Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 16.202
Filtrar
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(47): 1489-1495, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417303

RESUMO

All six World Health Organization (WHO) regions have committed to eliminating measles.* The Immunization Agenda 2021-2030 (IA2030)† aims to achieve the regional targets as a core indicator of impact and positions measles as the tracer of a health system's ability to deliver essential childhood vaccines. IA2030 highlights the importance of ensuring rigorous measles surveillance systems to document immunity gaps and achieve 95% coverage with 2 timely doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) among children. This report describes progress toward measles elimination during 2000-2021 and updates a previous report (1). During 2000-2021, estimated global coverage with a first MCV dose (MCV1) increased from 72% to a peak of 86% in 2019, but decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic to 83% in 2020 and to 81% in 2021, the lowest MCV1 coverage recorded since 2008. All countries conducted measles surveillance, but only 47 (35%) of 135 countries reporting discarded cases§ achieved the sensitivity indicator target of two or more discarded cases per 100,000 population in 2021, indicating surveillance system underperformance in certain countries. Annual reported measles incidence decreased 88% during 2000-2016, from 145 to 18 cases per 1 million population, then rebounded to 120 in 2019 during a global resurgence (2), before declining to 21 in 2020 and to 17 in 2021. Large and disruptive outbreaks were reported in 22 countries. During 2000-2021, the annual number of estimated measles deaths decreased 83%, from 761,000 to 128,000; an estimated 56 million measles deaths were averted by vaccination. To regain progress and achieve regional measles elimination targets during and after the COVID-19 pandemic, accelerating targeted efforts is necessary to reach all children with 2 MCV doses while implementing robust surveillance and identifying and closing immunity gaps to prevent cases and outbreaks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sarampo , Criança , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Erradicação de Doenças , Programas de Imunização , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo
5.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277876, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417461

RESUMO

Many social, cultural, and systemic challenges affect the uptake of measles immunisation services. Prior studies have looked at the caregivers' perspectives, but little is known about the perspectives of the health care providers on the barriers of measles immunisation services in Canada. This study examined measles immunisation coverage trends across the regional health authorities in Saskatchewan and explored the barriers and enablers to measles immunisation coverage from providers' perspectives. The study adopted an explanatory sequential mixed method. We utilized the entire population of 16,582 children under two years of age available in the Saskatchewan Immunisation Management System (SIMS) registry for 2002 and 2013 in aggregate format and interviewed 18 key informants in pre-determined two-stages in 2016 and 2017. The quantitative analysis was done with Joinpoint regression modelling, while the qualitative interview data was analyzed using hybrid inductive and deductive thematic approaches. There was a 16.89%-point increase in measles immunisation coverage in the province from 56.32% to 73.21% between 2002 and 2013. There was also a persistently higher coverage among the affluent (66.95% - 82.37%) than the most deprived individuals (45.79% - 62.60%) in the study period. The annual rate of coverage change was marginally higher among the most deprived (16.81%; and average annual percentage change (AAPC) 2.0, 95% CI 1.7-2.2) than among the affluent group (15.42% and AAPC 3.0; 95% CI 2.0-4.0). While access-related issues, caregivers' fears, hesitancy, anti-vaccination challenges, and resource limitations were barriers to immunisation, improving community engagement, service delivery flexibility, targeted social responses and increasing media role were found useful to address the uptake of measles and other vaccine-preventable diseases immunisation. There is low coverage and inequity in measles immunisation uptake in Saskatchewan from social and institutional barriers. Even though there is evidence of disparity reduction among the different groups, the barriers to increasing measles immunisation coverage have implications for the health of the socio-economically deprived groups, the healthcare system and other vaccination programs. There is a need to improve policy framework for community engagement, targeted programs, and public health discourse.


