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1.
Food Chem ; 297: 124955, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253342

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on membrane lipids metabolism and its relation to pulp breakdown development of longan fruit during postharvest storage. Compared to the control longans, H2O2-treated longans showed higher pulp breakdown index, cell membrane permeability, and activities of phospholipase D (PLD), lipase and lipoxygenase (LOX). Moreover, H2O2-treated longans maintained higher levels of pulp phosphatidic acid (PA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA). However, H2O2-treated longans exhibited lower levels of pulp phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and unsaturated fatty acids (USFA), lower index of unsaturated fatty acids (IUFA), and lower ratio of USFA to SFA (U/S). These findings demonstrated that H2O2 caused the increased activities of enzymes involving in membrane lipids degradation and the accelerated decompositions of membrane USFA and phospholipids in longan pulp, which eventually triggered the destruction of the pulp cell membrane structure and the development of pulp breakdown in longans during storage.


Assuntos
Enzimas/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/química , Enzimas/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Lipase/química , Lipase/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipoxigenase/química , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Lipídeos de Membrana/química , Fosfolipase D/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Sapindaceae/metabolismo
2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 217: 126-134, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079668

RESUMO

Longan pulp is an excellent source of polysaccharides and other nutrients that have many health benefits. However, longans is susceptible to pulp breakdown after harvest and loses its nutrition values. To solve this problem, this study aimed to study the effects of a novel chitosan, Kadozan, on pulp breakdown index, contents of pectin, cellulose and hemicelluloses, and activities of enzymes in longan pulp relating to disassembly of polysaccharides (XET, PE, PG, ß-Gal, and cellulase). The data illustrated that, compared to the control longans, chitosan-treated longans contained higher amounts of CWM, CSP, ISP, cellulose and hemicelluloses, but exhibited lower pulp breakdown index, lower activities of cell wall-disassembling enzymes, and contained lower WSP amount. These results suggested that Kadozan with a dilution of 1:500 (VKadozan: VKadozan + Water) could significantly decrease activities of disassembling-enzymes and depolymerization of polysaccharides in cell wall, and subsequently alleviate pulp breakdown and prolong storage-life of postharvest longans.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Frutas/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Hidrólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Pectinas/metabolismo
3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 132: 915-921, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959133

RESUMO

Lactic acid bacteria fermentation is an important processing technology for fruits and vegetables. Bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides are altered during the fermentation process. Polysaccharides from longan pulp (LPs) were extracted after different fermentation times and their physicochemical and prebiotic properties were investigated, such as longan polysaccharides named LP-0 and LP-12 means they were extracted from longan pulp fermented for 0 and 12 h, respectively. The yield, contents of neutral sugar and uronic acid, molecular weight (Mw), and monosaccharide composition of LPs were significantly changed with different fermentation times. Specially, the yield and uronic acid content of LPs were first increase and then decline. LP-12 contained the smallest Mw (108.71 ±â€¯5.55 kDa) of the tested LPs (p < 0.05). When compared with unfermented LP-0, the glucose molar percentages of fermented LPs declined, while those of rhamnose and galactose increased, except for LP-6. Fermented LPs also exhibited a stronger stimulatory effect on Lactobacillus strain proliferation, with the proliferative effect of LP-12 being the strongest (p < 0.05). These results suggest that lactic acid bacteria fermentation can change the physicochemical properties and enhance the prebiotic activities of polysaccharides from longan pulp.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Prebióticos , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Fenômenos Químicos , Lactobacillus acidophilus/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/biossíntese
4.
Food Chem ; 275: 239-245, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724192

