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1.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(9): 9523-9534, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to constantly emerging new studies on Xuesaitong injection (XST) agent, it is necessary to summarize and analyze the latest published clinical research data to re-evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of XST. This study mainly aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of XST combined with western medicines (WM) for ischemic stroke treatment. METHODS: The related databases were searched to collect all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the combination of XST and WM with WM alone for the treatment of patients with ischemic stroke. Participant, intervention, comparison, outcome and study type (PICOS) was the inclusion criteria of all studies. The search for and data extraction of the included studies was performed by 2 researchers, who then conducted quality evaluation. The Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool was used for the article evaluation. The software RevMan 5.3 and Stata 15.0 were used for pooled analysis. RESULTS: A total of 12 RCTs were included involving 1,769 patients with ischemic stroke, which combined XST with WM therapy. Moreover, the funnel plot showed that there was no obvious publication bias in the included studies. Meta-analysis showed that the total effective rate in the XST combined with WM group was higher than that in the WM alone group [odds ratio (OR) =4.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.86 to 5.73, P<0.001]. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score in the XST combined with WM group was significantly lower than that in the WM alone group [weighted mean difference (WMD) =-3.17, 95% CI: -4.14 to -2.20, P<0.001]. In addition, XST combined with WM significantly reduced the plasma viscosity, fibrinogen level, whole blood high shear viscosity, and whole blood low shear viscosity in patients with ischemic stroke (P<0.01). For the comparison of adverse reactions, the results showed that the adverse reactions among patients with ischemic stroke in the XST combined with WM group and in the WM group did not differ significantly. DISCUSSION: Compared with single WM medication, XST combined with WM improves the total clinical effective rate, promotes the recovery of patients' neurological function, and has few adverse reactions and high safety in clinical application.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , AVC Isquêmico , Saponinas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos
2.
Planta ; 254(5): 91, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617240

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: This work reviews recent advances in the pathways and key enzymes of steroidal saponins biosynthesis and sets the foundation for the biotechnological production of these useful compounds through transformation of microorganisms. Steroidal saponins, due to their specific chemical structures and active effects, have long been important natural products and that are irreplaceable in hormone production and other pharmaceutical industries. This article comprehensively reviewed the previous and current research progress and summarized the biosynthesis pathways and key biosynthetic enzymes of steroidal saponins that have been discovered in plants and microoganisms. On the basis of the general biosynthetic pathway in plants, it was found that the starting components, intermediates and catalysing enzymes were diverse between plants and microorganisms; however, the functions of their related enzymes tended to be similar. The biosynthesis pathways of steroidal saponins in microorganisms and marine organisms have not been revealed as clearly as those in plants and need further investigation. The elucidation of biosynthetic pathways and key enzymes is essential for understanding the synthetic mechanisms of these compounds and provides researchers with important information to further develop and implement the massive production of steroidal saponins by biotechnological approaches and methodologies.


Assuntos
Saponinas , Biotecnologia
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 2900-2911, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467680

RESUMO

Paridis Rhizoma(PR) is prepared from the dried rhizome of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis(PPY) or P. polyphylla var. chinensis(PPC) in Liliaceae family. The rapid development of PPY or PPC planting industry resulted from resource shortage has caused the waste of a large number of non-medicinal resources. To clarify the chemical compositions in rhizomes, fibrous roots, stems, leaves, seeds and pericarps of PPC, and explore the comprehensive application value and development prospect of these parts, the qualitative and quantitative analyses on the different parts of PPC were carried out by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). A total of 136 compounds were identified, including 112 steroidal saponins, 6 flavonoids, 11 nitrogen-containing compounds and 7 phytosterols. Rhizomes, fibrous roots, and seeds mainly contained protopennogenyl glycosides and pennogenyl glycosides; leaves and stems mainly contained protodiosgenyl glycosides and diosgenyl glycosides; pericarps mainly contained pennogenyl glycosides, followed by diosgenyl glycosides. The total level of four saponins was the highest in fibrous roots and rhizomes, followed by those in the pericarps and arillate seeds, and the lowest in the stems and exarillate seeds. This study can provide data support for the comprehensive development and rational application of non-medicinal parts of PPC.


