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1.
Food Chem ; 297: 124955, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253342

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on membrane lipids metabolism and its relation to pulp breakdown development of longan fruit during postharvest storage. Compared to the control longans, H2O2-treated longans showed higher pulp breakdown index, cell membrane permeability, and activities of phospholipase D (PLD), lipase and lipoxygenase (LOX). Moreover, H2O2-treated longans maintained higher levels of pulp phosphatidic acid (PA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA). However, H2O2-treated longans exhibited lower levels of pulp phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and unsaturated fatty acids (USFA), lower index of unsaturated fatty acids (IUFA), and lower ratio of USFA to SFA (U/S). These findings demonstrated that H2O2 caused the increased activities of enzymes involving in membrane lipids degradation and the accelerated decompositions of membrane USFA and phospholipids in longan pulp, which eventually triggered the destruction of the pulp cell membrane structure and the development of pulp breakdown in longans during storage.


Assuntos
Enzimas/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/química , Enzimas/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Lipase/química , Lipase/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipoxigenase/química , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Lipídeos de Membrana/química , Fosfolipase D/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Sapindaceae/metabolismo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(10)2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091703

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) are mosquito-borne viruses of the Flavivirus genus that could cause congenital microcephaly and hemorrhage, respectively, in humans, and thus present a risk to global public health. A preventive vaccine against ZIKV remains unavailable, and no specific antiviral drugs against ZIKV and DENV are licensed. Medicinal plants may be a source of natural antiviral drugs which mostly target viral entry. In this study, we evaluate the antiviral activity of Doratoxylum apetalum, an indigenous medicinal plant from the Mascarene Islands, against ZIKV and DENV infection. Our data indicated that D. apetalum exhibited potent antiviral activity against a contemporary epidemic strain of ZIKV and clinical isolates of four DENV serotypes at non-cytotoxic concentrations in human cells. Time-of-drug-addition assays revealed that D. apetalum extract acts on ZIKV entry by preventing the internalisation of virus particles into the host cells. Our data suggest that D. apetalum-mediated ZIKV inhibition relates to virus particle inactivation. We suggest that D. apetalum could be a promising natural source for the development of potential antivirals against medically important flaviviruses.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Vírus da Dengue/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sapindaceae/química , Zika virus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cercopithecus aethiops , Humanos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Células Vero
3.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 45(3): 1051-1065, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089991

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the leaf aqueous extract composition of Serjania marginata and the effects of its inclusion on the diet of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), with respect to the activity of digestive enzymes and enzymes associated with the metabolism of the liver and intestine and liver histopathology. Fish (initial mean weight, 54.36 ± 17.04 g) were divided into groups: fasting (without feeding), control (commercial feed), and treatment (commercial feed with leaf aqueous extract of Serjania marginata), and in each aquarium, there were five individuals and the fish fed ad libitum for 15 days. Treatment fish had ingested on average 224.3 mg of extract/kg of fish/day. In the extract analysis by mass spectrometry, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, A-type proanthocyanidin trimer, and quinic acid were identified. In the enzymatic activity, fish from the treatment group showed higher level of alkaline phosphatase, while the hepatotoxic markers (AST and ALT) and levels of lipase, amylase, and nonspecific protease did not differ (p > 0.05). In liver histopathological analysis, it was observed that fish from the treatment showed normal structure, while abnormalities were associated with control (fibrosis, loss of cordonal architecture, vacuolated hepatocytes with nucleus displaced to the periphery) and fasting (reduction in hepatocyte size and sinusoidal space). The intestine histopathology evidenced that the extract favored the development of goblet cells and intestinal fold height. The results indicated that the leaf aqueous extract of S. marginata assists in the structural maintenance of the liver and intestine and stimulates intestinal alkaline phosphatase production in Nile tilapia, suggesting that the identified compounds act on the liver and intestine, showing hepatoprotective effects and stimulating intestinal digestion.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Sapindaceae/química , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fígado/enzimologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química
4.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 129: 30-37, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009737

