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1.
Food Chem ; 331: 127240, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585546

RESUMO

The present study focused on the phytochemical profiling along with evaluation of in vitro antioxidant, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities of various crudes and fractions obtained from Lepisanthes fruticosa (Roxb) Leenh fruit. Ethanolic seed crude extract exhibited the strongest radical scavenging, ß-carotene bleaching activity, α-glucosidase inhibition and the highest total phenolic content (TPC). Column chromatography afforded various fractions with fraction M4 being the most potent due to the strongest radical scavenging, ß-carotene bleaching, α-glucosidase inhibition and greatest amount of TPC. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of ethanolic seed crude extract and fraction M4 showed the presence of various phytochemicals with antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, which include mostly flavonoids and tannins. The results may suggest that the ethanolic crude seed extract and its fraction could be an excellent source of bioactive phytochemicals with antioxidant and antidiabetic potential.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sapindaceae/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
2.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(7): 659-670, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522940

RESUMO

This work investigated the crystallization and melting behavior of cocoa butter substitute (CBS) blended with two hard lauric fats: fully hydrogenated palm kernel oil (FHPKO) and krabok seed fat (KSF). The aim was to find a way to increase the heat resistance of CBS for the production of heat-resistant compound chocolate (HRCC). Adding FHPKO to CBS increased the crystallization rate with a decrease in crystallization induction time but did not increase the heat resistance. In contrast, all KSF-CBS blends exhibited higher heat resistance than CBS and crystallized into ß' form, a preferred polymorph for fats used in compound chocolate. Only the blends with 10-60% KSF melted completely at the body temperature, indicating that they would leave no waxy mouthfeel, but the blends with 30 and 40% KSF exhibited a significant decrease in the crystallization rate compared to the original CBS. Therefore, the KSF-CBS blends with 10, 20 and 60% KSF are recommended for future use as fats for HRCC production.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Cristalização , Gorduras na Dieta , Óleo de Palmeira/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sapindaceae/química , Sementes/química , Temperatura de Transição , Temperatura Corporal , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Hidrogenação , Paladar
3.
Food Chem ; 320: 126618, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229397

RESUMO

Acute and subacute studies of rambutan peel phenolic (RPP) extract were conducted by oral administration on Kunming mice and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, respectively. Acute toxicity study (14 days) results revealed that the LD50 value of RPP extract was more than 5000 mg/kg bw in vivo. For the subacute study, four different doses were administered to SD rats by daily gavage for 28 days. Subacute toxicity study results indicated that RPP extract did not show any obvious adverse effect at doses of 312 and 625 mg/kg bw. The bw gain was significantly inhibited at 2500 mg/kg bw of RPP extract. RPP extract at doses of 1250 and 2500 mg/kg bw showed toxicities to liver, kidney, and spleen in SD rats according to the results of hematological and biochemical analyses. Furthermore, RPP extract at 2500 mg/kg bw showed toxicity on different tissues according to the results of histopathological analyses.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Sapindaceae/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Feminino , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Dose Letal Mediana , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Fenóis/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
4.
Food Chem ; 320: 126641, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213424

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to use acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) to treat longan fruit and evaluate the effects of AEW treatment on storability, quality attributes and nutritive properties of longans during storage. The data indicated that, as compared to the control samples, AEW treatment could effectively reduce the respiration rate and pericarp cell membrane permeability, retard the occurrences of pericarp browning, pulp breakdown and fruit disease, keep a higher rate of commercially acceptable fruit. Additionally, AEW treatment could suppress the decrease of chromaticity values of L*, a* and b* of the fruit surface, keep higher amounts of pericarp carotenoid, chlorophyll, flavonoid and anthocyanin, maintain higher amounts of pulp total soluble solid (TSS), total soluble sugars, sucrose and vitamin C. These results demonstrated that AEW treatment at pH of 2.5, ACC of 80 mg/L could maintain higher quality attributes and nutritive properties, and display better storability of harvested longans.


