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1.
Mol Med Rep ; 26(5)2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36069235

RESUMO

Platyconic acid A (PA), the active component of Platycodi radix­derived saponin, exerts ameliorating effects on liver fibrosis. Platycodon grandiflorum is used to treat lung disease. Therefore, the present study evaluated the effects of PA on pulmonary fibrosis. Transforming growth factor­ß1 (TGF­ß1) was used to induce MRC­5 cells to establish an in vitro pulmonary fibrosis model. The viability of MRC­5 cells in the presence or absence of TGF­ß1 induction was examined using a Cell Counting Kit­8 assay and the results demonstrated that PA markedly decreased viability of TGF­ß1­induced MRC­5 cells in a dose­dependent manner. Wound healing analysis, immunofluorescent staining and western blotting were performed to determine the levels of cell migration and expression of α­smooth muscle actin and extracellular matrix (ECM)­associated proteins. The results of the present study demonstrated that PA significantly suppressed the migration and ECM deposition of TGF­ß1­induced MRC­5 cells. Furthermore, results obtained from ELISA and western blotting demonstrated that PA exerted suppressive effects on the inflammation of MRC­5 cells following TGF­ß1 stimulation. The mRNA and protein expression levels of protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+­dependent 1A (PPM1A) before and after transfection were assessed using reverse transcription­quantitative PCR and western blotting and the results demonstrated that the mRNA and protein expression levels of PPM1A were significantly decreased following transfection with small interfering RNA targeting PPM1A. Moreover, following PPM1A knockdown, PA significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration, inflammation and ECM deposition of TGF­ß1­induced MRC­5 cells via activation of the SMAD/ß­catenin signaling pathway. In conclusion, PA activated PPM1A to ameliorate TGF­ß1­elicited lung fibroblast injury via modulating SMAD/ß­catenin signaling.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar , Saponinas , Proliferação de Células , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/genética , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Triterpenos , Regulação para Cima , beta Catenina/metabolismo
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(16): 4411-4417, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046870

RESUMO

This study investigated the anti-ascites effect of the total saponins of Phytolaccae Radix(PRTS) and the mechanism.H22 cell suspension was used(ip) to induce ascites in ICR male mice, and the model mice were randomized into model group, positive drug group(furosemide, 6 mg·kg~(-1)), total extract of Phytolaccae Radix(PRTE) group, and PRTS(1.29 g·kg~(-1)).Another 10 male mice were selected as the blank group.Mice in the blank group and model group were given(ig) normal saline containing 0.5% CMC-Na, and those in the positive drug group, PRTE group, and PRTS group received(ig) corresponding doses of drugs, once a day, for 8 consecutive days.The ascites volume, urine volume, and fecal water content in mice with ascites, serum levels of antidiure-tic hormone(ADH), renin in renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system(RAAS), angiotensin Ⅱ(AngⅡ), and aldosterone(ALD), expression of aquaporin(AQP)1-AQP4 in kidney, expression of AQP1, AQP3 in colon, and expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B(PI3 K/Akt) pathway-related proteins were detected to explore the anti-ascites mechanism of PRTS.The results showed that the PRTS can increase the urine volume and fecal water content and decrease the ascites volume of ascites mice.Moreover, PRTS significantly reduced the expression of AQP1-AQP4 in kidney and AQP1, AQP3 in colon, serum levels of renin, AngⅡ, ALD, and ADH, and the expression of p-PI3 K and p-Akt in the kidney of ascites mice.PRTS exerts anti-ascites effect by promoting urination and defecation.The mechanism is that it inhibits the activities of RAAS and ADH and suppresses the phosphorylation of PI3 K/Akt signaling pathway, thereby restricting the expression of AQPs in the kidney and colon.