Assuntos
Sarampo , Cobertura Vacinal , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Saskatchewan , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Vacinação , Programas de Imunização
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42: 282, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36405650

RESUMO

Introduction: measles is a highly contagious viral disease. Since 2011, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) has had the first dose measles vaccination coverage of less than 80% according to the World Health Organization - United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (WHO-UNICEF) coverage estimates, and measles mass vaccination coverage of less than the required coverage level of 95% by survey. Starting in August 2018, the country experienced an increase in measles case reports which continued through to early 2020. Epidemiological aspects of the outbreak are described in this article. Methods: we analysed aggregate weekly passive surveillance data from the DR Congo for the years 2018 - 2020 to understand the trends of occurrence of suspected measles cases. We also analysed the measles case-based surveillance database to understand the epidemiological characteristics of confirmed cases of measles and rubella during the same period of time. Results: a total of 458,156 suspected measles cases and 8,127 deaths were reported between 1st January 2018 and 31st December 2020, with the majority of cases and deaths reported in 2019. Only 2.9% of these cases were reported through the case-based surveillance system, with 31,639 cases being confirmed as measles by the laboratory, by epidemiological linkage and on clinical compatibility. Children less than 5 years of age were most affected with a cumulative incidence of 960 cases per 1,000,000 inhabitants. Only 41% of the confirmed cases were vaccinated. Maindombe and Tshopo provinces had the highest cumulative incidence levels. There was a distinct geographic progression of the outbreak between provinces during the course of the three years. A total of 1760 lab confirmed rubella cases were confirmed in various provinces among the cases investigated with blood specimens, 93% of whom were less than 15 years of age. Conclusion: the recent gaps in vaccination coverage, the age pattern of confirmed cases and the lack of vaccination history in the majority of cases is suggestive of failure to vaccinate as the likely cause of this large and protracted outbreak. Efforts to improve vaccination coverage and the measles surveillance system are needed in order to prevent the occurrence of future outbreaks and to avert measles-related deaths.


Assuntos
Sarampo , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão) , Humanos , Criança , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal
7.
Croat Med J ; 63(5): 475-481, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36325672

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the circulation patterns of measles virus in Bulgaria from 2012 to 2018 after a large measles outbreak in the country (2009-2011). METHODS: Three types of clinical material were collected: serum samples, urine samples, and nasal swabs. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect specific viral immunoglobulin (Ig) M/IgG antibodies. Viral RNA was extracted from all urine and nasal swabs. RESULTS: In the investigated period, 102 patients were confirmed to have measles (age range: two months to 55 years). A total of 101 samples (99%) were measles-IgM positive. Most of them were detected in 2017 (73%, 74/101), when a measles outbreak in the country was reported. The majority of patients were unvaccinated children aged under 13 months. Out of 101 measles serum samples confirmed by ELISA, 18 (20.45%) were measles-IgG positive and 15 (17.05%) were borderline. Thirty-three positive PCR products were sequenced and genotyped. In 2013, 2016, 2017, and 2018, three different measles viral genotypes were detected: D8, H1, and B3. Most patients were unvaccinated or insufficiently vaccinated. CONCLUSION: Preventive measures are indispensable to limit the infection in different regions of Bulgaria and its spread to other countries. As vaccination coverage against measles and other vaccine-preventable infections, including SARS-Co2, is low, it is necessary to perform molecular identification of viruses to monitor their circulation and pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Vírus do Sarampo , Sarampo , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus do Sarampo/genética , Bulgária/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina M , Vacinação , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Antivirais , Surtos de Doenças , Imunoglobulina G
8.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2070, 2022 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a safe and effective vaccine is available, measles remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity among young children in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The WHO and UNICEF recommended measles-containing vaccine dose 2 (MCV2) in addition to measles-containing vaccine dose 1 (MCV1) through routine services strategies. Many factors could contribute to the routine dose of MCV2 coverage remaining far below targets in many countries of this region. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of MCV2 utilization among children aged 24-35 months and analyze factors associated with it by using recent nationally representative surveys of SSA countries. METHODS: Secondary data analysis was done based on recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data from eight Sub-Saharan African countries. In this region, only eight countries have a record of routine doses of measles-containing vaccine dose 2 in their DHS dataset. The multilevel binary logistic regression model was fitted to identify significantly associated factors. Variables were extracted from each of the eight country's KR files. Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR) with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) and p-value ≤ 0.05 in the multivariable model were used to declare significant factors associated with measles-containing vaccine dose 2 utilization. RESULT: The pooled prevalence of MCV2 utilization in SSA was 44.77% (95% CI: 27.10-62.43%). In the multilevel analysis, mothers aged 25-34 years [AOR = 1.15,95% CI (1.05-1.26), mothers aged 35 years and above [AOR = 1.26, 95% CI (1.14-1.41)], maternal secondary education and above [AOR = 1.27, 95% CI (1.13-1.43)], not big problem to access health facilities [AOR = 1.21, 95% CI (1.12-1.31)], four and above ANC visit [AOR = 2.75, 95% CI (2.35-3.24)], PNC visit [AOR = 1.13, 95% CI (1.04-1.23)], health facility delivery [AOR = 2.24, 95% CI (2.04-2.46)], were positively associated with MCV2 utilization. In contrast, multiple twin [AOR = 0.70, 95% CI (0.53-0.95)], rural residence [AOR = 0.69, 95% CI (0.57-0.82)] and high community poverty [AOR = 0.66, 95% CI (0.54-0.80)] were found to be negatively associated with MCV2 utilization. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Measles-containing vaccine doses 2 utilization in Sub-Saharan Africa was relatively low. Individual-level factors and community-level factors were significantly associated with low measles-containing vaccine dose 2 utilization. The MCV2 utilization could be improved through public health intervention by targeting rural residents, children of uneducated mothers, economically poor women, and other significant factors this study revealed.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Sarampo , Sarampo , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Análise Multinível , Mães , Razão de Chances , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos
9.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366531