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griff. & Maubl (L. theobromae) inoculation on the energy status and activity of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) during L. theobromae-induced disease development and pericarp browning of harvested 'Fuyan' longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. cv. Fuyan) fruit. The results showed that, compared to the control longans, L. theobromae-inoculated longans displayed higher indices of fruit disease and pericarp browning, lower pericarp ATP and ADP contents, higher AMP content, lower level of energy charge, as well as lower activities of Ca2+-ATPase, Mg2+-ATPase and H+-ATPase in membranes of plasma, vacuole, and mitochondria. These results indicated that the infection of L. theobromae reduced energy status and ATPase activities, caused ions disorder, damaged the integrity and function of the cell and organelles including vacuole and mitochondria in pericarp of longan fruit, which contributed to L. theobromae-promoted disease development and pericarp browning of harvested longan fruit during storage.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/microbiologia , Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vacúolos/metabolismo
5.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 126, 2019 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) is an important fruit tree in the subtropical regions of Southeast Asia and Australia. Among the factors affecting D. longan fruit yield, the difficulty and instability of blossoming is one of the most challenging issues. Perpetual flowering (PF) is a crucial trait for fruit trees and is directly linked to production potential. Therefore, studying the molecular regulatory mechanism of longan PF traits is crucial for understanding and solving problems related to flowering. In this study, comparative transcriptome analysis was performed using two longan cultivars that display opposite flowering phenotypes during floral induction. RESULTS: We obtained 853.72 M clean reads comprising 125.08 Gb. After comparing these data with the longan genome, 27,266 known genes and 1913 new genes were detected. Significant differences in gene expression were observed between the two genotypes, with 6150 and 6202 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for 'SJ' and 'SX', respectively. The transcriptional landscape of floral transition at the early stage was very different in these two longan genotypes with respect to key hormones, circadian rhythm, sugar metabolism, and transcription factors. Almost all flowering-related DEGs identified are involved in photoperiod and circadian clock pathways, such as CONSTANS-like (COL), two-component response regulator-like (APRRs), gigantea (GI), and early flowering (EFL). In addition, the leafy (LFY) gene, which is the central floral meristem identity gene, may inhibit PF formation in 'SJ'. CONCLUSION: This study provides a platform for understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for changes between PF and seasonal flowering (SF) longan genotypes and may benefit studies on PF trait mechanisms of evergreen fruit trees.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sapindaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sapindaceae/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/citologia , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Amido/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(1): 352-363, 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541284

RESUMO

Soluble acid invertases (SAIs) cleave sucrose into hexose in vacuoles and play important roles in influencing fruit quality. However, their potential roles in regulating sugar composition and the "sugar receding" process of longan fruits lacked systematic investigations. Our results showed that sucrose/hexose ratios and sugar receding rates of longan pulp varied among cultivars. Analysis of enzymes for sucrose synthesis and cleavage indicated that DlSAI showed the highest negative correlation with sucrose/hexose ratio at both of activity and expression level. Moreover, high SAI activity and DlSAI expression resulted in extremely low sucrose/hexose ratio in 'Luosanmu' longan from development to mature stages and a remarkable loss of sugar in 'Shixia' longan fruits during on-tree preservation. In conclusion, DlSAIs act as key factors influencing sucrose/hexose ratio and sugar receding through transcriptional and enzymatic regulations. These results might help improve the quality of on-tree preserved longan.


Assuntos
Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Hexoses/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/enzimologia , Sacarose/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/enzimologia , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Hexoses/química , Cinética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sapindaceae/química , Sapindaceae/genética , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Sacarose/química
7.
Food Chem ; 274: 808-815, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373014

RESUMO

Rambutan seed is usually discarded during fruit processing. However, the seed contains a considerable amount of crude fat. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the fat properties and antinutrient content of the seed during fermentation of rambutan fruit. Results showed that the crude fat content of the seed reduced by 22% while its free fatty acid content increased by 4.3 folds after 10 days of fermentation. Arachidic acid was selectively reduced and was replaced by linoleic acid from the seventh day of fermentation onwards. Only 14.5% of triacylglycerol remained in the seed fat at the end of fermentation. The complete melting temperature, crystallization onset temperature and solid fat index at 37 °C of the fermented seed fat were higher than that of non-fermented seed fat. The saponin and tannin contents of the seed were reduced by 67% and 47%, respectively, after fermentation.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Sapindaceae/química , Sementes/química , Cristalização , Ácidos Eicosanoicos/análise , Ácidos Eicosanoicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Fermentação , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Saponinas/análise , Sementes/metabolismo , Taninos/análise , Temperatura Ambiente , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(8)2018 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30110985