Assuntos
Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Saponinas , Animais , Aquaporina 1 , Ascite/tratamento farmacológico , Ascite/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Renina/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacologia , Água/metabolismo
3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 153: 113404, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076531

RESUMO

Cone cell-enriched macular degeneration is a major cause of functional vision deterioration. Astragaloside IV (Asg IV), an active triterpenoid saponin component with properties of anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic damage, which benefit retinal tissue and capillaries. But, the nutraceutical therapeutic effects on functional vision have not been fully evaluated. In this study, mice were administrated to high-intensity light exposure after either receiving a vehicle or Asg IV (0.05, 0.5, and 50 mg/kg, BID). During this time, their spatial-visual performance, visual acuity (VA), and visual contrast sensitivity function (VCSF) were measured using the behavioral optomotor reflex method. Morphological changes in the retina were determined by histological examination. High energy light-evoked visual damage was confirmed by the loss in structural tissue integrity in the retina accompanied by a decline in both VA and VCSF, whereas the retina tissue exhibited loss of cone cell density and severe cone-specific opsin misplacement. In contrast, prophylactic oral Asg IV (0.5, and 50 mg/kg, BID)-treated exerted protective and improvement effects against light-evoked deterioration of functional vision. Asg IV treatment significantly improved the thresholds of VA and VCSF. In particular, Asg IV (50 mg/kg, BID) modulated and increased the survival of the photoreceptors, especially the cone cells, which targeted and enhanced the high spatial frequency-characterized VCSF. In contrast, the cellular protective effect of Asg IV (50 mg/kg, BID) on photoreceptors was significantly reversed by synchronous injection of a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist (mifepristone). This study demonstrated the major neuroretina-protective effect and functional vision-improving effect of Asg IV in vivo.


Assuntos
Degeneração Retiniana , Saponinas , Triterpenos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/patologia , Saponinas/farmacologia , Saponinas/uso terapêutico , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico
4.
Pharm Biol ; 60(1): 1781-1789, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102594

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Polyphyllin II (PPII) is a steroidal saponin isolated from Rhizoma Paridis. It exhibits significant antitumor activity such as anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis in lung cancer. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether PPII induce autophagy and the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of PPII (0, 1, 5, and 10 µM) were elucidated by CCK8 assay, colony formation test, TUNEL staining, MDC method, and mRFP-GFP-LC3 lentivirus transfection in A549 and H1299 cells for 24 h. DMSO-treated cells were selected as control. The protein expression of autophagy (LC3-II, p62), apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3) and p-mTOR was detected by Western blotting. We explored the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis by autophagy inhibitor CQ (10 µM) and 3-MA (5 mM). RESULTS: PPII (0, 1, 5, and 10 µM) inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis. The IC50 values of A549 and H1299 cells were 8.26 ± 0.03 and 2.86 ± 0.83 µM. We found that PPII could induce autophagy. PPII promoted the formation of autophagosome, increased the expression of LC3-II/LC3-I (p < 0.05), while decreased p62 and p-mTOR (p < 0.05). Additionally, the co-treatment with autophagy inhibitors promoted the protein expression of c-caspase-3 and rate of Bax/Bcl-2 (p < 0.05), compared with PPII-only treatment group. Therefore, our results indicated that PPII-induced autophagy may be a mechanism to promote cell survival, although it can also induce apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: PPII-induced apoptosis exerts its anticancer activity by inhibiting autophagy, which will hopefully provide a prospective compound for NSCLC treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Saponinas , Apoptose , Autofagia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Esteroides , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 976968, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36119058

RESUMO

Various chemical adjuvants are available to augment immune responses to non-replicative, subunit vaccines. Optimized adjuvant selection can ensure that vaccine-induced immune responses protect against the diversity of pathogen-associated infection routes, mechanisms of infectious spread, and pathways of immune evasion. In this study, we compare the immune response of mice to a subunit vaccine of Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) spike protein, stabilized in its prefusion conformation by a proprietary molecular clamp (MERS SClamp) alone or formulated with one of six adjuvants: either (i) aluminium hydroxide, (ii) SWE, a squalene-in-water emulsion, (iii) SQ, a squalene-in-water emulsion containing QS21 saponin, (iv) SMQ, a squalene-in-water emulsion containing QS21 and a synthetic toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist 3D-6-acyl Phosphorylated HexaAcyl Disaccharide (3D6AP); (v) LQ, neutral liposomes containing cholesterol, 1.2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and QS21, (vi) or LMQ, neutral liposomes containing cholesterol, DOPC, QS21, and 3D6AP. All adjuvanted formulations induced elevated antibody titers which where greatest for QS21-containing formulations. These had elevated neutralization capacity and induced higher frequencies of IFNƔ and IL-2-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Additionally, LMQ-containing formulations skewed the antibody response towards IgG2b/c isotypes, allowing for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. This study highlights the utility of side-by-side adjuvant comparisons in vaccine development.