Assuntos
Sapindaceae/química , Ácidos/química , Antocianinas/química , Eletrólitos , Frutas/química , Água/química
5.
Molecules ; 25(4)2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075135

RESUMO

Dodonea viscosa (L.) Jacq from Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) was investigated for its leaf essential oil composition. The plant was extracted by hydrodistillation and its essential oil analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. This study revealed that oxygenated nor-diterpenes and diterpenes were one of the major chemical classes (> 50%) mainly consisting of three modified cyclopropylclerodanes containing a bicyclo[5.4.0]undecane ring system: one new furanoid norditerpene, dodovisate C, and two furanoid diterpenes, the known methyl dodovisate A and the new methyl iso-dodovisate A. These three compounds were isolated by liquid chromatography and their structures established on the basis of spectroscopic studies. The absolute configuration of dodovisate C was elucidated through a joint experimental and theoretical (B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p)) electronic circular dichroism study. The relative configurations of methyl dodovisate A and methyl iso-dodovisate A were determined using linear regressions of theoretical chemical shifts versus experimental values with the (B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p)) method.


Assuntos
Diterpenos Clerodânicos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Sapindaceae/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dicroísmo Circular , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/classificação , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Folhas de Planta/química
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 321: 108539, 2020 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062528

RESUMO

Microbial safety in food products is not always adequately controlled. Chemical antimicrobials which are recognized as hazards to human health are gradually replaced by natural antimicrobial compounds. In the current study, the antimicrobial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram- negative bacteria by the methanolic extract from rambutan fruit peels was evaluated using both in vitro (medium) and in situ (food matrices i.e. raw chicken breast and pangasius fillet fish) methods. Methanolic rambutan peel extract (lyophilized to powder with total phenolic content of 310 ± 14.5 mg GAE/g) with geraniin, ellagic acid, rutin, quercetin, and corilagin as main phenolic compounds was a potent inhibitor towards E. coli, V. campbellii, V. parahaemolyticus, V. anguillarum, P. aeruginosa, S. enteritidis, St. aureus, L. monocytogenes, and C. albicans using in vitro tests. In in situ tests, the extract inhibited S. enteritidis in raw chicken breast during 14 days of cold storage at 4 °C. Even though food matrices partly protected bacteria, the extract showed a 1.5 log CFU/g reduction of V. parahaemolyticus in fish during 10 days of cold storage. These results provide useful information on the utilization of rambutan fruit peel as natural antimicrobial agent in food products.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sapindaceae/química , Antibacterianos/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
7.
Talanta ; 209: 120508, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892057

RESUMO

A custom-tailored design was proposed for the fabrication of carbon dots coupled with restricted access materials and molecularly imprinted polymers (CDs@RAM-MIPs) to detect metronidazole (MNZ). Biomass carbon dots (CDs) were derived from longan peels assisted with high pressure microwave, and had the merits of eco-friendly, excellent photostability and low toxicity. In this work, glycidyl methacrylate was used as a co-polymeric monomer to increase hydroxyl groups on the surface of synthetic materials, which eliminated the interference of biological macromolecules. The specific binding cavities of CDs@RAM-MIPs were formed after removing the template molecule (MNZ). The obtained CDs@RAM-MIPs can selectively capture MNZ through the specific interaction between recognition sites and MNZ, and obey photoinduced electron transfer fluorescence quenching mechanism. The highly sensitive and selective fluorescent sensor based CDs@RAM-MIPs had a wide linear range (50-1200 ng mL-1) and a low detection limit (17.4 ng mL-1) for MNZ. It has been utilized to detect MNZ in serum with recoveries of 93.5%-102.7%, and the relative standards (RSDs) were 1.9%-3.6%, respectively. This work provides a thoughtful strategy for preparation and application of CDs@RAM-MIPs, which presages its great potential for detecting trace compounds in real samples.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Metronidazol/sangue , Polímeros/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Animais , Frutas/química , Cavalos , Limite de Detecção , Impressão Molecular , Sapindaceae/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos
8.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 202: 111718, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790883