RESUMO

Mother of FT and TFL1 (MFT) belongs to phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) family, which plays an important role in flowering time regulation, seed development, and germination. To gain insight into the molecular function of DlMFT in Dimocarpus longan Lour., we isolated DlMFT and its promoter sequence from longan embryogenic callus (EC). Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the promoter contained multiphytohormones and light responsive regulatory elements. Subcellular localization showed that the given the DlMFT signal localized in the nucleus, expression profiling implied that DlMFT showed significant upregulation during somatic embryogenesis (SE) and zygotic embryogenesis (ZE), and particular highly expressed in late or maturation stages. The accumulation of DlMFT was mainly detected in mature fruit and seed, while it was undetected in abortive seeds, and notably decreased during seed germination. DlMFT responded differentially to exogenous hormones in longan EC. Auxins, salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJa) suppressed its expression, however, abscisic acid (ABA), brassinosteroids (BR) showed the opposite function. Meanwhile, DlMFT differentially responded to various abiotic stresses. Our study revealed that DlMFT might be a key regulator of longan somatic and zygotic embryo development, and in seed germination, it is involved in complex plant hormones and abiotic stress signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sapindaceae/genética , Sementes/genética
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 160: 10-18, 2018 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29783107

RESUMO

Koelreuteria paniculata were cultivated in nutrient solution with different concentrations of Cd (0, 50, 150, 250 and 500 µM) and sampled after 90 days. The resistance, translocation, accumulation and stress responses in Koelreuteria paniculata were investigated by hydroponic experiments. The results showed that Koelreuteria paniculata is an efficient Cd excluder that can tolerate high concentrations of Cd (up to 150-250 µM of Cd). The concentration of Cd never exceeds 5 ppm in leaves and 10 ppm in roots. The high concentration of Cd (≥ 250 µM) had a toxic effect on K. paniculata and significantly restricted the plant growth. The accumulation ability of Cd by different plant tissues followed the sequence of roots > leaves > stems. The bioconcentration factors and translocation factors both were less than 1. Cd has the highest content in the cell wall and is migrated to soluble fractions and organelles at high concentrations. Undissolved Cd phosphate, pectates and protein-bound Cd were the predominant forms. The low concentration of Cd (≤150 µM) promoted the synthesis of soluble proteins, AsA and GSH, while high concentration of Cd clearly inhibited the physiological and biochemical process, caused membrane lipid peroxidation and severe membrane damages, and increased MDA and H2O2 contents. POD, CAT and SOD exhibited positive and effective responses to low concentration Cd stress, but could not remove the toxicity caused by high concentration Cd stress. The content of IAA, GA and ZT decreased and ABA content was significantly increased under high-concentration Cd stress.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Sapindaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Hidroponia , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
10.
J Sep Sci ; 41(13): 2846-2853, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29693787

RESUMO

An integrated strategy based on high-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with multiple data mining techniques was developed to screen the metabolites in rat biological fluids after the oral administration of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge husks. Mass defect filtering, product ion filtering, and neutral loss filtering were applied to detect metabolites from the complex matrix. As a result, 55 metabolites were tentatively identified, among which 45 barrigenol-type triterpenoid metabolites were detected in the feces, and six flavonoids and four coumarins metabolites were in the urine. Moreover, eight prototype constituents in plasma, 36 in urine and 23 in feces were also discovered. Due to the poor bioavailability of barrigenol type triterpenoids, most of them were metabolized by intestinal flora. Phase I metabolic reactions such as deglycosylation, oxidation, demethylation, dehydrogenation, and internal hydrolysis were supposed to be their principal metabolic pathways. Coumarins were found in all the biosamples, whereas flavonoids were mainly in the urine. Unlike the saponins, they were mainly metabolized through phase II metabolic reactions like glucuronidation and sulfonation, which made them eliminated more easily by urine. This work suggested the metabolic profile of X. sorbifolia husks for the first time, which will be very valuable for its further development.


Assuntos
Fezes/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/urina , Sapindaceae/química , Animais , Mineração de Dados , Metaboloma , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Ratos , Sapindaceae/metabolismo
11.
Food Chem ; 256: 268-279, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29606448

RESUMO

Based on single factor and orthogonal experiments, optimal fermentation conditions for longan wine were Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain of Lalvin KD, juice content of 70% and alcohol content of 10°. Sixteen amino acids were detected. Proline, alanine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid contents were relatively high. Sixty-three volatile aroma compounds were identified using solid-phase micro extraction and gas chromatography (SPME-GC). Ethyl lactate content was the highest, followed by octanoic acid ethyl ester, isoamyl alcohol and decanoic acid ethyl ester. Main functional components were polysaccharides. Longan wine polysaccharide (LWP) with molecular weight 10-30 kDa exhibited the highest hypoglycemic and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities. 10-30 kDa polysaccharides mainly consisted of glucose, mannose, galactose, arabinose, galacturonic acid and glucuronic acid in molar ratio of 167.72:3.38:3.13:3.46:2.33:1. Infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra confirmed that the sugar ring of 10-30 kDa polysaccharides was in the 〈beta〉-configuration.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Vinho/análise , Polissacarídeos/química , Sapindaceae/microbiologia , Vinho/microbiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0191444, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381727