Assuntos
Saponinas , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Farmacêuticos , Hidróxido de Alumínio , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Dissacarídeos , Emulsões , Imunoglobulina G , Interleucina-2 , Lipossomos , Camundongos , Fosforilcolina , Saponinas/farmacologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Esqualeno , Vacinas de Subunidades , Água
6.
Molecules ; 27(16)2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014544

RESUMO

Myocardial fibrosis (MF) is a common pathological feature of many heart diseases and seriously threatens the normal activity of the heart. Jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphyllum) tea is a functional food that is commercially available worldwide. Gypensapogenin I (Gyp I), which is a novel dammarane-type saponin, was obtained from the hydrolysates of total gypenosides. It has been reported to exert a beneficial anti-inflammatory effect. In our study, we attempted to investigate the efficiency and possible molecular mechanism of Gyp I in cardiac injury treatment induced by ISO. In vitro, Gyp I was found to increase the survival rate of H9c2 cells and inhibit apoptosis. Combined with molecular docking and Western blot analysis, Gyp I was confirmed to regulate the TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway. In vivo, C57BL6 mice were subcutaneously injected with 10 mg/kg ISO to induce heart failure. Mice were given a gavage of Gyp I (10, 20, or 40 mg/kg/d for three weeks). Pathological alterations, fibrosis-, inflammation-, and apoptosis-related molecules were examined. By means of cardiac function detection, biochemical index analysis, QRT-PCR monitoring, histopathological staining, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis, it was elucidated that Gyp I could improve cardiac dysfunction, alleviate collagen deposition, and reduce myocardial fibrosis (MF). In summary, we reported for the first time that Gyp I showed good myocardial protective activity in vitro and in vivo, and its mechanism was related to the TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias , NF-kappa B , Saponinas/farmacologia , Animais , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Fibrose , Isoproterenol/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
7.
Gen Physiol Biophys ; 41(4): 263-274, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35938960

RESUMO

Platycodin D (PD) is a triterpenoid saponin, a major bioactive constituent of the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, which is well known for possessing various pharmacological properties. However, the anti-cancer mechanism of PD in bladder cancer cells remains poorly understood. In the current study, we investigated the effect of PD on the growth of human bladder urothelial carcinoma cells. PD treatment significantly reduced the cell survival of bladder cancer cells associated with induction of apoptosis and DNA damage. PD inhibited the expression of inhibitor of apoptosis family members, activated caspases, and induced cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. PD also increased the release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm by disrupting the mitochondrial membrane potential while upregulating the expression ratio of Bax to Bcl-2. The PD-mediated anti-proliferative effect was significantly inhibited by pre-treatment with a pancaspase inhibitor, but not by an inhibitor of necroptosis. Moreover, PD suppressed the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, and the apoptosis-inducing effect of PD was further enhanced by a PI3K inhibitor. In addition, PD increased the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an ROS inhibitor, significantly attenuated the growth inhibition and inactivation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling caused by PD. Furthermore, NAC significantly suppressed apoptosis, DNA damage, and decreased cell viability induced by PD treatment. Collectively, our findings indicated that PD blocked the growth of bladder urothelial carcinoma cells by inducing ROS-mediated inactivation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição , Saponinas , Triterpenos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Apoptose , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
8.
Nutrients ; 14(16)2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014921