RESUMO

Rambutan peel phenolics (RPP) have high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Leu-Ser-Gly-Tyr-Gly-Pro (LSGYGP) possesses good radical scavenging activity and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) inhibitory ability. These underlying mechanisms indicated that RPP and LSGYGP may be used for antiphotoaging. Few data on the effects of RPP and LSGYGP on in vivo photoaging are available. We evaluated the effects of RPP and/or LSGYGP on ultraviolet (UV)-induced hairless mice skin photoaging. In particular, we analyzed the additive effect of RPP and LSGYGP. The biochemical indices of mice skin, including composition (collagen and hyaluronic acid [HA] contents), oxidant stress (antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione and malondialdehyde contents), MMPs (MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-9 levels), inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1α, tumor nuclear factor-α, and IL-6 levels) and the phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, were determined. Results showed a protective effect of RPP and/or LSGYGP on photoaging skin. LSGYGP showed considerable effects on skin collagen and HA contents. RPP showed improved effects on the regulation of the oxidant stress and inflammatory cytokine levels. RPP and LSGYGP exerted an additive effect on the amelioration of the biochemical indices of UV-induced photoaging skin. The histological changes showed that RPP and LSGYGP recovered the changes in skin tissue and endogenous collagen.


Assuntos
Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Sapindaceae/química , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Oligopeptídeos/química , Fosforilação , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia
5.
Molecules ; 24(6)2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917573

RESUMO

The longan industry produces a large amount of byproducts such as pericarp and seed, resulting in environmental pollution and resource wastage. The present study was performed to systematically evaluate functional components, i.e., polyphenols (phenolics and flavonoids) and alkaloids, in longan byproducts and their bioactivities, including antioxidant activities, nitrite scavenging activities in simulated gastric fluid and anti-hyperglycemic activities in vitro. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in pericarp were slightly higher than those in seeds, but seeds possessed higher alkaloid content than pericarp. Four polyphenolic substances, i.e., gallic acid, ethyl gallate, corilagin and ellagic acid, were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Among these polyphenolic components, corilagin was the major one in both pericarp and seed. Alkaloid extract in seed showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Nitrite scavenging activities were improved with extract concentration and reaction time increasing. Flavonoids in seed and alkaloids in pericarp had potential to be developed as anti-hyperglycemic agents. The research result was a good reference for exploring longan byproducts into various valuable health-care products.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Sapindaceae/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Hipoglicemiantes/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Sementes/química
6.
Food Chem ; 287: 133-138, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857682

RESUMO

In this study, the effects on the sensory quality and flavor profile of dried longan resulting from smoking it for 104 h were investigated. The results showed that, in terms of the quality of the dried longan. The smoking time influenced the fruit's water activity (0.70-0.92), soluble solids (30-60 。Brix), pH (6.13-6.71), and tendency to change from yellow to brown hues (ΔE: 3.13-12.83). We detected 42 volatile compound variations during smoking, of which 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatriene, hydroxy butanone, and 1-octen-3-ol perceived aroma for longan. Aroma characteristics were evaluated smoky effect by agglomerative hierarchical cluster and principal component analysis. Forasmuch phenolic derivatives (smoky flavor) form lignin degradation correlated for the time, and organic compounds via oxidation (or hydrolyzation). We found get the smoky flavor and intermediate moisture of longan in smoked 72 h, which extended sensory and preservation that is beneficial to longan producers.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Frutas/química , Odorantes/análise , Sapindaceae/química , Fumaça , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
7.
Virol J ; 16(1): 26, 2019 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue continues to be a major international public health concern. Despite that, there is no clinically approved antiviral for treatment of dengue virus (DENV) infections. In this study, geraniin extracted from the rind of Nephelium lappaceum was shown to inhibit the replication of DENV-2 in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. METHODS: The effect of geraniin on DENV-2 RNA synthesis in infected Vero cells was tested using quantitative RT-PCR. The in vivo efficacy of geraniin in inhibiting DENV-2 infection was then tested using BALB/c mice with geraniin administered at three different times. The differences in spleen to body weight ratio, DENV-2 RNA load and liver damage between the three treatment groups as compared to DENV-2 infected mice without geraniin administration were determined on day eight post-infection. RESULTS: Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the decrease in viral RNA synthesis of infected Vero cells when treated with geraniin. Geraniin seemed to provide a protective effect on infected BALB/c mice liver when given at 24 h pre- and 24 h post-infection as liver damage was observed to be very mild even though a significant reduction of DENV-2 RNA load in serum was not observed in these two treatment groups. However, when administered at 72 h post-infection, severe liver damage in the form of necrosis and haemorrhage had prevailed despite a substantial reduction of DENV-2 RNA load in serum. CONCLUSIONS: Geraniin was found to be effective in reducing DENV-2 RNA load when administered at 72 h post-infection while earlier administration could prevent severe liver damage caused by DENV-2 infection. These results provide evidence that geraniin is a potential candidate for the development of anti-dengue drug.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Vírus da Dengue/efeitos dos fármacos , Dengue/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/farmacologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cercopithecus aethiops , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Frutas/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/genética , Sapindaceae/química , Células Vero , Carga Viral
8.
Carbohydr Polym ; 213: 247-256, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879666