Assuntos
Liliaceae , Melanthiaceae , Saponinas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Rizoma , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 3144-3149, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467706

RESUMO

The effect of intestinal flora changes on the pharmacokinetics of astragaloside Ⅳ in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus was explored in this study. The rat model in preliminary experiment was established by high-sugar and high-fat diet combined with the intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin(STZ). Rats were divided into model group, astragaloside Ⅳ group, berberine group and combination group(five rats in each group). After two weeks of gavage, the rats' feces was taken for 16 S rRNA sequencing of intestinal flora. Pharmacokinetic experiments were performed on astragaloside Ⅳ in the four groups one day after the preliminary experiment. Plasma samples were precipitated in methanol with ginsenoside Rb_1 as an internal standard, and the plasma concentrations of astragaloside Ⅳ at different time points were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH-C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 µm) via gradient elution. The mobile phase was acetonitrile(A) and 5 mmol·L~(-1) ammonium formate solution with 0.2% formic acid(B). The flow rate was 0.4 mL·min~(-1), the injection volume 5 µL and the column temperature 40 ℃. The mass spectrometry was carried out with electrospray ionization source(ESI) in multiple reaction monitoring and positive ion modes. The specificity, linearity range, accuracy, precision, stability and dilution effect of the method all met the requirements for the determination of astragaloside Ⅳ in plasma. Plasma concentration-time curves were plotted and relevant pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 3.2.8. The results showed that the concentration of absorbed astragaloside Ⅳ increased within 0-3.95 h and began to decline since 3.95 h. After 36 h, the metabolism was complete. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve(AUC_(0-t)) and the peak concentration(C_(max)) of astragaloside Ⅳ were increased in the three administration groups compared with the model group, but without significant difference, which suggested that the pharmacokinetic characteristics of saponin components would not necessarily change after the drug-induced alteration of intestinal flora.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Saponinas , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triterpenos
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4023-4033, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467711

RESUMO

Paris polyphylla var. chinensis(PPC) is used as one of the origin plants of Paridis Rhizoma described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition). Its resources shortage makes the planting scale gradually expand, and plenty of aerial parts are abandoned because of not being effectively used. On the basis of previous research, this study separated steroidal saponins to further clarify the chemical composition of the aerial parts of PPC. As a result, three pairs of 25R or 25S epimers of furostanol saponins were obtained by various column chromatography techniques. Their structures were identified as neosolanigroside Y6(1), solanigroside Y6(2), neoprotogracillin(3), protogracillin(4), neoprotodioscin(5) and protodioscin(6) by spectral data combining with chemical transformation. Compound 1 is a new compound, and compounds 2, 3 and 5 are isolated from Paris plants for the first time. Compounds 4 and 6 are isolated from this plant for the first time. Previously, only several spirostanol glycosides with 25S configuration were isolated from Paris plants. Guided by mass spectrometry, the present study isolated the furostanol saponins with 25S configuration from this genus for the first time, which further enriches the chemical information of Paris genus and provides a reference for the isolation of similar compounds.


Assuntos
Liliaceae , Melanthiaceae , Saponinas , Extratos Vegetais , Rizoma
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4157-4166, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467728

RESUMO

This article aims to establish the fingerprints, determine the hemostatic pharmacodynamic indicators, and explore the spectrum-effect relationship of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma in 12 different specifications. Firstly, HPLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS) were employed to establish the fingerprints of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma. The rat plasma recalcification experiment and the rat gastric bleeding experiment were conducted to determine the pharmacodynamic indicators, including plasma recalcification time(PRT), thrombin time(TT), prothrombin time(PT), and activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT). Afterwards, the partial least squares method was employed to explore the spectrum-effect relationship of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma in different specifications. Twenty-six common peaks were detected in the HPLC fingerprints of different specifications of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, and 11 out of the 26 common peaks represented saponins. The content of dencichine was determined by LC-MS. The rat experiments showed that the pharmacodynamic indicators were significantly different among different specifications of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma. The spectrum-effect relationship was explored between 27 common components and pharmacodynamic indicators. Among them, 16 components had positive effects on the pharmacodynamic indicators of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, and 11 exerted negative effects. This study provides a basis for the precision medication and quality control of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Hemostáticos , Saponinas , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Controle de Qualidade , Ratos , Rizoma
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 2963-2971, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467686