RESUMO

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is one of the important incretins and possesses lots of physiological activities such as stimulating insulin secretion and maintaining glucose homeostasis. The pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins are the major active ingredients in tea (Camellia sinensis) seeds. This study aimed to investigate the effect of tea seed saponins on the GIP secretion and related mechanisms. Our data showed that the total tea seed saponins (TSS, 65 mg/kg BW) and theasaponin E1 (TSE1, 2-4 µM) could increase the GIP mRNA and protein levels in mice and STC-1 cells. Phlorizin, the inhibitor of Sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), reversed the TSE1-induced increase in Ca2+ and GIP mRNA level. In addition, TSE1 upregulated the protein expression of Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5), and TGR5 siRNA significantly decreased GIP expression in TSE1-treated STC-1 cells. Network pharmacology analysis revealed that six proteins and five signaling pathways were associated with SGLT1, TGR5 and GIP regulated by TSE1. Taken together, tea seed saponins could stimulate GIP expression via SGLT1 and TGR5, and were promising natural active ingredients for improving metabolism and related diseases.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico , Saponinas , Animais , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Camundongos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Saponinas/farmacologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Chá
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 298: 115605, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35973627

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam., is used in Paraguayan folk medicine claiming antihypertensive and diuretic properties. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to determine the influence of chronic oral administration of the crude root extract and saponins obtained from S. sisymbriifolium Lam., on the blood pressure of male and female rats with hypertension induced by L-NAME, and its consequences on diuresis, the body weight, blood glucose, and level of serum parameters of liver and kidney functionality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven male, and seven female groups (8 animals each), which received as 6-week pretreatment, 0.9% saline solution (two groups; 0.1mL/10 g of b.w.), L-arginine (100.0 mg/kg/day), enalapril (15.0 mg/kg/day), crude extract (CESs 100.0 mg/kg/day), and saponin purified fraction (1.0, and 10.0 mg/kg/day), and treated with L-NAME (20 mg/kg/day/i.p.) twice, 1, and 6 h after pre-treatment. The animals' body weight, glycemia, and blood pressure were recorded weekly, while serum, hepatic, renal, and histological parameters were analyzed at the end of 6-week of treatment. RESULTS: A protective effect of CESs (100.0 mg/kg/day), and saponins (1.0, and 10.0 mg/kg/day) against hypertension induced by L-NAME was verified in the systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure values, which were significantly lower than the positive L-NAME-hypertensive control group (male and female) at the end of the 6-week treatment. Also, pretreatment with enalapril (15.0 mg/kg/day) induced an efficient protective activity, which validates the method used. Likewise, the volume of urine, creatinine, uric acid, urea, and electrolyte excretion was enhanced at the end of 6-week of treatment in concordance with the reduction in serum level of the same parameters, compatible with the improvement of the diuretic activity. The glycemia, body weight, heart rate, and functional hepato-renal parameters were not modified after a 6-week of treatment, in comparison to the control group, indicating relatively acceptable harmless properties of CESs and saponins. Interestingly, the HDL level in females was increased in contrast to male rats by chronic saponins treatment when compared with the negative control group. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that either the increment in blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, and median) or cardiorenal remodeling effects in male and female rats submitted to L-NAME-induced hypertensive condition, were prevented and well-preserved without a significant variation during a period of 6-week of pretreatment with CESs and saponins pretreatments. Likewise, an important diuretic effect was revealed after this period of treatment.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Saponinas , Solanum , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea , Peso Corporal , Diuréticos/farmacologia , Enalapril/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Saponinas/farmacologia , Saponinas/uso terapêutico
10.
Phytochemistry ; 202: 113345, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35952770