RESUMO

An active polysaccharide (LPD2) was isolated from longan pulp by comparing the effects of polysaccharides on the phagocytosis of macrophages. LPD2 was composed of arabinose, mannose, glucose, and galactose in a molar ratio of 0.25:0.49:1:0.5 with average molecular weight of 9.64 × 106 Da. The main linkages of the sugar residues of LPD2 were (1→4)-ß-Glc and (1→6)-ß-Man. LPD2 significantly enhanced the lymphocytes proliferation, phagocytosis and NO and IL-6 secretion by macrophage. The anti-TLR2 and anti-TLR4 mAbs markedly suppressed LPD2-mediated NO and IL-6 production. Furthermore, anti-TLR4 or anti-TLR2 plus anti-TLR4 treatment significantly decreased LPD2-induced increase of MyD88, IRAK4, TRAF6 and INOS mRNA expression. Moreover, western blotting analysis showed that LPD2 enhanced the expression of target proteins in MyD88/IRAK4-TRAF6- INOS pathways. These results suggested that LPD2 induced macrophage activation partly via the TLR2- and TLR4-mediated MyD88/IRAK4-TRAF6 signaling pathways. Knowing the structural features and activities of active polysaccharide of longan gives the insights into longan polysaccharide application as an immunomodulatory agent.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Sapindaceae/química , Animais , Configuração de Carboidratos , Frutas/química , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Células RAW 264.7
9.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(6): 1489-1496, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739278

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) fruit peel powder (RP) on fermentation characteristics, rumen microorganisms, and in vitro gas production. Three levels of crude protein (CP) in the concentrate (14%, 16%, and 18% CP) and supplementation of rambutan peel powder (0, 2, 4, and 6% of the total dietary substrate) were designed for treatments according to 3 × 4 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design (CRD). The rumen fluid samples were collected from two-fistulated dairy bulls which had been fed on rice straw with concentrate to adjust the rumen environment. The ratio of roughage (R) and concentrate (C) at 60:40 was used, and all ingredients were added according to the mentioned ratio, respectively. Under this study, supplementation of CP at different levels in the concentrate diet significantly altered (P < 0.05) rumen NH3-N at 6 and after 12 h of incubation, whereas the rumen pH was not significantly changed with CP and RP supplementation levels at any times of incubation. The rumen pH was declined at 18% CP at 6 h of incubation time, as compared to 14 and 16% CP with 0% RP supplementation. The CP and RP supplementation could enhance and maintain the rumen pH during incubation to the optimum condition. The RP supplementation significantly doubled bacterial population while reduced protozoal population; however, fungal zoospores were not altered with CP and RP supplementation. The ruminal propionate (C3) production was remarkably higher (P < 0.05) by the RP and CP supplementation. The ratio of acetate to propionate (C2:C3) was decreased (P < 0.05) with RP supplementation. Meanwhile, rumen methane (CH4) production was significantly reduced by the RP supplementation. In addition, high level of RP supplementation (6% of total substrate) also significantly decreased the cumulative gas production and the in vitro true digestibility (%IVTDMD). Level of CP had no effect on rumen fermentation while interactive effects of CP level and RP supplementation were not found. This current study indicated that RP supplementation could suppress protozoal population, mitigate methane production, and improve rumen fermentation.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Rúmen/microbiologia , Sapindaceae/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fermentação , Técnicas In Vitro , Metano/metabolismo , Nutrientes
10.
Food Funct ; 10(3): 1433-1443, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768100