RESUMO

To overview the systematic reviews of Panax notoginseng saponins in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction. CNKI, CBM, Wanfang, VIP, PubMed, Cochrane Library and EMbase databases were retrieved to collect the systematic reviews of the efficacy of P. notoginseng saponins in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction. The retrieval time was from the time of database establishment to January 2021. After two researchers independently screened out the literature and extracted the data, AMSTAR-2 scale was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included systematic reviews, GRADE system was used to grade the quality of evidences of the outcome indicators, and the efficacy evaluation was summarized. A total of 5 systematic reviews were included. AMSTAR-2 evaluation results showed that 3 items were relatively complete, while 4 items had a poor overall quality. P. notoginseng saponins combined with conventional Western medicine therapy was superior to single conventional therapy in the recovery of neurological function, enhancement of the total effective rate in clinic, and improvement of activities of daily living. GRADE evaluation results showed that the quality of evidence was from low quality to very low quality. In conclusion, in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction, P. notoginseng saponins can improve the clinical efficacy, with a good safety but a not high methodological quality and a low evidence quality. It is suggested that high-quality clinical studies shall be further carried out to provide evidence-based basis for the application of P. notoginseng saponins in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction.


Assuntos
Panax notoginseng , Saponinas , Atividades Cotidianas , Infarto Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5845554, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513994

RESUMO

Objective: Neuroblastoma (NB) is a highly metastatic tumor in children that develops in the sympathetic nervous system and has a low curative rate. Saikosaponin A (SSA), an active ingredient isolated from the root of Radix Bupleuri, is a natural compound with various pharmacological activities and shows good application prospects in antitumors. This study investigated the antihuman NB activity of SSA and underlying mechanisms associated with its actions. Materials and Methods: The MTT method was used to detect the activity of SSA in inhibiting human NB cell SK-N-AS proliferation. Cell morphology was observed. The flow cytometry technology was used in analyzing the cell apoptosis rate. The Transwell assay evaluated cell migration and invasion following SSA treatment, apoptosis-related protein expression, and angiogenesis-related protein expression, and EMT-related proteins were detected by western blot analysis. Results: SSA showed an inhibitory effect on SK-N-AS cells with the IC50 values of 14.14 µM at 24 h and 12.41 µM at 48 h. Results indicated that SSA has proapoptotic activity, and its proapoptotic activity is positively correlated with the Bax/Bcl-2/caspase-9/caspase-7/PARP pathway. Furthermore, SSA inhibited the invasion and migration of SK-N-AS cells via regulating the angiogenesis-related VEGFR2/Src/Akt pathway and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition- (EMT-) related protein expression. Conclusion: SSA exerts an antihuman NB effect and thus provides foundations for NB treatment.


Assuntos
Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Saponinas/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Bupleurum/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Oleanólico/metabolismo , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Saponinas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Chem Biol Interact ; 348: 109648, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506766

RESUMO

Allium chinense is a vegetable with nutrition and unique flavor, and it is used as traditional Chinese medicine. We previously reported that the active compound A-24 induces apoptosis and autophagy in p53 wild-type gastric cancer cells through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Our present work indicates that A-24 also has a significant proliferation inhibition effect on p53-deficient KATO-III cells, and the p53 status did not affect A-24 induced migration inhibition, but negatively controlled the occurrence of autophagy. We also found that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated A-24 induced apoptosis is p53-independent. Besides, p-Akt was not downregulated by A-24 in p53-deficient gastric cancer cells. Taken together, our results indicate that A-24 induced apoptosis and autophagy via the ROS-PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in p53 wild-type gastric cancer cells and through the ROS-mTOR pathway in p53-deficient gastric cancer cells. Our study recommended A-24 as a promising future phytotherapeutic candidate for gastric cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Saponinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Saponinas/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/deficiência
10.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 129: 112361, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579880

