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1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(3): 289-293, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187934

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the levels of Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Mn, and Se in maternal and umbilical cord blood, and to explore the transplacental transfer efficiency (TTE). Methods: From September 2010 to December 2013, a total of 773 pregnant women and their newborns (Laizhou Bay Birth Cohort) were recruited from a second grade hospital in the south bank of Laizhou Bay, Bohai, Shandong Province. According to different detection methods, the six measured elements are classified into three groups including the Hg measurement group (595 mother-newborn pairs), the Pb measurement group (534 mother-newborn pairs), and the Cd, As, Mn and Se measurement group (244 mother-newborn pairs). The demographic characteristics of pregnant women and their newborns were obtained by the questionnaire. The concentrations of elements in maternal and umbilical cord blood were detected and the TTE of each element (elemental concentration in cord blood/elemental concentration in maternal blood) was calculated. The correlation of elements between maternal and cord blood was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results: The mean±SD of maternal age, gestational week and newborn birth weight of 773 mother-infant pairs were (28.34±4.50) years, (39.47±1.39) weeks and (3 419.47±497.39) g respectively. The median concentrations of Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Mn and As in maternal and cord blood were 31.12 and 30.02, 1.19 and 0.47, 8.05 and 6.03, 0.69 and 1.26, 100.70 and 105.55, 127.25 and 115.00 µg/L, respectively. The TTE of Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Mn, and Se was 0.98, 0.41, 0.73, 1.73, 0.96 and 0.91, respectively. Pb, Cd, Hg, Mn, and Se showed a significant positive correlation between maternal blood and cord blood, with Spearman correlation coefficients of 0.397, 0.298, 0.698, 0.555, and 0.285 (all P values<0.001). Conclusion: Each element was commonly detected in maternal blood and cord blood. The TTE of Hg was the highest.


Assuntos
Cádmio/sangue , Sangue Fetal/química , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Chumbo/sangue , Manganês/sangue , Troca Materno-Fetal , Mercúrio/sangue , Selênio/sangue , Cordão Umbilical/química , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Oligoelementos/análise , Oligoelementos/sangue , Cordão Umbilical/irrigação sanguínea
2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229079, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069319

RESUMO

AIM: To analyse i) the association of physical fitness during early second trimester and late pregnancy with maternal and neonatal outcomes; and ii) to investigate whether physical fitness is associated with the type of birth (vaginal or caesarean section). METHODS: Pregnant women from the GESTAFIT Project (n = 159) participated in this longitudinal study. Maternal physical fitness including upper- and lower-body strength, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and flexibility were measured through objective physical fitness tests at the 16th and 34th gestational weeks. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were collected from obstetric medical records. Umbilical arterial and venous blood gas pH and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) and oxygen (PO2), were assessed. RESULTS: At the 16th week, greater upper-body muscle strength was associated with greater neonatal birth weight (r = 0.191, p<0.05). Maternal flexibility was associated with a more alkaline arterial pH (r = 0.220, p<0.05), higher arterial PO2 (r = 0.237, p<0.05) and lower arterial PCO2 (r = -0.331, p<0.01) in umbilical cord blood. Maternal CRF at the 16th gestational week was related to higher arterial umbilical cord PO2 (r = 0.267, p<0.05). The women who had caesarean sections had lower CRF (p<0.001) at the 16th gestational week and worse clustered overall physical fitness, both at the 16th (-0.227, p = 0.003, confidence interval (CI): -0.376, -0.078) and 34th gestational week (-0.223; p = 0.018; CI: -0.432, -0.015) compared with the women who had vaginal births. CONCLUSION: Increasing physical fitness during pregnancy may promote better neonatal outcomes and is associated with a decrease in the risk of caesarean section. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02582567) on October 20, 2015.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Gravidez/fisiologia , Adulto , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Oxigênio/análise , Pressão Parcial , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez/fisiologia , Autorrelato
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 191: 110235, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986458