RESUMO

Metallic nanoparticles were extensively examined to explore their impending exploitations over pharmaceutical purposes. Current work attempting to explores the cytotoxic capacity of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles besides to human melanoma cell line (A375). Viability of cells was resoluted, and the promising cytotoxicity potential was exhibited by zinc oxide nanoparticles. Cellular adhesion and morphology was determined by propidium iodide assay. Characterization studies like UV-Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) investigation, transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) Spec, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) examination confirms the accessibility of measurement, form and volume. The mRNA expression of apoptotic genes like caspase 3, 8 and 9 was elevated followed by the exposure to ZnO nanoparticles and it was narrowly proved that ZnO nanoparticles stimulates the apoptotic cell necrosis at the transcriptional stage. Cardiospermum halicacabum down regulated the apoptotic gene expressions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was augmented at concentration reliant mode, that changed normalize numerous indicator pathways and manipulate the kinetic cellular actions. ZnO nanoparticle synthesized Cardiospermum halicacabum might persuades programmed cell necrosis via elevated ROS levels in cells. CH-ZnONPs was further stimulates the markers of apoptosis and aggravates necrosis of cancerous cells, toxicity to cells, and accretion of ROS. With sourced on above whole data, this might accomplished that CH-ZnONPs amalgamated Cardiospermum halicacabum appreciably possessed a toxicity to human melanoma cells (A375) via provoking the apoptotic cell necrosis, entailed feasible efficacy of CH-ZnONPs besides malignancy management.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Apoptose , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Sapindaceae/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Humanos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Óxido de Zinco/química
9.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(7): 988-994, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663333

RESUMO

A new tocotrienol, 5-hydroxy-8-methyltocotrienol (1) was isolated from the roots and branches of A. cobbe (L.) Raeusch, together with seventeen known compounds (2-18). Their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data and by comparison of 1H and 13C NMR data with previous literature reports. This is the first phytochemical investigation of the roots and branches of Allophylus cobbe (L.) Raeusch.


Assuntos
Raízes de Plantas/química , Sapindaceae/química , Tocotrienóis , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Triterpenos
10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 229: 115475, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826430

RESUMO

The integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier is important for the health of the host. In this study, longan pulp polysaccharides (LP) prevented the intestinal mucosal injury by increasing the expression of mucin 2, tight junction proteins zonulae occludens-1 (ZO-1), claudin-1, claudin-4, and adherens junction E-cadherin in cyclophosphamide-treated mice. To further identify the principle bioactive component of LP, four acidic polysaccharides (LPIa, LPIIa, LPIIIa, and LPIVa) were purified, and their intestinal protection activity in vitro was compared. LPIa, LPIIa, and LPIIIa displayed an ability to increase mRNA expression of ZO-1, claudin-1, occludin, and E-cadherin in differentiated Caco-2 cells, especially LPIa. LPIa has specific structure characteristics: porous surface structure, a high molecular weight (1.47 × 105 Da), and two specific glycosidic linkages of α-Araf-(1→ and →5)-α-Araf-(1→. These structure characteristics might primarily contribute to greater intestinal barrier protective effect of LPIa.


Assuntos
Enteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Sapindaceae/química , Junções Íntimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Junções Aderentes/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Ciclofosfamida , Frutas/química , Humanos , Íleo/patologia , Enteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/isolamento & purificação , Células RAW 264.7 , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
11.
Arch Oral Biol ; 109: 104586, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630005