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) accounts for almost half of all primary malignant brain tumors in adults and has a poor prognosis. Here we demonstrated the oncolytic potential of the L-16 vaccine strain of measles virus (MV) against primary human GBM cells and characterized the genetic patterns that determine the sensitivity of primary human GBM cells to oncolytic therapy. MV replicated in all GBM cells, and seven out of eight cell lines underwent complete or partial oncolysis. RNA-Seq analysis identified about 1200 differentially expressed genes (FDR < 0.05) with at least two-fold expression level change between MV-infected and uninfected cells. Among them, the most significant upregulation was observed for interferon response, apoptosis and cytokine signaling. One out of eight GBM cell lines was defective in type I interferon production and, thus, in the post-interferon response, other cells lacked expression of different cellular defense factors. Thus, none of the cell lines displayed induction of the total gene set necessary for effective inhibition of MV replication. In the resistant cells, we detected aberrant expression of metalloproteinase genes, particularly MMP3. Thus, such genes could be considered intriguing candidates for further study of factors responsible for cell sensitivity and resistance to L-16 MV infection.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , Sarampo , Terapia Viral Oncolítica , Vírus Oncolíticos , Vacinas , Humanos , Vírus do Sarampo/fisiologia , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/terapia , Vírus Oncolíticos/fisiologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Interferons/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Vacina contra Sarampo
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 887, 2022 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persons in Pakistan have suffered from various infectious diseases over the years, each impacted by various factors including climate change, seasonality, geopolitics, and resource availability. The COVID-19 pandemic is another complicating factor, with changes in the reported incidence of endemic infectious diseases and related syndromes under surveillance. METHODS: We assessed the monthly incidence of eight important infectious diseases/syndromes: acute upper respiratory infection (AURI), viral hepatitis, malaria, pneumonia, diarrhea, typhoid fever, measles, and neonatal tetanus (NNT), before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Administrative health data of monthly reported cases of these diseases/syndromes from all five provinces/regions of Pakistan for a 3-year interval (March 2018-February 2021) were analyzed using an interrupted time series approach. Reported monthly incidence for each infectious disease agent or syndrome and COVID-19 were subjected to time series visualization. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between each infectious disease/syndrome and COVID-19 was calculated and median case numbers of each disease before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic were compared using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Subsequently, a generalized linear negative binomial regression model was developed to determine the association between reported cases of each disease and COVID-19. RESULTS: In late February 2020, concurrent with the start of COVID-19, in all provinces, there were decreases in the reported incidence of the following diseases: AURI, pneumonia, hepatitis, diarrhea, typhoid, and measles. In contrast, the incidence of COVID was negatively associated with the reported incidence of NNT only in Punjab and Sindh, but not in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Balochistan, or Azad Jammu & Kashmir (AJK) & Gilgit Baltistan (GB). Similarly, COVID-19 was associated with a lowered incidence of malaria in Punjab, Sindh, and AJK & GB, but not in KPK and Balochistan. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 was associated with a decreased reported incidence of most infectious diseases/syndromes studied in most provinces of Pakistan. However, exceptions included NNT in KPK, Balochistan and AJK & GB, and malaria in KPK and Balochistan. This general trend was attributed to a combination of resource diversion, misdiagnosis, misclassification, misinformation, and seasonal patterns of each disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis , Malária , Sarampo , Pneumonia , Infecções Respiratórias , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Incidência , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Síndrome , Malária/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1012822, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36438238