RESUMO

Six parabens and their four metabolites were measured in paired maternal serum (MS) and cord serum (CS) samples collected from 95 pregnant women to elucidate placental transfer of this class of compounds. Matched maternal urine (MU) and amniotic fluid (AF) collected from 13 of 95 pregnant women were also analyzed to examine partition of these chemicals between maternal and fetal tissues. The placental transfer rates (PTRs; concentration ratio of parabens between CS and MS) of methyl- (MeP), ethyl- (EtP), propyl-parabens (PrP) were 0.81, 0.63, and 0.60, respectively. Furthermore, the PTRs of OH-MeP (0.93) and OH-EtP (1.8) were higher than those of their corresponding parent parabens, which suggested that hydroxylation increased placental transfer rates of parabens. Structure-dependent placental transfer mechanisms were observed. A significant negative correlation between molecular weights (or log Kow) of MeP, EtP, PrP, and p-hydroxy benzoic acid (4-HB) and PTRs suggested passive diffusion as a mechanism of placental transfer of these chemicals. Nevertheless, other hydroxylated metabolites (OH-EtP, OH-MeP, and 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid (3,4-DHB)) showed a positive correlation between molecular weight (or log Kow) and PTRs, which suggested that the placental transfer is mediated by protein binding of these metabolites. The MU to MS concentration ratios of MeP (MU/MSMeP) and PrP (MU/MSPrP) were 71 and 81, respectively, and MU/MSMeP was two orders of magnitude higher than that found for the metabolite (MU/MSOH-MeP: 0.35), suggesting that hydroxylation metabolite reduced urinary elimination of parabens. To our knowledge, this is the first time to report the occurrence and distribution of parabens and their metabolites in paired maternal-fetal serum, urine, and AF samples in China. Our results provide novel information on placental transfer of parabens and their metabolites.


Assuntos
Líquido Amniótico/química , Sangue Fetal/química , Exposição Materna , Troca Materno-Fetal , Parabenos/análise , Placenta/química , Líquido Amniótico/metabolismo , China , Cosméticos , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Humanos , Parabenos/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez
4.
Int J Occup Environ Med ; 11(1): 15-23, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Birth weight is very important for long-term physical, mental, health, and brain development. Pesticide exposure is thought to interfere with fetal growth, among others, through disruption of the function of the insulin-like growth hormone-1 (IGF-1) hormone. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and low-birth weight (LBW) through the disruption of the IGF-1 hormone. METHODS: In a case-control study, babies born with LBW (birth weight <2500 g) and those born later with normal birth weight (=2500 g) at 2 hospitals in Brebes were chosen as cases and controls, respectively. Maternal pesticide exposure was measured by interview using a questionnaire. Umbilical serum IGF-I level was tested using the ELISA method. RESULTS: There was a significant relationship between pesticide exposure during pregnancy and LBW (OR 6.8; 95% CI 2.0 to 22.9) and low umbilical serum IGF-1 levels (OR 3.6; 95% CI 1.2 to 11.1). There was a significant relationship between low umbilical serum IGF-1 levels and LBW (OR 8.9; 95% CI 2.4 to 32.1). CONCLUSION: There was a significant relationship between pesticide exposure during pregnancy and LBW through the umbilical serum IGF-1 reduction pathway.


Assuntos
Sangue Fetal/química , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109896, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704329

RESUMO

Blood is the transmission medium for metal contaminants to and from bodily organs; as such, it can provide useful and reliable information about their bio-kinetics as they're distributed throughout the body. Metals can interact with endogenous proteins present in the blood, and these metal-protein complexes often dictate the fates of the introduced metals. The aim of this study was to investigate cadmium-binding protein characteristics in normal human plasma. Cadmium-binding plasma proteins in two different groups: normal human plasma (n = 29), and normal paired maternal and fetal umbilical cord plasmas (n = 3), were analyzed. In order to detect cadmium-binding plasma proteins present in low concentrations, blood plasma samples were first depleted of their two most abundant proteins - albumin and immunoglobulin G. Both the crude and depleted plasma samples were analyzed using column gel electrophoresis in conjunction with Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). One cadmium-binding protein was detected in 11 of 29 normal plasma samples and all three paired maternal and cord plasma samples. This protein was further identified as apolipoprotein A-I by high-resolution mass spectrometry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal cadmium-binding proteins in real human blood plasma, which is extremely critical to our understanding of cadmium transportation and accumulation in human blood.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Cádmio/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Sangue Fetal/química , Metalotioneína/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrofotometria Atômica
7.
Environ Pollut ; 258: 113723, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869703