RESUMO

While flavonoid metabolism's regulation under light conditions by structural genes and transcription factors is understood, the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in this pathway have been rarely reported. In this paper, the accurate control of light was firstly enabled through the specially designed plant growth chamber which ensures consistency and accuracy of the cultivation of longan ECs and the repeatability of the experiments. Then, longan ECs were cultured in this chamber for 25 days. The change of growth rate of longan ECs was compared under different light qualities (dark, blue, green, white, green), intensities (16, 32, 64, 128, 256 µmol ·m-2 ·s-1), and durations (8 h, 12 h, 16 h, 20h, 24h). Results indicated that longan ECs had a high growth rate in the condition of blue or green light, at intensity ranged from 16 µmol·m-2·s-1 to 64 µmol·m-2·s-1, and duration from 8 h to 16 h. In addition, the contents of total flavonoids, rutin, and epicatechin were determined. Results indicated that flavonoid contents of longan ECs reached the highest value under blue light, at 32 µmol·m-2·s-1 and 12h/d. Blue light promoted the accumulation of epicatechin, but inhibited the synthesis of rutin. Finally, the expressions of flavonoid pathway genes, miRNAs and target genes were analyzed by qPCR. These results indicated that miR393 and its target gene DlTIR1-3, miR394 and its target gene DlAlMT12, and miR395 and its target gene DlAPS1 had a negative regulating relationship under blue light in longan ECs. Furthermore, miR393, miR394, and miR395 acted on target genes, which negatively regulated flavonoid key genes DlFLS and positively regulated key genes DlCHS, DlCHI, DlF3'H, DlDFR, DlLAR, and finally affected the accumulation of flavonoids. The treatment of longan ECs under the blue light at the intensity of 32 µmol·m-2·s-1 for 12 h/d inhibited the expression of miR393, miR394 and miR395, which promoted the expression of target genes and the accumulation of flavonoids and epicatechin, but inhibited the synthesis of rutin.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Luz , MicroRNAs/genética , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/efeitos da radiação , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Fotoperíodo , Sapindaceae/citologia , Sapindaceae/genética
13.
Food Chem ; 247: 16-22, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29277223

RESUMO

Effects of Lasiodiplodia theobromae on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production-scavenging system during L. theobromae-induced pericarp browning and disease development of harvested "Fuyan" longans were investigated. Compared with control longans, L. theobromae-inoculated longans exhibited higher pericarp browning index and fruit disease index, higher pericarp O2- generation rate and MDA content. Moreover, L. theobromae infection also resulted in lower contents of pericarp AsA and GSH, lower levels of pericarp DPPH radical scavenging ability and reducing power. Additionally, L. theobromae infection decreased the activities of pericarp SOD, CAT and APX from day 2 to day 5. These findings suggested that L. theobromae-induced pericarp browning and disease development of harvested longans might be due to reduction of ROS scavenging ability and increase in ROS production, which might stimulate membrane lipid peroxidation, disrupt cellular membrane structure, and cause the loss of cellular compartmentalization and disease resistance, in turn, resulting in pericarp browning and disease development.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
14.
Protoplasma ; 254(6): 2169-2188, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28396966

RESUMO

We investigated the morphology and structure of the floral nectary in 11 Neotropical genera belonging to the subfamilies Dodonaeoideae and Paullinioideae (Sapindaceae) from southern South America representing three tribes (Dodonaeaeae, Paullinieae, and Melicocceae), in relation to other floral traits in species with contrasting morphological flower characteristics. Nectary organization was analyzed under light, stereoscopic, and scanning electron microscopes; Diplokeleba floribunda N.E. Br. was also observed using transmission electron microscopy. Our comparative data may contribute to the understanding of floral nectary evolution and systematic value in this family. The nectaries were studied in both staminate and pistillate flowers. All the floral nectaries are typical of Sapindaceae: extrastaminal, receptacular, structured, and persistent. The anatomical analysis revealed a differentiated secretory parenchyma and an inner non-secretory parenchyma; the nectary is supplied by phloem traces and, less frequently, by phloem and xylem traces. Nectar is secreted through nectarostomata of anomocytic type. The anatomical analysis showed the absence of nectary in the three morphs of Dodonaea viscosa flowers. Nectary ultrastructure is described in D. floribunda. In this species, the change in nectary color is related to progressive accumulation of anthocyanins during the functional phase. We found relatively small variation in the nectary structural characteristics compared with large variation in nectary morphology. The latter aspect agreed with the main infrafamilial groupings revealed by recent phylogenetic studies, so it is of current valuable systematic importance for Sapindaceae. In representatives of Paullinieae, the reduction of the floral nectary to 4-2 posterior lobes should be interpreted as a derived character state.