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a polyphenolic extract from longan seeds as a wound-healing material for deep second-degree burn wounds. The total phenol content of the extract reached 45.28 ± 1.22 mg GAE per g DW when 70% ethanol was used as the extraction solvent, and then AB-8 resin was used for purification. Results from the antioxidant assay in vitro (DPPH˙ and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity) and antimicrobial activity assay (ZOI, MIC and MBC) showed that the fractions eluted by 30% ethanol tend to have greater antioxidant ability, as well as higher bactericidal and antibacterial activities, than the other elution fractions. Low-, middle-, and high-doses of the polyphenolic extract were applied for wound-healing of mice, and were compared with 30% ethanol solution (negative control) and 'Jing Wan Hong®' (positive control). The results showed that on the 11th day, the wound-healing rate and levels of hydroxyproline and protein indicated that wound healing in the high-dose polyphenolic group was similar to that of the positive control, which was higher than that in the other groups (p < 0.01). The histological results indicated that high-dose polyphenolic extracts are capable of leading to the formation of new blood vessels and capillaries, regenerating new dermal tissue and remodeling the newly formed tissue during the proliferative period. Our results provided first-hand information on the would-healing potential of the polyphenolic extract from longan seeds.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Sapindaceae/química , Sementes/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 951-962, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787609

RESUMO

Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Cardiospermum halicacabum is used to treat nerve disorders, stiffness, rheumatism, ear ache, snake bite, and so on. Methods: In this study, the reaction parameters were optimized to control the size of the nanoparticle, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Various characterization techniques such as selected area diffraction pattern, UV-visible spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, dynamic light scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed to analyze the synthesized AuNPs obtained from C. halicacabum (CH-AuNP) against gastric carcinoma cell line. Results: The cytotoxic effect of CH-AuNP against AGS, SNU-5, and SNU-16 cell lines was detected by MTT assay. The induction of apoptosis by CH-AuNP in AGS was analyzed by double staining technique using TUNEL and DAPI staining assays. Further to confirm the molecular mechanism exhibited by CH-AuNP to induce apoptosis, the intracellular ROS level was assessed and immunoblotting was performed to assess the apoptotic signaling molecules that often deregulated in cancerous condition. Conclusion: The results clearly prove that CH-AuNP increases ROS and induces apoptosis in AGS, suggesting that CH-AuNP may be an effective anticancer drug with no side effects to treat gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Caspases/metabolismo , Ouro/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Sapindaceae/química , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Ouro/química , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Molecules ; 24(3)2019 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30754614

RESUMO

Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) pericarp, the main by-product of aril and pulp processing, is abundant in phenolic compounds and worthy of further utilization. The present work firstly reported HPLC analysis and in vitro antioxidant evaluation of longan (cv. Shixia) pericarp-derived phenolics (LPPs), the purified longan pericarp extract (LPE), as well as their cytotoxic effect on lung cancer cell line, A549. The results indicated that the purified LPE had significant amounts of phenolics, with content of 57.8 ± 0.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry longan pericarp (mg GAE·g-1 DLP), which consisted of six phenolic compounds (A⁻F), including protocatechuic acid (A), isoscopoletin (B), quercetin (C), ellagic acid (D), corilagin (E), and proanthocyanidins C1 (F). Antioxidant assays showed that LPPs (10 µM) and LPE (1.0 mg·mL-1) had certain antioxidant activities, in which corilagin (E) possessed the best DPPH radical scavenging rate 71.8 ± 0.5% and •OH inhibition rate 75.9 ± 0.3%, and protocatechuic acid (A) exhibited the strongest Fe2+ chelating ability 36.4 ± 0.7%. In vitro cytotoxic tests suggested that LPPs had different effect on A549 cell line, in which corilagin (E) exhibited potent cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 28.8 ± 1.2 µM. These findings were further confirmed by cell staining experiments.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Sapindaceae/química , Células A549 , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia
13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 206: 344-351, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553331

RESUMO

Longan pulp polysaccharides were extracted with hot water (LP-H), superfine grinding (LP-S) and superfine grinding-assisted enzymatic treatments (LP-SE). The yields, physicochemical properties and prebiotic activities of polysaccharides were investigated. Compared with LP-H and LP-S, the yield, sugar content, solubility, arabinose and mannose percentage of LP-SE increased while its apparent viscosity, particle size, Mw and glucose percentage declined. Three LPs contained similar glycosidic linkage of →3)-α-l-Araf-(1→, →3,6)-ß-d-Galp-(1→ and α-l-Rhap(l→, while they each contained specific glycosidic linkage of →4)-ß-d-Glcp(l→, →4)-ß-d-Galp-(1→ and →5)-α-l-Araf-(1→ in LP-H, LP-S and LP-SE, respectively. Moreover, LP-SE exhibited stronger stimulation than LP-H and LP-S on the proliferation of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus fermentum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The results indicated three extraction methods had some effect on chemical composition and structure of polysaccharide. LP-SE extracted by superfine grinding-assisted enzymatic treatment exhibited the highest prebiotic activities, which have a great potential in applying in functional food and medical industry.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Prebióticos , Sapindaceae/química , Sequência de Carboidratos , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Leuconostoc mesenteroides/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Molecular , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Solubilidade , Viscosidade
14.
Food Chem ; 274: 808-815, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373014