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants with adverse effects on the foetus and infants. This study aimed at assessing in utero exposure levels and transplacental transfer (TPT) characteristics of BDE congeners in primiparous mothers from Kampala, the capital city of Uganda. Paired human samples (30 placenta and 30 cord blood samples) were collected between April and June 2018; and analysed for a suite of 24 tri-to deca-BDE congeners. Extraction was carried out using liquid-liquid extraction and sonication for cord blood and placenta samples, respectively. Clean-up was done on a solid phase (SPE) column and analysis was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Total (∑) PBDEs were 0.25-30.9 ng/g lipid weight (lw) (median; 7.11 ng/g lw) in placental tissues and 1.65-34.5 ng/g lw (median; 11.9 ng/g lw) in cord blood serum, with a mean difference of 1.26 ng/g lw between the compartments. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the levels of PBDEs in cord blood and placenta samples (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p = 0.665), possibly because foetus and neonates have poorly developed systems to metabolise the pollutants from the mothers. BDE-209 was the dominant congener in both matrices (contributed 40.5% and 51.2% to ∑PBDEs in placenta and cord blood, respectively), suggesting recent and on-going maternal exposure to deca-BDE formulation. Non-significant associations were observed between ∑PBDEs in maternal placenta and maternal age, household income, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), and beef/fish consumption. This suggested on-going exposure to PBDEs through multiple sources such as dust from indoor/outdoor environments and, ingestion of other foods. Based on absolute concentrations, the extent of transplacental transport was greater for higher congeners (BDE-209, -206 and -207) than for lower ones (such as BDE-47), suggesting alternative TPT mechanisms besides passive diffusion. More studies with bigger sample sizes are required to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Exposição Materna , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Placenta/química , Gravidez , Uganda
8.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 72, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead is a toxic metal abundant in the environment. Consumption of food contaminated at low levels of lead, especially by small children and pregnant women, raises a health concern. METHODS: Duplicated food portions and drinking water were collected over 3 days from 88 children and 87 pregnant women in Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan. Participants were recruited in this study between January 2014 and October 2015. Dust was also collected from their homes. Lead concentrations were measured and consequent oral lead exposure levels were estimated for this population at high risk to environmental toxicants. Lead concentrations of peripheral and cord blood, taken from children and pregnant women, and were also analyzed. RESULTS: Lead concentrations in food, drinking water, and house dust were low in general. Oral lead exposure to lead was higher for children (Mean ± SEM; 5.21 ± 0.30 µg/kg BW/week) than in pregnant women (1.47 ± 0.13 µg/kg BW/week). Food and house dust were main sources of lead contamination, but the contribution of house dust widely varied. Means ± SEM of peripheral and cord blood lead concentrations were 0.69 ± 0.04 µg/dL and 0.54 ± 0.05 µg/dL, respectively for pregnant women and 1.30 ± 0.07 µg/dL (peripheral only) in children. We detect no correlation between smoking situations and blood lead concentration in pregnant women. CONCLUSION: We conclude that oral lead exposure levels for Japanese children and pregnant women were generally low, with higher concentrations and exposure for children than for pregnant women. More efforts are necessary to clarify the sources of lead contamination and reduce lead exposure of the population at high risk even in Japan.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Poeira/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Chumbo/análise , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Água Potável/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Chumbo/sangue , Masculino , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
9.
Exp Hematol ; 80: 21-26, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734258

RESUMO

Umbilical cord blood CD34+ (UCB-CD34+) stem cells are clinically used in hematopoietic cell transplantation. However, there are limitations in the use of umbilical cord blood transplants because of the small number of cells and delayed engraftment. To gain a better understanding of functional components of UCB, we have detected and characterized CD34+ microparticles (CD34+MPs) from cord blood units. We collected cord blood units and assessed the numbers of CD34+MPs before and after red blood cell and plasma depletion by SEPAX processing using flow cytometry analysis. In parallel we identified MPs by electron microscopy. CD34+MPs and cells were isolated by MACs sorting. MicroRNAs (miR-106, miR-221, miR-517, miR-519, and miR-221) exhibited a characteristic microRNA profile that was further validated in isolated CD34+MPs. We found that in cord blood, there are CD34+MPs that carry microRNAs.


Assuntos
Micropartículas Derivadas de Células , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical/métodos , Sangue Fetal/química , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/química , MicroRNAs/sangue , Anexina A5/análise , Antígenos CD34/análise , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/química , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , MicroRNAs/isolamento & purificação , Microscopia Eletrônica , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
10.
JAMA ; 322(19): 1869-1876, 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742629