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dental caries is caused by plaque associated oral bacteria including a pioneer species Streptococcus mutans. It has ability to form biofilm and produce acids in the oral cavity. Many oral hygiene products containing plant derived compounds have been investigated for their anti-S. mutans activity. Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia (DVA), has been found to have this property. However, beneficial concentrations are difficult to maintain in the oral cavity due to continual saliva flow which can be overcome using nanotechnology. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-acidogenic, anti-biofilm and slow release properties of DVA derived flavone stabilized polymeric nanoparticles. METHODS: Crude extract prepared from DVA leaves was fractionated to produce subfractions and the beneficial subfraction (F5.1) was obtained. Polymeric nanoparticles (PLGA-PEG) were prepared, stabilized with the DVA subfraction (F5.1/NPs) and characterized. Anti-S. mutans, anti-acidogenic and antibiofilm properties were determined. The subfraction release profile (substantivity) and cytotoxicity was determined. Results were analyzed using the Wilcoxon sum test (Mann-Whitney). RESULTS: F5.1/NPs showed anti-S. mutans property (MIC 1.56 mg/ml). Subinhibitory concentrations of these nanoparticles significantly reduced the acid production in S. mutans (p < 0.01) and also reduced the biofilm formation by 92%. The retention and slow release of the beneficial compound was detected up to 12 h, reaching 0.1 mg/ml concentration at pH 7.4 after 4 h and at pH 5.5 after 5 h. IC50 of F5.1/NPs was 62.5 µg/ml. CONCLUSION: the DVA flavone containing nanoparticles showed anticariogenic activity with improved substantivity. Therefore, they have potential for use to control dental caries.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sapindaceae/química , Portadores de Fármacos , Nanopartículas , Folhas de Planta/química , Streptococcus mutans
12.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 24: 2515690X19891952, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840545

RESUMO

Traditionally people used Dodonaea viscosa for the treatment of various ailments, including diarrhea. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of the 80% methanolic leaf extract of D viscosa against castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice models. Different doses of 80% methanolic leaf extract of D viscosa (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) were evaluated for their antidiarrheal activities using castor oil-induced diarrhea, gastrointestinal transit, and enteropooling models in Swiss albino mice. At all test doses, the plant extract showed significant (P < .05) inhibition in the frequency of defecation of wet feces and total fecal output as compared to the control group. Similarly, at all dose ranges used the plant extract demonstrated significant (P < .05) reduction in an intraluminal fluid accumulation as compared to the untreated group. Besides, at higher doses, the plant extract also indicated significant (P < .05) antimotility activity in comparison with the control. In conclusion, these findings illustrated that the 80% methanolic leaf extract of D viscosa supported the traditional claim of antidiarrheal activity of the plant though further investigations are warranted.


Assuntos
Antidiarreicos/administração & dosagem , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Sapindaceae/química , Animais , Antidiarreicos/isolamento & purificação , Óleo de Rícino/efeitos adversos , Defecação/efeitos dos fármacos , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Feminino , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
13.
Molecules ; 24(14)2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319490

RESUMO

This study investigates an aqueous salt process (ASP) combined with microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) for the seed oil extraction from yellow horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge). The NaCl concentration in the oil extraction process affected the oil extraction yield. Box-Behnken design (BBD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize the extraction process. The optimal operating parameters were: 24 g/L NaCl, 300 W microwave power, 4:1 water to material ratio, an 80 min extraction time, and 45 °C extraction temperature. The chemical composition of the extracted seed oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This extraction technique for yellow horn seed oil provided high throughput and high-quality oil. The present research offers a kind of green extraction method for edible oil in the food industry.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais/química , Sapindaceae/química , Sementes/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Micro-Ondas , Águas Salinas/química , Temperatura
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 138: 412-424, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323268

RESUMO

In this study, the injectable thermogelling hydrogels under physiological temperature were prepared using chitosan (CS) and silk fibroin (SF). These hydrogels were loaded with crude water extract of longan seed (WLS) to improve osteoblast differentiation and stimulate mineralization in bone cells. These hydrogels showed a sol-to-gel transition time at 37 °C approximately 4-10 min and the formation of microstructure with small slender pores. The cumulative released amount of both GA and EA from the CS hydrogels was much lower than that from the CS/SF hydrogels. In addition, these hydrogels showed non-cytotoxic to both mouse fibroblast cell line (NCTC clone 929) and mouse osteoblast cell line (MC3T3-E1) and improved the attachment and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells on the hydrogels. Furthermore, these hydrogels showed antimicrobial activity against both E. coli and S. aureus. Therefore, these hydrogels might be potential materials as drug delivery carriers for bone tissue engineering.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Fibroínas/química , Hidrogéis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sapindaceae/química , Sementes/química , Engenharia Tecidual , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Osso e Ossos , Adesão Celular , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Fenômenos Químicos , Termogravimetria , Tecidos Suporte/química
15.
Food Chem ; 297: 124955, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253342