RESUMO

Heap-up of α-synuclein (α-Syn) and its association with tau protein are esteemed to trigger the onset of Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to develop multi-functional liposomes incorporated with 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC), cholesterol, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and phosphatidylserine (PS) to load astragaloside IV (AS-IV) and nestifin-1 (NF-1), followed by grafting with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and leptin (Lep) (WGA-Lep-AS-IV-NF-1-PS-liposomes) to protect dopaminergic neurons from apoptosis. Experimental results showed that increasing the mole percentage of DSPC and PS enhanced the particle size, particle stability and entrapment efficiency of AS-IV and NF-1, and reduced the drug releasing rate. Strong affinity of NF-1 to PS was evidenced by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. WGA-Lep-AS-IV-NF-1-PS-liposomes diminished transendothelial electrical resistance and improved the capacity of propidium iodide, AS-IV and NF-1 to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Immunocytochemical staining exhibited the ability of functionalized liposomes to target Lep receptor and α-Syn in MPP+-insulted SH-SY5Y cells. Western blots revealed a substantial reduction of α-Syn and phosphorylated tau protein in the anti-oxidative pathway through interaction with PS. During the course of treatment with WGA-Lep-AS-IV-NF-1-PS-liposomes, the combined activity of AS-IV and NF-1 and recognition capability simultaneously decreased the expression of Bax, and increased the expressions of Bcl-2, tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter. The liposomes carrying AS-IV and NF-1 can rescue degenerated neurons and are a promising formulation to achieve better PD management.


Assuntos
Lipossomos , Doença de Parkinson , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos , Humanos , Leptina , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfatidilserinas , Saponinas , Triterpenos , Aglutininas do Germe de Trigo , Proteínas tau
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(18): 4674-4682, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581075

RESUMO

Astragali Radix is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine with a long history, which has the functions of tonifying Qi and promoting urination and granulation. Astragalosides are the main effective components of Astragali Radix, and more than 40 triterpenoid saponins have been obtained from Astragalus membranaceus and its related plants, mainly including astragalosides Ⅰ-Ⅷ, isoastragalosides Ⅰ, Ⅱ, and Ⅳ, acetylastragalosides, and soyasaponins. Astragalosides have a wide range of biological activities, such as immunomodulation, antioxidation, and neuroprotection. Nervous system diseases seriously affect people's quality of life, threaten human physical and mental health, and impose a burden on families and society. As natural drugs, astragalosides have good preventive and therapeutic effects on central nervous system diseases. This paper reviews the main pharmacological effects and mechanisms of astragalosides in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and cerebral ischemic stroke and proposes the research prospects and potential problems, aiming to provide reference for the clinical application and basic research of astragalosides.


Assuntos
Astrágalo (Planta) , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Saponinas , Astragalus propinquus , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Saponinas/farmacologia
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(18): 4730-4735, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581082

RESUMO

The present study aimed to explore the mechanism of the sweating of Dipsacus asper on content changes of triterpene sa-ponins by detecting the total triterpene saponins and the index component asperosaponin Ⅵ in the crude and sweated D. asper, and analyzing the differentially expressed proteins by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification(iTRAQ) combined with LC-MS/MS. After sweating, the content of total triterpene saponins decreased manifestly, while that of asperosaponin Ⅵ increased significantly. As revealed by the iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS analysis, 140 proteins with significant differential expression were figured out, with 50 up-regulated and 90 down-regulated. GO analysis indicated a variety of hydrolases, oxido-reductases, and transferases in the differential proteins. The results of activity test on two differentially expressed oxido-reductases were consistent with those of the iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS analysis. As demonstrated by the analysis of enzymes related to the triterpene saponin biosynthesis pathway, two enzymes(from CYP450 and UGT families, respectively, which are involved in the structural modification of triterpene saponins) were significantly down-regulated after sweating. The findings suggested that sweating of D. asper presumedly regulated triterpene saponins by affecting the expression of downstream CYP450 s and UGTs in the biosynthesis pathway of triterpene saponins of D. asper.