RESUMO

Sapotaceae is a flowering plants family reported for its richness in triterpenoid saponins. Sapotaceae comprises a large number of fruit-producing plants of nutritional and medicinal value. Different species of family Sapotaceae received a considerable interest owing to their rich triterpenoid saponins content of a myriad pharmacological effects and health benefits. Several databases were searched for collecting papers for this review in the scope of phytochemistry, bioactivity and record of triterpenoid saponins from family Sapotacese such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus and Reaxys from 1990 till now. Triterpenoid saponins reported from Sapotaceae plants are mostly of protobassic acid, 16-α-hydroxyprotobassic acid, bayogenin, and oleanolic acid derivatives with both monodesmosidic and/or bidesmosidic attached sugar side chains. Besides, the most frequently attached sugar units are glucose, glucoronic acid, apiose, xylose, rhamnose, and arabinose. The reported health effects of Sapotaceae plants in folk medicine in relation to their bioactive saponins were also reviewed with special attention to anti-inflammatory, antiulcer activity, antimicrobial activity, cytotoxic, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory activities. This review aims to present a holistic compile on the phytochemical and biological diversity of triterpenoid saponins reported from family Sapotaceae with future perspectives.


Assuntos
Saponinas , Sapotaceae , Triterpenos , Biodiversidade , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Saponinas/química , Saponinas/farmacologia , Sapotaceae/química , Açúcares , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia
11.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 931: 175185, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemoside B4 (AB4) is a representative component of Pulsatilla decoction that is used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating inflammatory conditions. It is not known whether AB4 has beneficial effects on multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: In the present study, we examined the preventative and therapeutic effects of AB4, and the possible mechanism by which it protects female mice against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). RESULTS: Preventative treatment with AB4 (given orally at 100 and 200 mg/kg for 18 days) reduced the clinical severity of EAE significantly (from 3.6 ± 1.3 to 1.8 ± 1.5 and 1.6 ± 0.6, respectively), and inhibited demyelination and inflammatory infiltration of the spinal cord. In the therapeutic protocol, oral administration of 200 mg/kg AB4 for 21 days after initiation of EAE significantly alleviated disease severity (from 2.6 ± 1.3 to 0.9 ± 0.6) and was as effective as the clinically used drug fingolimod (0.3 ± 0.6). Furthermore, both doses of AB4 significantly inhibited mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17, and STAT3 activation, in the spinal cord; and the ex vivo and iv vitro AB4 treatment markedly inhibited secretion of the three cytokines from lymphocytes of EAE mice upon in vitro restimulation. In addition, AB4 reversed the changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiome observed in EAE mice. CONCLUSION: We reveal for the first time that AB4 protects against EAE by modulating inflammatory responses and the gut microbiota, demonstrating that AB4 may have potential as a therapeutic agent for treating MS in humans.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Esclerose Múltipla , Saponinas , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Saponinas/farmacologia
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 4281483, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35968235

RESUMO

Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS), bioactive compounds, are commonly used to treat ischemic heart and cerebral diseases in China and other Asian countries. Most previous studies of PNS have focused on the mechanisms underlying their treatment of ischemic cardiovascular diseases but not cerebral ischemic diseases. This study sought to explore the pharmacological mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of PNS in treating cerebral ischemic diseases. Different experimental cerebral ischemia models (including middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and the blockade of four arteries in rats, collagen-adrenaline-induced systemic intravascular thrombosis in mice, thrombosis of carotid artery-jugular vein blood flow in the bypass of rats, and hypoxia tolerance in mice) were used to investigate the mechanisms underlying the actions of PNS on cerebral ischemia. The results indicated that (1) PNS improved neurological function and reduced the cerebral ischemia infraction area in MCAO rats; (2) PNS improved motor coordination function in rats with complete cerebral ischemia (blockade of four arteries), decreased Ca2+ levels, and ameliorated energy metabolism in the brains of ischemia rats; (3) PNS reduced thrombosis in common carotid artery-jugular vein blood flow in the bypass of rats; (4) PNS provided significant promise in antistroke hemiplegia and hypoxia tolerance in mice. In conclusion, PNS showed antagonistic effects on ischemic stroke, and pharmacological mechanisms are likely to be associated with the reduction of cerebral pathological damage, thrombolysis, antihypoxia, and improvement in the intracellular Ca2+ overload and cerebral energy metabolism.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Panax notoginseng , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Saponinas , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Ratos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacologia , Saponinas/uso terapêutico
13.
Drug Deliv ; 29(1): 2743-2750, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35999702