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on membrane lipids metabolism and its relation to pulp breakdown development of longan fruit during postharvest storage. Compared to the control longans, H2O2-treated longans showed higher pulp breakdown index, cell membrane permeability, and activities of phospholipase D (PLD), lipase and lipoxygenase (LOX). Moreover, H2O2-treated longans maintained higher levels of pulp phosphatidic acid (PA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA). However, H2O2-treated longans exhibited lower levels of pulp phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and unsaturated fatty acids (USFA), lower index of unsaturated fatty acids (IUFA), and lower ratio of USFA to SFA (U/S). These findings demonstrated that H2O2 caused the increased activities of enzymes involving in membrane lipids degradation and the accelerated decompositions of membrane USFA and phospholipids in longan pulp, which eventually triggered the destruction of the pulp cell membrane structure and the development of pulp breakdown in longans during storage.


Assuntos
Enzimas/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/química , Enzimas/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Lipase/química , Lipase/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipoxigenase/química , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Lipídeos de Membrana/química , Fosfolipase D/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Sapindaceae/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(10)2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091703

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) are mosquito-borne viruses of the Flavivirus genus that could cause congenital microcephaly and hemorrhage, respectively, in humans, and thus present a risk to global public health. A preventive vaccine against ZIKV remains unavailable, and no specific antiviral drugs against ZIKV and DENV are licensed. Medicinal plants may be a source of natural antiviral drugs which mostly target viral entry. In this study, we evaluate the antiviral activity of Doratoxylum apetalum, an indigenous medicinal plant from the Mascarene Islands, against ZIKV and DENV infection. Our data indicated that D. apetalum exhibited potent antiviral activity against a contemporary epidemic strain of ZIKV and clinical isolates of four DENV serotypes at non-cytotoxic concentrations in human cells. Time-of-drug-addition assays revealed that D. apetalum extract acts on ZIKV entry by preventing the internalisation of virus particles into the host cells. Our data suggest that D. apetalum-mediated ZIKV inhibition relates to virus particle inactivation. We suggest that D. apetalum could be a promising natural source for the development of potential antivirals against medically important flaviviruses.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Vírus da Dengue/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sapindaceae/química , Zika virus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Células Vero
17.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216721, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120926

RESUMO

Although cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has a low incidence globally, this is extremely high in Northeast Thailand. The lack of both early detection measures and effective therapeutic drugs is the major problem for the poor prognosis of CCA patients. Based on regional knowledge, it would be advantageous to search for effective natural phyto-products for the treatment of CCA. Cardiospermum halicacabum L., Gomphrena celosioides Mart. and Scoparia dulcis L., very well-known medicinal herbs in Asian countries, were selected for the investigation of inhibitory effects on CCA cells. Of the three different ethanolic extracts, S. dulcis L extract showed most inhibitory effects on cell growth of CCA cell lines KKU-100 and KKU-213, at percentages of 56.06 and 74.76, respectively, compared to the untreated group after treatment with 250 µg/mL of extracts for 72 hrs. At 400 and 500 µg/mL of the extracts, the inhibitory effect of KKU-213 was indicated by a significant increase in the BAX/Bcl-2 ratio and cell membrane permeability. Moreover, metabolic profiling-based screening employed in the current study revealed a significant positive association between the lignin compound and a decrease in CCA cell viability. Our study suggests, for the first time, that ESD has the ability to inhibit CCA cell growth through the induction of apoptosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/tratamento farmacológico , Colangiocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Amaranthaceae/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Colangiocarcinoma/metabolismo , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/química , Sapindaceae/química , Scoparia/química , Tailândia , Ensaio Tumoral de Célula-Tronco
18.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 45(3): 1051-1065, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089991

