficient level of latrine coverage, a determination of the effect of improved latrines on the prevention of diarrheal disease is difficult.


Assuntos
Humanos , Toaletes , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Saneamento Básico/organização & administração , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Etiópia
9.
s.l; AEA; Oct. 02, 2015.
Não convencional em Inglês | ODS | ID: biblio-1026116

RESUMO

Public health externalities from unhygienic sanitation remain a significant development challenge, even in areas where hygienic latrines are accessible or affordable. Our partner, Sanergy has created a network of hygienic latrines in Nairobi. However, as with many other technical solutions to a range of development problems, widespread adoption of this "clean toilet" option has been a challenge. Barriers such as distance, cost, long queues, or lack of understanding of health risks may preclude individuals from choosing the sanitation option that may be better from a public health point of view. We also hypothesize that behaviors like open defecation may persist because they represent ingrained habits that are difficult to change. Inspired by findings from psychology and neuroscience, we propose field experiments that are designed to instill a revised habit of community toilet use among the slum population of Nairobi. Habit loops have been successfully created by private sector firms to increase demand for many household products and behaviors such as brushing regularly with Pepsodent toothpaste, or spraying Febreze air freshener. We propose to create such a loop for Sanergy toilets using a combination of economic incentives and a marketing campaign that is attentive to psychological cues and rewards. The experiments are designed to separate habit formation from other closely related models of risk aversion and learning.


Assuntos
Humanos , Latrinas (Saúde Ambiental) , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Saneamento Básico/organização & administração , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração
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