RESUMO

Liposomes have been widely used for targeted drug delivery, but the disadvantages caused by cholesterol limit the application of conventional liposomes in cancer treatment. The compatibility basis of couplet medicines and the compatibility principle of the traditional Chinese medicine principle of 'monarch, minister, assistant and guide' are the important theoretical basis of Chinese medicine in the treatment of tumor and the important method to solve the problem of high toxicity. In this study, the active ingredients of the couplet medicines Platycodon grandiflorum and Glycyrrhiza uralensis were innovatively utilized, and glycyrrhizic acid (GA) was encapsulated in liposomes constructed by mixing saponin and lecithin, and cholesterol was replaced by platycodin and ginsenoside to construct saponin liposomes (RP-lipo) for the drug delivery system of Chinese medicine. Compared with conventional liposomes, PR-lipo@GA has no significant difference in morphological characteristics and drug release behavior, and also shows stronger targeting of lung cancer cells and anti-tumor ability in vitro, which may be related to the pharmacological properties of saponins themselves. Thus, PR-lipo@GA not only innovatively challenges the status of cholesterol as a liposome component, but also provides another innovative potential system with multiple functions for the clinical application of TCM couplet medicines.


Assuntos
Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Platycodon , Saponinas , Ácido Glicirrízico/farmacologia , Humanos , Lipossomos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Raízes de Plantas , Saponinas/farmacologia
14.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 111: 108806, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914447

RESUMO

Lung cancer is a leading cause of tumor-associated death worldwide. Autophagy plays a key role in regulating lung cancer progression, and is a promising option for lung cancer treatment. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution, and exert various biological properties, such as anti-inflammation and anti-cancer. In the present study, we for the first time explored the effects of gitogenin (GIT), an important saponin derived from Tribulus longipetalus, on lung cancer progression both in vitro and in vivo. We found that GIT markedly reduced the proliferation and induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells through increasing the cleavage of Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). In addition, GIT-incubated lung cancer cells exhibited clear accumulation of autophagosome, which was essential for GIT-suppressed lung cancer. Mechanistically, GIT-induced autophagy initiation was mainly through activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and blocking protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathways, respectively. Moreover, the autophagic flux was disrupted in GIT-treated lung cancer cells, contributing to the accumulation of impaired autophagolysosomes. Importantly, we found that suppressing autophagy initiation could abolish GIT-induced cell death; however, autophagosomes accumulation sensitized lung cancer cells to cell death upon GIT treatment. More in vitro experiments showed that GIT led to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in lung cancer cells, which was also involved in the modulation of apoptosis. The in vivo findings confirmed the effects of GIT against lung cancer progression with undetectable toxicity to organs. In conclusion, we provided new insights into the treatment of lung cancer, and GIT might be an effective strategy for future clinical application.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Saponinas , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Apoptose , Autofagia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacologia , Saponinas/uso terapêutico , Espirostanos
15.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 190: 264-275, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977659

RESUMO

Cardiac fibrosis is a common precursor of ventricular dysfunction and heart failure. We investigated the role of oxidative stress in myocardial fibrosis and the protective effect of panaxatriol saponin (PTS) against myocardial infarction (MI)-induced cardiac fibrosis and explored the underlying mechanisms. In vitro, cell viability was tested using a cell counting kit. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion (O2•-) were determined. Antioxidant enzyme levels were determined by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, echocardiography, histological analysis, immunofluorescence staining, and molecular analysis were performed. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation was evaluated by molecular docking and immunoprecipitation. Finally, the mechanism by which PTS inhibits cardiac fibrosis was investigated using the Nrf2 activator ML334 and a small interfering RNA for Nrf2. Ang II-induced differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts was associated with oxidative stress, characterized by upregulation of α-smooth muscle actin, increased reactive oxygen species production, and inhibition of superoxide dismutase-1 and heme oxygenase expression. In addition, PTS improved cardiac function and ameliorated cardiac fibrosis in MI rats. It also reduced Ang II-induced fibroblast differentiation and proliferation, suppressed oxidative stress, and disrupted the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-Nrf2 interaction by directly blocking the Nrf2 binding site in Keap1. Overexpression of Nrf2 by ML334 enhanced the antifibrotic effect of PTS. However, genetic ablation of Nrf2 abrogated the antifibrotic effect of PTS in cardiac fibrosis. Taken together, our findings suggest that Nrf2 has promise as a target and PTS as a therapeutic agent for cardiac fibrosis.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Saponinas , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibrose , Fator de Transcrição de Proteínas de Ligação GA , Ginsenosídeos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
16.
Bioorg Chem ; 127: 105985, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35809512