RESUMO

Importance: The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends a delay in umbilical cord clamping in term neonates for at least 30 to 60 seconds after birth. Most literature supporting this practice is from low-risk vaginal deliveries. There are no published data specific to cesarean delivery. Objective: To compare maternal blood loss with immediate cord clamping vs delayed cord clamping in scheduled cesarean deliveries at term (≥37 weeks). Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized clinical trial performed at 2 hospitals within a tertiary academic medical center in New York City from October 2017 to February 2018 (follow-up completed March 15, 2018). A total of 113 women undergoing scheduled cesarean delivery of term singleton gestations were included. Interventions: In the immediate cord clamping group (n = 56), cord clamping was within 15 seconds after birth. In the delayed cord clamping group (n = 57), cord clamping was at 60 seconds after birth. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in maternal hemoglobin level from preoperative to postoperative day 1, which was used as a proxy for maternal blood loss. Secondary outcomes included neonatal hemoglobin level at 24 to 72 hours of life. Results: All of the 113 women who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 32.6 [5.2] years) completed the trial. The mean preoperative hemoglobin level was 12.0 g/dL in the delayed and 11.6 g/dL in the immediate cord clamping group. The mean postoperative day 1 hemoglobin level was 10.1 g/dL in the delayed group and 9.8 g/dL in the immediate group. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome, with a mean hemoglobin change of -1.90 g/dL (95% CI, -2.14 to -1.66) and -1.78 g/dL (95% CI, -2.03 to -1.54) in the delayed and immediate cord clamping groups, respectively (mean difference, 0.12 g/dL [95% CI, -0.22 to 0.46]; P = .49). Of 19 prespecified secondary outcomes analyzed, 15 showed no significant difference. The mean neonatal hemoglobin level, available for 90 neonates (79.6%), was significantly higher with delayed (18.1 g/dL [95% CI, 17.4 to 18.8]) compared with immediate (16.4 g/dL [95% CI, 15.9 to 17.0]) cord clamping (mean difference, 1.67 g/dL [95% CI, 0.75 to 2.59]; P < .001). There was 1 unplanned hysterectomy in each group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among women undergoing scheduled cesarean delivery of term singleton pregnancies, delayed umbilical cord clamping, compared with immediate cord clamping, resulted in no significant difference in the change in maternal hemoglobin level at postoperative day 1. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03150641.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Constrição , Hemoglobinas/análise , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Cordão Umbilical , Adulto , Gasometria , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Recém-Nascido/sangue , Masculino , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento a Termo , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt A): 105177, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have found that increased risk of preterm birth (PTB) is associated with higher prenatal exposure to PM10 and PM2.5, but few studies have been conducted to assess the impacts of extremely fine particulate matter (PM1) which may have more toxic effects than other types of ambient particulate air pollution (PM). Several studies have separately investigated the associations between DNA methylation and PTB risk and PM. Maternal LINE-1 methylation level negatively correlated with prenatal exposure to PM and risk of PTB. A comprehensive picture is lacking regarding the associations between prenatal exposure to PM, LINE-1 methylation, and risk of PTB. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to estimate the effects of exposure to ambient PM (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) of different sizes during pregnancy on risk of PTB, identify susceptible exposure windows, and illustrate the roles of LINE-1 methylation in the associations between PM and PTB risk. METHODS: The Birth Cohort Study on Prenatal Environments and Offspring Health (PEOH) has been ongoing since 2016 in Guangzhou, China. A total of 4928 pregnant women were recruited during early pregnancy, and 4278 (86.8%) were successfully followed-up. Each individual weekly exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 from 3 months before pregnancy to childbirth was assessed using a spatiotemporal land use regression model, and the weekly PM1 exposure was estimated by employing a generalized additive model. Maternal and cord blood LINE-1 methylation levels (%5mC) were tested using bisulfite-PCR pyrosequencing. A distributed lag nonlinear model incorporated with a Cox proportional hazard model was applied to assess the effect of weekly-specific maternal PM exposure on PTB risk, and a multiple-linear regression model was employed to investigate the associations between PM exposure and LINE-1 methylation levels of maternal and cord bloods. We also assessed the associations between LINE-1 methylation levels and PTB risk by using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: The risk of PTB was positively associated with PM2.5 and PM1 concentrations during the 12th to 20th gestational weeks, and the strongest association was in the fourth quartile (Q4) versus the first quartile (Q1) and observed during the 16th gestational week (PM2.5: harzard ratio [HR] = 1.18, 95%CI: 1.04-1.35, IQR = 11.94 µg/m3. PM1: HR = 1.20, 95%CI: 1.03-1.39, IQR = 11.36 µg/m3). We observed significantly negative associations of PM10(ß = -0.51%5mC per 10 µg/m3, P = 0.014), PM2.5 (ß = -0.66%5mC per 10 µg/m3, P = 0.032) and PM1 (ß = -0.67%5mC per 10 µg/m3, P = 0.032) concentrations with cord blood LINE-1 methylation levels, and a negative association between PM1 concentration and maternal LINE-1 methylation level (ß = -0.86%5mC per 10 µg/m3, P = 0.034). CONCLUSION: Higher prenatal exposure to PM1 and PM2.5 during the 12th to 20th gestational weeks was associated with increased risk of PTB. Maternal and fetal LINE-1 methylation alternation might be an underlying mechanism of PM that increasing the risk of PTB.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Elementos Nucleotídeos Longos e Dispersos/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/farmacologia , Adulto , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Feto/química , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Fatores de Risco
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109755, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605956