Assuntos
Dipsacaceae , Saponinas , Triterpenos , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Sudorese , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(18): 4736-4743, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581083

RESUMO

This study aims to establish the high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) fingerprints of different batches of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, determine their pharmacodynamic indexes of promoting blood circulation, and explore the spectrum-effect relationship between the chemical components of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and the efficacy of promoting blood circulation. Firstly, the HPLC fingerprints of different batches of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were established. Then, the pharmacodynamic indexes were determined after the capillary coagulation experiment and the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats, including capillary coagulation time, percentage of cerebral ischemic area, cerebral water loss rate, and brain-body index. Afterward, the partial least-squares method was used to explore the spectrum-effect relationship between the chemical components of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and the pharmacodynamic indexes. The results showed that this study successfully established the HPLC fingerprints of different batches of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, found 23 common peaks, and identified 12 of them, all of which were saponins. The method was proved stable and reliable. Both the capillary coagulation experiment and the middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO)-induced cerebral ischemia-reperfusion experiment on rats revealed that there were obvious differences in the pharmacodynamic indexes of different batches of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma. The relationships between 23 common components of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma in different batches and the pharmacodynamic indexes were discussed by means of spectrum-effect correlation analysis, of which 17 components had positive effects while 6 components had negative effects on the pharmacodynamic indexes. This study provides a certain reference basis for the clinical rational use and quality control of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Saponinas , Animais , Coagulação Sanguínea , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Controle de Qualidade , Ratos , Rizoma
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(18): 4757-4764, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581086

RESUMO

A spectrum-activity relationship is established with high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) fingerprints and the in vitro antioxidant activity to improve the quality evaluation system of Aralia taibaiensis. The HPLC profiles of 12 batches of samples were collected, and the similarity evaluation, heat map analysis and principal component analysis were conducted for the chemometric study of the fingerprint data. Combined with grey correlation analysis, the contributions of the common peaks in the fingerprints to the antioxidant activity were clarified, and the important peaks reflecting the efficacy were identified. The results showed that 17 common peaks were found in 12 batches of A. taibaiensis samples, and 6 of them were identified as saponins. Similarity evaluation, heat map analysis and principal component analysis roughly classified the A. taibaiensis herbs into two categories, i.e.,(1) S1-S10, S12 and(2) S11. Twelve batches of samples showed different antioxidant activities in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, S9 had the strongest antioxidant activity, while S11 was the weakest in antioxidant capacity, which was basically consistent with the overall score results. The results of grey correlation analysis demonstrated that the 17 common peaks scavenged DPPH radicals in the following order: X_3>X_(17)>X_4>X_8>X_7>X_(13)>X_2>X_6>X_(11)>X_(10)>X_(16)>X_(12)>X_9>X_5>X_(14)>X_1>X_(15), and scavenged ABTS radicals in the order of X_4>X_3>X_7>X_8>X_2>X_(17)>X_(13)>X_6>X_(16)>X_(11)>X_5>X_(12)>X_(10)>X_9>X_(14)>X_1>X_(15). Among them, X_3, X_4, X_7(araloside C), X_8 and X_(17) were the important peaks reflecting the efficacy of A. taibaiensis, which were basically consistent with those contained in the principal component 1. In this study, the correlation between the HPLC fingerprints of 12 batches of A. taibaiensis and its antioxidant activity provides a reference for the Q-marker screening and quality control of A. taibaiensis.