RESUMO

Background: Vaccination is widespread in Western countries and, overall, there is a high vaccination rate. However, immunization is still an enduring challenge. In recent years, the number of parents who choose to delay or refuse vaccines has risen. Objectives: (1) to identify the perceptions and attitudes of hesitant and anti-vaccination parents regarding vaccination in general, and vaccinating their children in particular and; (2) to describe the responses of potential participants to the request to participate in academic research regarding their perceptions and attitudes on the subject of vaccines. Methods: The research employs the qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological method using two research tools: (1) in-depth interviews with 7 hesitant and 11 anti-vaccination Jewish parents in Israel; and (2) the researchers' field notes from this study process, which describe the responses of 32 potential participants to the request to participate in this academic research. Results: The main findings indicate that while most of the interviewees admit to the efficacy of vaccines in preventing diseases, they oppose the way in which vaccines are promoted-based on providing partial information and disregarding parents' concerns and questions. Therefore, they demand transparency about the efficacy and safety of vaccines. The findings also point to a paradoxical finding. On the one hand, these groups claim that health organizations do not understand their position, referring to them as "science-deniers", even though they are not. On the other hand, these parents choose to refrain from participating in scientific studies and voicing their opinions, thereby perpetuating the situation of being misunderstood. Conclusion: Hesitant and anti-vaccination groups express mistrust in academic institutions and health organizations. Therefore, an effective dialogue that would include hesitant and anti-vaccination groups, the academy, and health organizations may contribute to a better understanding of the barriers that prevent these groups from getting vaccinated or vaccinating their children and promote public health.


Assuntos
Sarampo , Vacinas , Criança , Humanos , Movimento contra Vacinação , Judeus , Israel , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Pais , Surtos de Doenças
12.
Lancet ; 400 Suppl 1: S51, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36426469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2019, the UK lost its WHO measles-free status, due to circulating measles virus and suboptimal coverage with the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The National Health Service (NHS) schedule recommends MMR vaccines at age 12 and 40 months. In England in 2020-21, MMR coverage did not meet the 95% target for herd immunity. This work is part of a project to develop a vaccination intervention delivered in the paediatric emergency department (PED). The aim of this study was to quantify unmet MMR-related vaccination need among PED attendees. METHODS: This cross-sectional, single-centre observational study collected data on children (aged 1-5 years) attending a large district general PED in Greater Manchester, UK, from Oct 1 to Oct 31, 2021, with data collected on a single occasion. Ethics approval was for an opt-out approach. Vaccination data were extracted from individual electronic summary care records, as part of the primary care record visible within secondary care. Coverage in the study population was compared with data for the northwest of England from the Cover of Vaccination Evaluated Rapidly surveillance scheme for the period April 1, 2020 to March 31, 2021. χ2 tests were used to examine differences in proportions vaccinated. FINDINGS: 1059 children aged 1-5 years attended the PED in October, 2021, and data for 977 children were included in this study. Among all children, 638 (65·3%) had at least one dose of MMR recorded in their summary care record. The most similar regional comparator was first-dose MMR by the age of 5 years, which was administered in 86 678 (95·2%) of 91 023 children in 2020-21 (p<0·0001). In our cohort, among eligible children older than 40 months (n=339), only 66 (19·5%) had received both MMR doses, compared with regional coverage (by age 5 years) in 79 535 (87·4%) of 91 023 children (p<0·0001). A power calculation showed 577 participants were needed to detect a 5% difference in second-dose MMR. INTERPRETATION: Children younger than 5 years attending the PED had low rates of age-appropriate MMR vaccination coverage, suggesting considerable unmet need in these PED attendees. Other work within this project looks at tetanus coverage and sources of vaccination data. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Sarampo , Caxumba , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão) , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Caxumba/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal , Estudos Transversais , Medicina Estatal , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Vacinação , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
13.
Health Informatics J ; 28(4): 14604582221135831, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416280