RESUMO

It has been demonstrated that heavy metals cross the placental barrier and exert potentially harmful fetal effects. Although previous studies showed sex differences in response to similar intrauterine environments, little is known about fetal sex-related differences in placental transfer and accumulation of heavy metals. This study aimed to reveal the sex-specific risk of fetal exposure to heavy metals in pregnant women. We detected the exposure levels of eight heavy metals in 64 paired mother-infant maternal blood, cord blood and placental tissue samples. We found that the placental transfer efficiency (PTE) of titanium (Ti) and silver (Ag) was significantly higher in the group with male fetuses than that with female fetuses. The group with male fetuses had a larger placental:maternal blood ratio of Ag levels than the group with female fetuses, indicating fetal sex-related differences in placental transfer and accumulation of Ag. Prospective research should focus on the sex differences of adverse health effects induced by heavy metals and other pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Sangue Fetal/química , Troca Materno-Fetal/fisiologia , Metais Pesados/sangue , Placenta/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Obes Facts ; 12(5): 575-585, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early infant weight development influences metabolic regulation later in life. For the prevention of obesity and metabolic diseases, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms in detail. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine the effects of maternal anthropometric, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors on maternal and cord blood leptin levels at birth and on the development of body mass index (BMI) standard deviation scores (SDS) in offspring up to 1 year of age. METHODS: Seventy-six mother-child pairs were enrolled in this follow-up analysis in a cross-sectional design. Standardized questionnaires were used to collect information regarding maternal anthropometrics, lifestyle habits, and sociodemographic conditions, and newborn weight, or, rather, BMI-SDS, development during the first year of life. RESULTS: Cord blood leptin (ß = -0.222, p = 0.074), maternal leptin (ß = 0.414, p = 0.001), and female sex of the offspring (ß = 0.385, p = 0.003) explained 29.0% of the variance in BMI-SDS changes in the first year of life. Cord blood leptin was influenced by newborn sex (male; ß = -0.220, p = 0.025) and maternal moderate-intensity physical activity in the third trimester (ß = 0.265, p = 0.007, corr. R2 = 9.2%); maternal leptin was influenced by maternal prepregnancy BMI (ß = 0.602, p < 0.001) and weight gain during pregnancy (ß = 0.247, p = 0.004, corr. R2 = 35.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Higher maternal and lower cord blood leptin levels are associated with a higher BMI-SDS increase during the first year of life. Maternal leptin is influenced by maternal BMI and weight gain during pregnancy, and cord blood leptin is influenced by maternal physical activity; therefore, it can be suggested that an active and healthy maternal lifestyle may play a pivotal and beneficial role in the offspring's weight development.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Gravidez/sangue , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Mães , Obesidade/metabolismo , Padrões de Referência , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas
14.
S Afr Med J ; 109(10): 807-813, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in pregnant women has been associated with adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are affected by numerous factors, including vitamin D intake, skin pigmentation, latitude and season of the year; they therefore vary by race and country. Vitamin D status in pregnant women and their offspring in South Africa (SA) is not well established. OBJECTIVES: To assess vitamin D status by measuring serum 25(OH)D in pregnant black SA women and their offspring in Johannesburg (latitude 26°S) and to assess whether vitamin D status is affected by maternal HIV infection. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled pregnant women and their healthy neonates, and measured 25(OH)D in maternal and cord blood at delivery. Pregnant women were stratified by their HIV status. Predictors of maternal and neonatal VDD (levels <30 nmol/L) were assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 291 pregnant women and their healthy neonates were enrolled over a 21-month period. Mean (standard deviation) maternal and cord blood 25(OH)D levels were 57.0 (29.7) and 41.9 (21.0) nmol/L and the prevalence of VDD was 15.9% and 32.8%, respectively. On average, concentrations of 25(OH)D in cord blood were ~80% of those in the mother. There was no association between cord 25(OH)D and gestational age, but levels were associated with birth weight (p<0.001). There were no differences in maternal or cord blood 25(OH)D levels between those HIV-infected or uninfected. The predictor of VDD in mothers was giving birth in winter (odds ratio (OR) 2.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47 - 5.61), and in neonates the predictors were maternal age (OR 16.5, 95% CI 1.82 - 149), being born in winter (OR 3.68, 95% CI 2.05 - 6.61), being born by caesarean section (OR 4.92, 95% CI 1.56 - 15.57) and being of low birth weight (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.13 - 3.50). CONCLUSIONS: Among black SA women delivering in Johannesburg, about one in six mothers and one in three neonates have 25(OH)D levels indicative of VDD. Maternal HIV status appears not to affect levels of 25(OH)D in either the mother or her neonate. Research on the effects of VDD on the outcomes of pregnancy and the best methods to combat the high prevalence of VDD in women of childbearing age in the SA context is required.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Estações do Ano , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto Jovem