Assuntos
Aralia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Saponinas , Antioxidantes , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
15.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361758

RESUMO

Sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) is a biennal forage legume originated from the Mediterranean basin and used for animal feeding due to its high forage quality and palatability. Several species of Hedysarum have been considered for their nutritional, pharmaceutical, and biological properties, and different applications have been reported, both for human consumption and animal nutrition. Although a systematic investigation of the chemical constituents of Hedysarum spp. has been performed in order to provide chemotaxonomic evidences for the genus and to support the pharmacological application of several species within the genus, few data are available on the chemical constituents of H. coronarium, and only the content of condensed tannins and flavonoids in leaves has been previously reported. In the present paper, results from a detailed chemical analysis of the extracts from the leaves and flowers of H. coronarium grown wild in southern Italy are presented. Identification of the main specialized metabolites within the chemical classes of flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and saponins, is described, including considerations on their content in the two plant organs. Information acquired from this study expands the knowledge on H. coronarium as a source of valuable phytochemicals for different applications in human and animal health and nutrition.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fabaceae/química , Flavonoides/química , Proantocianidinas/química , Saponinas/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Flavonoides/classificação , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flores/química , Humanos , Itália , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Proantocianidinas/classificação , Proantocianidinas/isolamento & purificação , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Saponinas/classificação , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Saponinas/metabolismo
16.
Eur J Neurosci ; 54(6): 6304-6321, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405468

RESUMO

Neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) injury is a serious complication of neonatal asphyxia and the leading cause of neonatal acute death and chronic neurological injury, and the effective therapeutic method is lacking to improve patients' outcomes. We reported in this study that panax notoginseng saponin (PNS) may provide a treatment option for HI. HI model was established using neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats and then intraperitoneally injected with different dosage of PNS, once a day for 7 days. Histological staining and behavioural evaluations were performed to elucidate the pathological changes and neurobehavioural variation after PNS treatment. We found PNS administration significantly reduced the infarct volume of brain tissues and improved the autonomous activities of neonatal rats, especially with higher dosage. PNS treatment at 40 mg/kg reduced neuronal damage, suppressed neuronal apoptosis and depressed astroglial reactive response. Moreover, the long-term cognitive and motor functions were also improved after PNS treatment at 40 mg/kg. Importantly, PNS treatment elevated the levels of BDNF and TrkB but decreased the expression of p75NTR both in the cortex and hippocampus of HI rats. The therapeutic efficacy of PNS might be correlated with PNS-activated BDNF/TrkB signalling and inactivation of p75NTR expression, providing a novel potential therapy for alleviating HI injury.


Assuntos
Panax notoginseng , Saponinas , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Fatores de Crescimento Neural , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Saponinas/farmacologia
17.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443531

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the chemical profile, antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activities of Heterotrigona itama bee bread from Malaysia. The pH, presence of phytochemicals, antioxidant properties, total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC), as well as antimicrobial activities, were assessed. Results revealed a decrease in the pH of bee bread water extract (BBW) relative to bee bread ethanolic extract (BBE) and bee bread hot water extract (BBH). Further, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, resins, glycosides and xanthoproteins were detected in BBW, BBH and BBE. Also, significant decreases in TPC, TFC, DPPH activity and FRAP were detected in BBW relative to BBH and BBE. We detected phenolic acids such as gallic acid, caffeic acid, trans-ferulic acid, trans 3-hydroxycinnamic acid and 2-hydroxycinnamic acid, and flavonoids such as quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin and mangiferin in BBE using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The strongest antimicrobial activity was observed in Klebsilla pneumonia (MIC50 1.914 µg/mL), followed by E. coli (MIC50 1.923 µg/mL), Shigella (MIC50 1.813 µg/mL) and Salmonella typhi (MIC50 1.617 µg/mL). Bee bread samples possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Bee bread contains phenolic acids and flavonoids, and could be beneficial in the management and treatment of metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Abelhas/química , Própole/farmacologia , Alcaloides/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Flavonoides/química , Glicosídeos/química , Himenópteros/química , Fenóis/química , Própole/química , Salmonella typhi/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella typhi/patogenicidade , Saponinas/química , Shigella/efeitos dos fármacos , Shigella/patogenicidade , Taninos/química , Terpenos/química
18.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443445