RESUMO

We previously discovered that triterpenoid saponin platycodin D inhibits the SARS-CoV-2 entry to the host cell. Herein, we synthesized various saponin derivatives and established a structure-activity relationship of saponin-based antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2. We discovered that the C3-glucose, the C28-oligosaccharide moiety that consist of (→3)-ß-d-Xyl-(1 â†’ 4)-α-l-Rham-(1 â†’ 2)-ß-d-Ara-(1 â†’ ) as the last three sugar units, and the C16-hydroxyl group were critical components of saponin-based coronavirus cell entry inhibitors. These findings enabled us to develop minimal saponin-based antiviral agents that are equipotent to the originally discovered platycodin D. We found that our saponin-based antiviral agents inhibited both the endosomal and transmembrane protease serine 2-mediated cell surface viral entries. Cell fusion assay experiment revealed that our newly developed compounds inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 entry by blocking the fusion between the viral and host cell membranes. The effectiveness of the newly developed antiviral agents over various SARS-CoV-2 variants hints at the broad-spectrum antiviral efficacy of saponin-based therapeutics against future coronavirus variants.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saponinas , Antivirais/farmacologia , Humanos , Fusão de Membrana , SARS-CoV-2 , Saponinas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889255

RESUMO

Dietary phytochemicals play an important role in the prevention and treatment of colon cancer. It is reported that group B of soyasaponin, derived from dietary pulses, has anti-colonic effects on some colon cancer cell lines. However, it is uncertain which specific soybean saponins play a role. In our study, as one of the group B soyasaponin, the anti-colon cancer activity of soyasaponins I (SsI) was screened, and we found that it had the inhibitory effect of proliferation on colon cancer cell lines HCT116 (IC50 = 161.4 µM) and LoVo (IC50 = 180.5 µM), but no effect on HT29 between 0-200 µM. Then, nine potential targets of SsI on colon cancer were obtained by network pharmacology analysis. A total of 45 differential metabolites were identified by metabolomics analysis, and the KEGG pathway was mainly enriched in the pathways related to the absorption and metabolism of amino acids. Finally, molecular docking analysis predicted that SsI might dock with the protein of DNMT1, ERK1. The results indicated that the effect of SsI on HCT116 might be exerted by influencing amino acid metabolism and the estrogen signaling pathway. This study may provide the possibility for the application of SsI against colon cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Ácido Oleanólico , Saponinas , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Saponinas/farmacologia
18.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889337