15.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt B): 105255, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are environmental chemicals with harmful effects on pregnancy, but their effects on adverse developmental outcomes are not fully understood. The placental DNA methylation is strongly influenced by prenatal environmental factors and has been linked to fetal growth. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between in utero PBDEs exposure, placental DNA methylation changes (growth regulatory genes), and pathophysiology of fetal growth (birth outcomes, fetal growth retardation) in a population-based pregnancy cohort study. METHODS: This was a nested case-control study within the prospective Wenzhou Birth Cohort including 130 fetal growth retardation (FGR) cases and 130 healthy controls and their mothers recruited from June 2016 to June 2017. FGR was diagnosed based on the comprehensive evaluation of ultrasound results at 24, 28, and 32 weeks of gestation. Neonatal birth measurements were obtained from medical records. Gestational exposure to 19 PBDEs, including 13 lower BDE congeners (BDE-17-190) and 6 higher brominated BDE congeners (BDE-196-209), were determined by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in the umbilical cord blood. Placental DNA methylation changes of one repetitive element (LINE1) and two candidate genes (HSD11B2, IGF2) were characterized by quantitative polymerase chain reaction-pyrosequencing. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression models were used to examine the associations among PBDEs exposure, fetal growth indicators, and DMR (differential methylation region) methylation fractions. Sobel tests were conducted to assess DNA methylation as a mediator in multivariate models. RESULTS: After excluding women who withdrew from the study or were lost to follow-up or failed to provide placenta or umbilical cord blood, 249 mother-newborn pairs (124 FGR cases, 125 controls) were included in the final analysis. Elevated BDE-206 (OR: 1.569, 95% CIs: 1.053-2.338), BDE-17-190 (OR: 2.860, 95% CIs: 1.233-6.634), BDE-196-209 (OR: 1.688, 95% CIs: 1.024-2.783) and ∑19PBDEs (OR: 2.387, 95% CIs: 1.220-4.668) concentrations were associated with increased risk of FGR in newborns. FGR birth was also associated with increased DNA methylation of HSD11B2 (OR: 1.145, 95% CIs: 1.032-1.270) and decreased DNA methylation of IGF2 (OR: 0.892, 95% CIs: 0.845-0.941). In addition, BDE-17-190 showed significant associations with DNA methylation of HSD11B2 and IGF2 (ß: 1.127, 95% CIs: 0.069-2.186; ß: -3.452, 95% CIs: -5.512-1.392), indicating placental DNA methylation changes of HSD11B2 and IGF2 were related to both lower BDE congeners exposure and fetal growth. Further mediation analyses showed that IGF2 methylation mediated about 40% of the effects of BDE-17-190 in umbilical cord blood on neonatal FGR. CONCLUSION: We report an inverse association between in utero exposures to PBDEs and fetal growth and provide evidence supporting epigenetic gene plasticity in these associations. Changes in placental DNA methylation might be part of the underlying biological pathway between prenatal PBDEs exposure and adverse fetal growth.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/induzido quimicamente , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/urina , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt B): 105241, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breastfed children absorb persistent and toxic chemicals such as organohalogen compounds (OHCs) during the entire lactation period. Nursing is a main contributor to the burden of these pollutants in the first years of life, hence further assessments on the OHC load processes are needed. OBJECTIVES: To identify the determinants of OHC increase in children at four years of age, considering concentration gains, maternal venous concentrations and breastfeeding time. METHODS: Concentrations of 19 organochlorine compounds (OCs) and 14 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed in maternal venous (n = 466), cord blood (n = 326) and children venous serum at four years of age (n = 272) in the Asturias INMA cohort representing the Spanish general population. Data were evaluated considering the socio-demographic and individual information collected at recruitment and follow up surveys, as well as the OHC physical-chemical constants. RESULTS: The four years-old children concentration gains of the most abundant OHCs showed strong correlations (R2 = 0.65-0.93) with the maternal concentrations during pregnancy and lactation period. The child gain/maternal transfer rates of most correlated pollutants were similar. DISCUSSION: Between 65 and 93% of the variance of OCs in four years-old children was explained by the maternal concentrations during pregnancy and the lactation period. The compounds with log(Kow) > 3.7 (hydrophobic) showed analogous child gain/maternal transfer rates indicating similar processes of membrane lipid dissolution and passive diffusion from the epithelial cells into the milk. Molecular weight of these pollutants did not influence on these rates. Compounds with low log(Koa) such as hexachlorobenzene are more volatile and less retained, involving lower child gain/maternal transfer rates. These results may be useful to anticipate the increase of the concentrations of OCs in children using the maternal concentration of these compounds during pregnancy and the planned lactation period and to implement prophylactic measures in mothers with high venous pollutant concentrations.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Sangue Fetal/química , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Exposição Materna , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactação , Gravidez
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 109, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489087