RESUMO

Rambutan seed is usually discarded during fruit processing. However, the seed contains a considerable amount of crude fat. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the fat properties and antinutrient content of the seed during fermentation of rambutan fruit. Results showed that the crude fat content of the seed reduced by 22% while its free fatty acid content increased by 4.3 folds after 10 days of fermentation. Arachidic acid was selectively reduced and was replaced by linoleic acid from the seventh day of fermentation onwards. Only 14.5% of triacylglycerol remained in the seed fat at the end of fermentation. The complete melting temperature, crystallization onset temperature and solid fat index at 37 °C of the fermented seed fat were higher than that of non-fermented seed fat. The saponin and tannin contents of the seed were reduced by 67% and 47%, respectively, after fermentation.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Sapindaceae/química , Sementes/química , Cristalização , Ácidos Eicosanoicos/análise , Ácidos Eicosanoicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Fermentação , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Saponinas/análise , Sementes/metabolismo , Taninos/análise , Temperatura Ambiente , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
15.
Food Chem ; 271: 298-308, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236681

RESUMO

A novel way to fully utilize rambutan fruit and seed is to ferment peeled fruits followed by drying and roasting, and use the seeds to produce seed powder similar to that of cocoa powder. Hence, the objective of this study was to optimize the roasting time and temperature of rambutan fruit post-fermentation and drying, and to produce a cocoa-like powder product from the seeds. Parameters monitored during roasting were colour and total phenolic content, while seed powder obtained using optimized roasting conditions was analyzed for its physicochemical properties and toxicity. The latter was examined using the brine shrimp lethality assay. Results showed that the roasted seed powder possessed colour and key volatile compounds similar to that of cocoa powder. Besides, the brine shrimp lethality assay indicated that the roasted seed powder was non-toxic. Thus, the fruit, including its seed could be fully utilized and subsequently, wastage could be reduced.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Sapindaceae/química , Cacau , Chocolate , Fermentação , Frutas , Sementes/química
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(1): 352-363, 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541284

RESUMO

Soluble acid invertases (SAIs) cleave sucrose into hexose in vacuoles and play important roles in influencing fruit quality. However, their potential roles in regulating sugar composition and the "sugar receding" process of longan fruits lacked systematic investigations. Our results showed that sucrose/hexose ratios and sugar receding rates of longan pulp varied among cultivars. Analysis of enzymes for sucrose synthesis and cleavage indicated that DlSAI showed the highest negative correlation with sucrose/hexose ratio at both of activity and expression level. Moreover, high SAI activity and DlSAI expression resulted in extremely low sucrose/hexose ratio in 'Luosanmu' longan from development to mature stages and a remarkable loss of sugar in 'Shixia' longan fruits during on-tree preservation. In conclusion, DlSAIs act as key factors influencing sucrose/hexose ratio and sugar receding through transcriptional and enzymatic regulations. These results might help improve the quality of on-tree preserved longan.


Assuntos
Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Hexoses/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/enzimologia , Sacarose/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/enzimologia , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Hexoses/química , Cinética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sapindaceae/química , Sapindaceae/genética , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Sacarose/química
17.
Molecules ; 23(12)2018 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30544737