Assuntos
Flores/ultraestrutura , Sapindaceae/ultraestrutura , Flores/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Epiderme Vegetal/ultraestrutura , Néctar de Plantas/biossíntese , Feixe Vascular de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Sapindaceae/metabolismo
15.
Food Chem ; 225: 31-36, 2017 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28193430

RESUMO

Energy metabolism of "Fuyan" longan fruit treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the most stable of the reactive oxygen, and its relationship to pericarp browning were investigated in this work. The results displayed that H2O2 significantly decreased contents of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). It also inhibited activities of H+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase in membranes of plasma, vacuole and mitochondria during the early-storage and mid-storage (except for mitochondrial membrane Mg2+-ATPase). These results gave convincing evidence that the treatment of H2O2 accelerating pericarp browning in harvested longans was due to a decrease of ATPase activity and available ATP content. This might break the ion homeostasis and the integrity of mitochondria, which might reduce energy charge and destroy the function and compartmentalization of cell membrane. These together aggravated browning incidence in pericarp of harvested longan fruit.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Difosfato de Adenosina/análise , Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/análise , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 17(6)2016 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27271605

RESUMO

Ras-related guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding nuclear protein (Ran) GTPases function as molecular switches and regulate diverse cellular events in eukaryotes. Our previous work suggested that DlRan3B is active during longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) somatic embryogenesis (SE) processes. Herein, subcellular localization of DlRan3B was found to be localized in the nucleus and expression profiling of DlRan3B was performed during longan SE and after exposure to plant hormones (indoleacetic acid (IAA), gibberellin A3 (GA3), salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonte (MeJA), and abscisic acid (ABA)). We cloned and sequenced 1569 bp of 5'-flanking sequence of DlRan3B (GenBank: JQ279697). Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the promoter contained plant hormone-related regulatory elements. Deletion analysis and responses to hormones identified stimulative and repressive regulatory elements in the DlRan3B promoter. The key elements included those responding to auxin, gibberellin, SA, MeJA, and ABA. DlRan3B was located in the nucleus and accumulated in the late stage of longan SE. The expression of DlRan3B was significantly induced by IAA, GA3, and ABA, but suppressed by SA and MeJA. Promoter transcription was induced by IAA and GA3, but suppressed by SA. Thus, DlRan3B might participate in auxin, gibberellin, and ABA responses during longan late SE, and DlRan3B is involved in phytohormone responsiveness.


Assuntos
Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sapindaceae/genética , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Transporte Proteico , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Sapindaceae/embriologia , Deleção de Sequência
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(22): 4627-32, 2016 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27213701

RESUMO

Energy status and respiration metabolism of "Fuyan" longan fruit treated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and their relationship to pericarp browning were studied. The results displayed that H2O2 significantly increased the respiration rate, increased activities of respiratory terminal oxidases like cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) and ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO), decreased NAD kinase activity, maintained lower contents of NADP and NADPH as well as higher amounts of NAD and NADH, and accelerated the decrease of energy charge. These results gave convincing evidence that the treatment of H2O2 for accelerating longan pericarp browning was due to an increase of energy deficiency, an increase of respiratory metabolic pathways of Embden-Meyerhof pathway (EMP) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, a decrease of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) of respiratory pathway, and an increase of activities of respiratory terminal oxidases like CCO and AAO.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Sapindaceae/química , Catecol Oxidase/química , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Cor , Metabolismo Energético , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , NADP/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/química , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Sapindaceae/metabolismo
18.
PLoS One ; 10(10): e0140507, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26485030