RESUMO

Introduction: "Calabar chalk" is a lead-laden pica mostly consumed by pregnant women worldwide as a remedy for morning sickness. This clay material has been shown to have lead levels of up to 40mg per kilogram. Meanwhile blood lead levels, even at doses less than 10µg/dl will be toxic to humans and even worse-off to the fetus as it crosses the placenta. We, therefore, sort to determine the prevalence of "Calabar chalk" consumption amongst pregnant women and if it translates to higher umbilical cord blood lead levels. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study by prospectively and consecutively enrolling 300 pregnant women from December 2014 through February 2015. A questionnaire was administered to ascertain "Calabar chalk" consumption. The levels of lead in the umbilical cord blood of 51 participants of each group of those who consumed and didn't consume "Calabar chalk" were measured by spectrometry and compared using the T-test (p<0.05). Results: The prevalence of "Calabar chalk" consumption was 43.33%. This was mostly consumed during pregnancy only (46.34%), with higher rates observed amongst primigravidas. The mean umbilical blood lead levels amongst those who consumed and those who did not consume "Calabar chalk" was 39.19µg/dl and 25.33µg/dl respectively (P=0.111). Conclusion: The prevalence of "Calabar chalk" consumption was high in the pregnant women population. The overall umbilical cord blood lead levels were extremely high in both consumers and non-consumers. We recommend health education and chelation therapy to be considered.


Assuntos
Sangue Fetal/química , Chumbo/sangue , Pica/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Camarões/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pica/epidemiologia , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 40(8): 1575-1583, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471626