RESUMO

Starch was isolated from longan seeds of three widely distributed cultivars (Chuliang, Shixia, and Caopu) in China. Comparisons of the multi-level structure of the starch of longan seeds among various cultivars were made, and the relations between these structural and property characteristics are discussed. The isolated starch, accounting for 44.9⁻49.5% (w/w) in longan seeds, had an oval or an irregular polygonal shape with a smooth surface. Their chain-length distributions (CLDs) varied with longan cultivar; Chuliang showed a larger proportion of longer amylopectin chains with a degree of polymerization (DP) 30~100. This is attributed to the slightly higher relative crystallinity of Chuliang longan seed starch. Apparent differences were also detected in amylose structure. Caopu showed a higher amylose content than Chuliang and Shixia, resulting in its lower gelatinization temperatures and enthalpy change. All longan seed starch had a typical A-type crystal structure with relative crystallinity ranging 28.6⁻28.9%. For raw starch, Caopu showed the lowest digestion rate, followed by Chuliang; Shixia showed the highest. This is because Caopu had the highest amylose content. Chuliang had a more intact structure than Shixia, as suggested by its higher crystallinity, although they had similar amylose content. After being fully gelatinized, all starch showed a similar digestion process, indicating that the digestibility of gelatinized starch does not differ with starch source or structure.


Assuntos
Gelatina/química , Sapindaceae/química , Amido/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Estrutura Molecular , Sementes/química , Difração de Raios X
18.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 75(4): 419-427, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30073431

RESUMO

Dermacentor nitens tick is commonly found in the equine auditory canal, where it causes economic losses due to its direct damage, causing blood spoliation, stress, transmission of pathogens, and predisposition to myasis and secondary bacterial infection in its hosts. In this study we evaluated the effect of ethanolic extracts of Cerrado plants on biological parameters of engorged females of D. nitens. Ethanolic extracts were prepared from the leaves of Schinopsis brasiliensis, Piptadenia viridiflora, Ximenia americana, and Serjania lethalis at 25-150 mg mL-1. Groups of 10 engorged adult females were treated with these extracts and compared with a control containing distilled water and another control with organophosphate, using five replicates for each group. Compared with the control with water, S. lethalis and X. americana extracts at 100 and 150 mg mL-1 significantly inhibited the posture ability. Differently, extracts of S. brasiliensis and P. viridiflora were the most effective in inhibiting larval hatching. Extracts of X. americana and P. viridiflora showed effective inhibition of reproductive parameters of the tick, presenting dose-dependent effect with IC90 78.86 and 78.94 mg mL-1, respectively. Theses effective extracts contained low condensed tannin levels and their HPLC chromatograms revealed the presence of flavonoids. The efficacies of P. viridiflora and X. americana extracts were higher than 90% indicating that these extracts are promising as alternative agents for D. nitens control.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/isolamento & purificação , Ixodidae , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Anacardiaceae/química , Animais , Fabaceae/química , Feminino , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Cavalos/parasitologia , Olacaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sapindaceae/química
19.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 14(Supplement): S388-S393, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29970694

RESUMO

Aim of Study: Proanthocyanidin-rich longan flower extract (LFP) has been previously shown to inhibit the proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar of two colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cells in vitro. In this report, we further examined the effects of LFP in a CRC spheroid model. Materials and Methods: A liquid-overlay assay employing HT-29 spheroids was used to evaluate the effects of LFP on cancer cell tumorigenesis, viability, and apoptosis. Associated effects on signaling path ways (epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], Akt) and apoptotic regulators were measured using Western blot. Results: Treatment with LFP up to 200 µg/ml inhibited tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner and induced prominent apoptosis as measured by annexin V staining. Cells treated with LFP showed decreased EGFR and Akt phosphorylation with decreased expression of B-cell lymphoma 2. Conclusion: The ability of LFP to induce apoptosis in CRC spheroids warrants further investigation of its composition and identification of tumor-active components.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Flores/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Sapindaceae/química , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Humanos , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
20.
Phytochemistry ; 152: 182-190, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29778835

RESUMO

Eight undescribed triterpenoid saponins together with a known one, and two undescribed sesquiterpene glycosides were isolated from root's barks of Eriocoelum microspermum. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D experiments in combinaison with mass spectrometry as 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin, 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-[ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin, 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-[ß-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin, 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin 28-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-ß-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-ß-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin, 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-ß-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin, 3-O-ß-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin, 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin, 1-O-{ß-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)}-[ß-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(2E,6E)-farnes-1-ol, 1-O-{ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)}-[ß-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(2E,6E)-farnes-1-ol. These results represent a contribution to the chemotaxonomy of the genus Eriocoelum highlighting farnesol glycosides as chemotaxonomic markers of the subfamily of Sapindoideae in the family of Sapindaceae.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Casca de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Sapindaceae/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , Configuração de Carboidratos , Glicosídeos/química , Terpenos/química
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