RESUMO

Saponin is a biopesticide used to suppress the growth of the golden apple snail population. This study aims to determine the stabilized conditions for saponin storage. The maceration process was used for saponin extraction, and for saponin concentration, progressive freeze concentration (PFC) was used. Afterwards, stability analysis was performed by storing the sample for 21 days in two conditions: Room temperature (26 °C) and cold room (10 °C). The samples kept in a cold room were sterilized samples that undergo thermal treatment by placing the sample in the water bath. The non-sterilized samples were kept in room temperature condition for 21 days. The results showed that saponin stored in the cold room (sterilized sample) has low degradation with higher concentration than those stored at room temperature in stability analysis with the highest saponin concentration (0.730 mg/mL) at a concentration temperature of -6 °C and concentration time of 15 min. The lowest saponin concentration obtained by saponin stored at room temperature (non-sterilized sample) is 0.025 mg/mL at a concentration temperature of -6 °C and concentration time of 10 min. Thus, the finding concluded that saponin is sensitive to temperature. Hence, the best storage condition to store saponin after thermal treatment is to keep it in a cold room at 10 °C.


Assuntos
Congelamento , Saponinas/química , Esterilização , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445384

RESUMO

Diabetes is a predictor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). There are data suggesting that Tribulus terrestris (TT) saponins act as antidiabetic agents and protect against NAFLD. The effect of saponins may be increased by fermentable fibers such as inulin. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of TT saponins and TT saponins plus inulin on the plasma lipid profile and liver fatty acids of rats with induced diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). The study was performed on 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into two main groups: control and diabetic. Animals of the diabetic (DM) group were fed a high-fat diet and injected with streptozotocin (low doses). Animals of the control group (nDM) were on a regular diet and were injected with buffer. After the injections, the animals were split into subgroups: three non-diabetic (nDM): (i) control (c-C); (ii) saponin-treated rats (C-Sap); (iii) rats treated with saponins + inulin (C-Sap + IN), and three diabetic subgroups (DM): (iv) control (c-DM); (v) saponin-treated rats (DM-Sap); (vi) rats treated with saponins + inulin (DM-Sap + IN). Liver fatty acids were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography, and plasma glucose and lipids were measured. The study showed significant changes in liver morphology, liver fatty acids, plasma lipid profile, and plasma glucose. In summary, supplementation with TT saponins or saponins with inulin for one month decreased the level of steatosis in rats with induced type 2 diabetes. Moreover, there were favorable effects on the plasma lipid profile in the rats. However, additional supplementation with inulin had a negative effect on liver morphology (with a microvesicular type of steatosis) in the non-diabetes group. Moreover, supplementation with inulin had a negative effect on plasma glucose in both diabetic and non-diabetic rats. These data show that a diet enriched with fermentable fibers reveals different effects in different organisms, and not all sources and forms of fiber are beneficial to health.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Inulina/administração & dosagem , Saponinas/administração & dosagem , Tribulus/química , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fígado Gorduroso/induzido quimicamente , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Inulina/farmacologia , Fígado/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Saponinas/farmacologia , Estreptozocina , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361798

RESUMO

A fast HPLC method with fluorescence detector (FD) was developed for the determination of three tocopherols (TOCs) in milk samples from Modicana cattle breed. The ultrasound-assisted procedure was optimized for the extraction of TOCs prior to HPLC/FD analysis, reducing sample preparation time and allowing a fast quantification of α-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol and γ tocopherol. The optimized ultrasonic extraction combines an efficient and simple saponification at room temperature and a rapid HPLC quantification of TOCs in milk. The precision of the full analytical procedure was satisfactory and the recoveries at three spiked levels were between 95.3% and 87.8%. The linear correlations were evaluated (R2 > 0.99) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) values for intra-day and inter-day tests at three spiked levels were below 1% for the retention time and below 5.20% for the area at low level spiking. The proposed procedure, reducing the experimental complexity, allowed accurate extraction and detection of three TOCs in milk samples from Modicana cattle breed.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/normas , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Leite/química , Tocoferóis/isolamento & purificação , alfa-Tocoferol/isolamento & purificação , gama-Tocoferol/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Limite de Detecção , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Saponinas/química , Sonicação , Fatores de Tempo
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