RESUMO

The primary objective was to determine if newborns with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at a higher risk for acidosis at delivery as determined by cord blood gas analysis. The secondary objective was to determine whether specific fetal cardiac diagnosis, delivery method, or duration of labor is associated with an increased risk for acidosis. This was a retrospective study of newborns with CHD diagnosed prenatally and comparable patients without a CHD diagnosis. Study participants included 134 CHD-affected newborns and 134 controls. Median UA pH in CHD newborns was 7.22 (CI 7.2-7.4) and in controls it was 7.22 (CI 7.21-7.24), p = 0.91. There was no difference in median UA pH comparing newborns with single-ventricle CHD and two-ventricle CHD [7.23 (CI 7.2-7.26) vs. 7.22 (CI 7.22-7.24), p = 0.77], or newborns with CHD with aortic obstruction and those without aortic obstruction [7.23 (CI 7.21-7.26) vs. 7.22 (CI 7.2-7.24), p = 0.29]. After controlling for delivery method and duration of labor, CHD patients who underwent a spontaneous vaginal delivery were found to have a declining median UA pH as labor progressed. Our results show that newborns with CHD have a normal UA pH at delivery suggesting a compensated circulation in utero. Spontaneous vaginal delivery with a progressively longer duration of labor in CHD newborns was associated with lower UA pH. This suggests that fetuses with CHD may be at risk for hemodynamic instability at birth with a longer duration of labor as a potentially modifiable factor to improve outcome.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Sangue Fetal/química , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Gasometria , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cordão Umbilical
19.
Clin Biochem ; 74: 69-72, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: S100B protein is one of the most accurate biomarkers for diagnosis of neuroapoptosis and brain damage. The aim was to evaluate the lactate concentration and acid-base balance (pH, pCO2, pO2, HCO3c and BEb) in umbilical cord blood to predict high risk of neuroapoptosis and analyze the relationship between the levels of these biomarkers and umbilical cord blood S100B protein concentration at birth. METHODS: Apparently healthy newborns were included. S100B protein and blood gas test (lactate and acid-base balance) were determined in umbilical cord blood at birth. Newborns were classified into two groups: with and without high risk of neuroapoptosis. Newborns with high umbilical cord blood S100B protein concentration were considered newborns at high risk of neuroapoptosis. RESULTS: Sixty-one newborns were included, 12 had high risk of neuroapoptosis and 49 did not. S100B protein concentration correlate directly with pCO2 levels (Rho: 0.286, p = .0321) and lactate concentration (Rho: 0.278, p = .0315); and indirectly with pH (Rho: -0.332, p = .01). The analysis of the ROC curves yielded significant curves for pH and pCO2 to predict high risk of neuroapoptosis, pH optimal cutoff value was 7.19 (sensitivity: 50%, specificity: 83.7%, AUC: 0.708); and pCO2 optimal cutoff value was 60 mmHg (sensitivity: 30%, specificity: 85.4%, AUC: 0.705). CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory acidosis is associated to high concentrations of S100B protein in umbilical cord blood at birth. Umbilical cord blood pH and pCO2 may be useful in differentiating newborns at high risk of neuroapoptosis. Umbilical cord blood gas test may be valuable as risk indicator for neuroapoptosis at birth.


Assuntos
Acidose Respiratória/sangue , Acidose Respiratória/patologia , Apoptose , Encéfalo/patologia , Sangue Fetal/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Gasometria , Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hipóxia Fetal/sangue , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Recém-Nascido , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Neurônios/patologia , Curva ROC , Subunidade beta da Proteína Ligante de Cálcio S100/sangue , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Environ Int ; 132: 105124, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Animal studies suggest that organophosphate (OP) pesticides exposure affects thyroid function, but evidence in humans remains sparse and inconclusive. Gestational exposure is of particular interest, since thyroid hormone is essential for fetal brain development. OP pesticides are able to cross the placental and blood-brain barrier and may interfere with fetal development processes regulated by thyroid hormone. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of gestational OP pesticides exposure during pregnancy with maternal and cord blood thyroid hormone concentrations. METHODS: This study was embedded within Generation R (Rotterdam, the Netherlands), a prospective population-based birth cohort. Mother-child pairs with OP pesticides assessment and maternal (N = 715) or cord blood (N = 482) thyroid hormone measurements were included. OP pesticides exposure was assessed at <18, 18-25, and >25 weeks gestation by measuring six urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) were measured in maternal and cord blood. Maternal measures also included total thyroxine (TT4) and TPO antibodies (TPOAbs). To study the association of creatinine-adjusted DAP metabolite concentrations with thyroid function and TPO antibodies, multivariable linear regression models including relevant confounders were used. RESULTS: There was no association of DAP metabolites with maternal TSH, FT4, TT4 or TPOAb concentrations during pregnancy. Similarly, there was no association of DAP metabolites with cord blood TSH or FT4. Results did not change when DAP concentrations were analyzed at individual time points or as mean gestational exposure. CONCLUSION: Gestational OP pesticides exposure, as assessed by repeatedly measured urinary DAP metabolite concentrations in an urban population, was not associated with maternal or cord blood thyroid hormone concentrations. These findings do not support a mediating role for serum thyroid hormone availability in the relation of early life exposure to low levels of OP pesticides with child neurodevelopment. However, disruption of the thyroid system at tissue level cannot be excluded. In addition, this is one of the first studies on this subject and measurement error in DAP metabolites might have resulted in imprecise estimates. Future studies should use more urine samples to increase precision and should investigate specific OP pesticide metabolites.


Assuntos
Sangue Fetal/química , Compostos Organofosforados/urina , Praguicidas/urina , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Adulto , Autoantígenos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Iodeto Peroxidase/sangue , Proteínas de Ligação ao Ferro/sangue , Países Baixos , Gravidez , Gestantes , Adulto Jovem
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