RESUMO

Dodonaea viscosa is a medicinal plant which has been used to treat various diseases in humans. However, the anti-insect activity of extracts from D. viscosa has not been evaluated. Here, we found that the total saponins from D. viscosa (TSDV) had strong antifeedant and growth inhibition activities against 4th-instar larvae of Spodoptera litura. The median antifeeding concentration (AFC50) value of TSDV on larvae was 1621.81 µg/mL. TSDV affected the detoxification enzyme system of the larvae and also exerted antifeedant activity possibly through targeting the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system. The AFC50 concentration, the carboxylesterase activity, glutathione S-transferases activity, and cytochrome P450 content increased to 258%, 205%, and 215%, respectively, and likewise the glutamate decarboxylase activity and GABA content to 195% and 230%, respectively, in larvae which fed on TSDV. However, D. viscosa saponin A (DVSA) showed better antifeedant activity and growth inhibition activity in larvae, compared to TSDV. DVSA also exerted their antifeedant activity possibly through targeting the GABA system and subsequently affected the detoxification enzyme system. Further, DVSA directly affected the medial sensillum and the lateral sensillum of the 4th-instar larvae. Stimulation of Spodoptera litura. with DVSA elicited clear, consistent, and robust excitatory responses in a single taste cell.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Sapindaceae , Saponinas , Animais , Humanos , Larva , Saponinas/farmacologia , Sementes , Spodoptera , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico
19.
Phytomedicine ; 104: 154335, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the T-cell therapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors toward CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 axis antibody therapy have acquired encouraging success. However, most of patients were still not benefited with lots of troubles, such as low penetration of tissues/cells, strong immunogenicity and cytokine release syndrome, and long manufacturing process and expensive costs. By contrast, the immune-modulating small molecules possessed natural advantages to overcome these obstacles and might achieve greater success. PURPOSE: Exploring the potent immune-modulating natural small molecules and revealing what kinds of molecules or structures with the immunomodulatory activity against cancers. METHODS: A novel non-cytotoxic T-cell immunomodulating screening model was used to identify the cytotoxic/selective/immunomodulatory bioactivity for 148 natural steroidal saponins. The structure-activity relationships (SARs) research was used to reveal the key groups for immunomodulation/cytotoxicity/selectivity. The negative selection was used to isolate and purify the T-cell. The cell viability assay was used to measure the anti-cancer effect in vitro. The ELISA assay was used to detect the cytokines for IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12, perforin and granzyme B (GZMB). The western blotting assay was used to research the immunomodulatory mechanism. The siRNA knockdown was used to generate the IFN-γ resistant melanoma cells. The NOG immune-deficient mice were used to evaluate the anti-tumor efficacy in vivo. The peripheral blood samples from 10 cancer patients were used to detect the broad population anti-tumor efficacy. RESULTS: It was reported that the correlation among structures and immunomodulation/ cytotoxicity/selectivity, in which opening ring-F with 26-O-glucopyranosyl, disaccharide and trisaccharide chains at C-3, steric hindrance and polarity of C-22 were key immunomodulatory groups. Moreover, taccaoside A was identified as the most potent candidate against cancer cells, including non-small cell lung cancer, triple negative breast cancer, and the IFN-γ resistant melanoma, partly through enhancing T lymphocyte mTORC1-Blimp-1 signal to secrete GZMB. Besides, 10 patients derived T-cell also would be modulated against cancer cells in vitro. Moreover, the overall survival was great extended (>140 days vs 93 days) with nearly 100% tumor burden disappearance (0 mm3vs 1006 ± 79.5 mm3) in mice. CONCLUSION: This work demonstrated one possibility for this concerned purpose, and identified a potent immune-modulating natural molecule taccaoside A, which might contribute to cancer immunotherapy in future.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Melanoma , Saponinas , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Saponinas/farmacologia
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 217: 922-930, 2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35908674

RESUMO

This study was performed to promote the clinical application of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS), which present anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities, and provided insights for the preparation of controlled-release dosage forms of traditional Chinese medicine. A series of drug-loaded microspheres with degradable amphiphilic polymer material polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether-polylactic acid (mPEG-PLA) as the carrier was synthesized. The degradation, sustained-release behavior, and biocompatibility of the drug-loaded microspheres were studied through in vitro release, degradation, hemolysis, anticoagulation, and cytotoxicity experiments. The pharmacological activities of the microspheres were studied through anti-inflammatory and antitumor experiments. The results showed that the best carrier material was mPEG2k-PLA (1:9), with an average particle size of 3.47 ± 0.35 µm, a drug load of 5.50 ± 0.28 %, and an encapsulation efficiency of 38.52 ± 1.93 %. This material could be released stably for approximately 24 days and degrade in approximately 60 days. Moreover, the microspheres had good biocompatibility and anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities.


Assuntos
Panax notoginseng , Saponinas , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Microesferas , Poliésteres , Saponinas/farmacologia
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