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the leaf aqueous extract composition of Serjania marginata and the effects of its inclusion on the diet of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), with respect to the activity of digestive enzymes and enzymes associated with the metabolism of the liver and intestine and liver histopathology. Fish (initial mean weight, 54.36 ± 17.04 g) were divided into groups: fasting (without feeding), control (commercial feed), and treatment (commercial feed with leaf aqueous extract of Serjania marginata), and in each aquarium, there were five individuals and the fish fed ad libitum for 15 days. Treatment fish had ingested on average 224.3 mg of extract/kg of fish/day. In the extract analysis by mass spectrometry, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, A-type proanthocyanidin trimer, and quinic acid were identified. In the enzymatic activity, fish from the treatment group showed higher level of alkaline phosphatase, while the hepatotoxic markers (AST and ALT) and levels of lipase, amylase, and nonspecific protease did not differ (p > 0.05). In liver histopathological analysis, it was observed that fish from the treatment showed normal structure, while abnormalities were associated with control (fibrosis, loss of cordonal architecture, vacuolated hepatocytes with nucleus displaced to the periphery) and fasting (reduction in hepatocyte size and sinusoidal space). The intestine histopathology evidenced that the extract favored the development of goblet cells and intestinal fold height. The results indicated that the leaf aqueous extract of S. marginata assists in the structural maintenance of the liver and intestine and stimulates intestinal alkaline phosphatase production in Nile tilapia, suggesting that the identified compounds act on the liver and intestine, showing hepatoprotective effects and stimulating intestinal digestion.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Sapindaceae/química , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fígado/enzimologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química
19.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 20(6): 503-512, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090276

RESUMO

Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) and longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) fruits have a succulent and white aril with a brown seed and are becoming popular worldwide. The two fruits have been used in traditional Chinese medicine as popular herbs in the treatment of neural pain, swelling, and cardiovascular disease. The pericarp and seed portions as the by-products of litchi and longan fruits are estimated to be approximately 30% of the dry weight of the whole fruit and are rich in bioactive constituents. In the recent years, many biological activities, such as tyrosinase inhibitory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-glycated, and anti-cancer activities, as well as memory-increasing effects, have been reported for the litchi and longan pericarp and seed extracts, indicating a potentially significant contribution to human health. With the increasing production of litchi and longan fruits, enhanced utilization of the two fruit by-products for their inherent bioactive constituents in relation to pharmacological effects is urgently needed. This paper reviews the current advances in the extraction, processing, identification, and biological and pharmacological activities of constituents from litchi and longan by-products. Potential utilization of litchi and longan pericarps and seeds in relation to further research is also discussed.


Assuntos
Litchi/química , Sapindaceae/química , Frutas/química , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química
20.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 129: 30-37, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009737

RESUMO

Rambutan peel phenolics (RPP) have high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Leu-Ser-Gly-Tyr-Gly-Pro (LSGYGP) possesses good radical scavenging activity and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) inhibitory ability. These underlying mechanisms indicated that RPP and LSGYGP may be used for antiphotoaging. Few data on the effects of RPP and LSGYGP on in vivo photoaging are available. We evaluated the effects of RPP and/or LSGYGP on ultraviolet (UV)-induced hairless mice skin photoaging. In particular, we analyzed the additive effect of RPP and LSGYGP. The biochemical indices of mice skin, including composition (collagen and hyaluronic acid [HA] contents), oxidant stress (antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione and malondialdehyde contents), MMPs (MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-9 levels), inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1α, tumor nuclear factor-α, and IL-6 levels) and the phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, were determined. Results showed a protective effect of RPP and/or LSGYGP on photoaging skin. LSGYGP showed considerable effects on skin collagen and HA contents. RPP showed improved effects on the regulation of the oxidant stress and inflammatory cytokine levels. RPP and LSGYGP exerted an additive effect on the amelioration of the biochemical indices of UV-induced photoaging skin. The histological changes showed that RPP and LSGYGP recovered the changes in skin tissue and endogenous collagen.


Assuntos
Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Sapindaceae/química , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Oligopeptídeos/química , Fosforilação , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia
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