RESUMO

Xanthoceras sorbifolium, a tree species endemic to northern China, has high oil content in its seeds and is recognized as an important biodiesel crop. The plant is characterized by late-acting self-incompatibility (LSI). LSI was found to occur in many angiosperm species and plays an important role in reducing inbreeding and its harmful effects, as do gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) and sporophytic self-incompatibility (SSI). Molecular mechanisms of conventional GSI and SSI have been well characterized in several families, but no effort has been made to identify the genes involved in the LSI process. The present studies indicated that there were no significant differences in structural and histological features between the self- and cross-pollinated ovules during the early stages of ovule development until 5 days after pollination (DAP). This suggests that 5 DAP is likely to be a turning point for the development of the selfed ovules. Comparative de novo transcriptome analysis of the selfed and crossed ovules at 5 DAP identified 274 genes expressed specifically or preferentially in the selfed ovules. These genes contained a significant proportion of genes predicted to function in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, consistent with our histological observations in the fertilized ovules. The genes encoding signal transduction-related components, such as protein kinases and protein phosphatases, are overrepresented in the selfed ovules. X. sorbifolium selfed ovules also specifically or preferentially express many unique transcription factor (TF) genes that could potentially be involved in the novel mechanisms of LSI. We also identified 42 genes significantly up-regulated in the crossed ovules compared to the selfed ovules. The expression of all 16 genes selected from the RNA-seq data was validated using PCR in the selfed and crossed ovules. This study represents the first genome-wide identification of genes expressed in the fertilized ovules of an LSI species. The availability of a pool of specifically or preferentially expressed genes from selfed ovules for X. sorbifolium will be a valuable resource for future genetic analyses of candidate genes involved in the LSI response.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Óvulo Vegetal/genética , Polinização/genética , Sapindaceae/genética , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas/genética , Ontologia Genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Óvulo Vegetal/metabolismo , Óvulo Vegetal/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 22(16): 12215-23, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25893616

RESUMO

Longan (Dimocarpus longana Lour. cv. Wulongling) of uniform one-aged seedlings grown in pots were selected to study specific proteins expressed in leaves under simulated acid rain (SiAR) stress and exogenous Ca(2+) regulation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results showed that there was a protein band specifically expressed under SiAR of pH 2.5 stress for 15 days with its molecular weight of about 23 kD. A 17 kD protein band specifically expressed after SiAR stress 5 days. Compared with pH 2.5, the pH 3.5 of SiAR made a less influence to protein expression. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) results showed that six new specific proteins including C4 (20.2 kD pI 6.0), F (24 kD pI 6.35), B3 (22.3 kD pI 6.35), B4 (23.5 kD pI 6.5), C5 (21.8 kD pI 5.6), and C6 (20.2 kD pI 5.6) specifically expressed. C4 always expressed during SiAR stress. F expressed under the stress of pH 2.5 for 15 days and expressed in all pH SiAR stress for 20 days. The expression of proteins including B3, C5, and C6 was related to pH value and stress intensity of SiAR. The expression of B4 resulted from synergistic effects of SiAR and Ca. The expression of G1 (Mr 19.3 kD, pI 4.5), G2 (Mr 17.8 kD, pI 4.65), G3 (Mr 16.6 kD, pI 4.6), and G4 (Mr 14.7 kD, pI 4.4) enhanced under the treatment of 5 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 2 mM chlorpromazine (CPZ). These proteins showed antagonistic effects and might be relative to the Ca-calmodulin (Ca-CaM) system of longan in response to SiAR stress.


Assuntos
Chuva Ácida , Cálcio/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Proteômica/métodos , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/fisiologia
20.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 41: 17-27, 2014 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24907732

RESUMO

In the present investigation, we report a sustainable novel green synthetic strategy to synthesis zinc oxide nanocrystals. This is the first report on sustainable biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals employing Nephelium lappaceum L., peel extract as a natural ligation agent. Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals was carried out via zinc-ellagate complex formation using rambutan peel wastes. The successful formation of zinc oxide nanocrystals was confirmed employing standard characterisation studies. A possible mechanism for the formation of ZnO nanocrystals with rambutan peel extract was also proposed. The prepared ZnO nanocrystals were coated on the cotton fabric and their antibacterial activity were analyzed. ZnO nanocrystals coated cotton showed good antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli (E. coli), gram negative bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), gram positive bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/síntese química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sapindaceae/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Química Verde , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
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