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify and assess the prevalence of vaccine-hesitancy-related topics on Twitter in the periods before and after the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Using a search query, 272,780 tweets associated with anti-vaccine topics and posted between 1 January 2011, and 15 January 2021, were collected. The tweets were classified into a list of 11 topics and analyzed for trends during the periods before and after the onset of COVID-19. Since the beginning of COVID-19, the percentage of anti-vaccine tweets has increased for two topics, "government and politics" and "conspiracy theories," and decreased for "developmental disabilities." Compared to tweets regarding flu and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines, those concerning COVID-19 vaccines showed larger percentages for the topics of conspiracy theories and alternative treatments, and a lower percentage for developmental disabilities. The results support existing anti-vaccine literature and the assertion that anti-vaccine sentiments are an important public-health issue.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sarampo , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública
14.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(11)2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36422189

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Although it is believed that measles infections are under control, there is a global reappearance, and their treatment has become more complex as the disease is followed by a relatively high incidence of complications. This study, conducted on patients during a measles outbreak from November 2017 to May 2018, aims to evaluate a rarely reported complication of measles, acute morbilous pancreatitis (AMP), which has been reported in several cases to date. Materials and Methods: A total of 207 patients admitted and treated at the Clinic for Infectious Diseases, Clinical Center Nis, for measles infection were included in the analysis. The data collected from the patient's medical records included the demographic characteristics, disease duration, full blood, serum, and urine biochemical analysis, general measles-associated symptoms, and disease outcome. Results: According to the serum and urine amylase activity, and some clinical symptoms AMP were diagnosed in 14% (29/207) of the studied patients. These patients had significantly higher levels of ALT and vomited more frequently than the patients without AMP. Only slight differences in measles duration, changes in RBC count, and CRP levels were found between the males and females with AMP. Conclusions: Acute morbillous pancreatitis should not be underestimated as a complication, even though according to the results of our survey, it was not associated with a fatal outcome or disease severity as the course of it can be frequently rapid and fatal.


Assuntos
Sarampo , Pancreatite , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Pancreatite/epidemiologia , Pancreatite/etiologia , Sarampo/complicações , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/diagnóstico , Surtos de Doenças , Monofosfato de Adenosina
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(43): e31254, 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316902

RESUMO

The risk of geographic transmission of infectious diseases due to air travel varies greatly. Our aim is to survey empirical data that provide a retrospective historical perspective on measles and rubella. This study used the open data website provided by the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (TCDC) to extract the reported numbers of measles and rubella case between 2011 and 2020. There were 306 cases of measles and 135 cases of rubella. The incidence of measles and rubella per million population were 0 to 6.0 and 0 to 2.6, respectively. There was a gradual increase in the numbers of cases in those aged 20-39 years, and distinct duration patterns. It indicated that the risk of contracting rubella has significantly decreased in the last 5 years. Measles cases aged 20 to 39 years accounted for 72.5% of all cases. Rubella cases aged 20 to 39 years accounted for 59.3% of all cases. The male and residency in the Taipei metropolitan area or northern area were identified as potential risk factors for measles and rubella. Coverage with the first dose of the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine in Taiwan increased from 97.31% to 98.86%, and the uptake rate of the second dose of the MMR vaccine increased from 95.73% to 98.39% between 2010 and 2020. Furthermore, the numbers of imported cases of measles (n = 0) and rubella (n = 0) reported during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic were lower than those from 2011 to 2019. Measles and rubella cases were imported most frequently from Cambodia and Vietnam. This study represents the first report of confirmed cases of acquired measles and rubella from surveillance data of the TCDC between 2011 and 2020, also demonstrates that the numbers of cases of measles and rubella significantly decreased in Taiwan during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Sarampo , Caxumba , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão) , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/efeitos adversos , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/induzido quimicamente , Taiwan/epidemiologia
16.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2023, 2022 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood immunization is a cost-effective way to protect individuals against communicable diseases. However, although there is a large literature on childhood immunization in Indonesia, there is a paucity of research on the age-appropriateness on measles and DTwP-3 vaccination, and the inequities in immunization coverage across Indonesia. METHODS: In this paper, using seven waves of data from the nationally representative Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) covering the period 1991- 2017, we empirically analyse the socio-economic and demographic factors influencing the uptake of four routine vaccines (BCG, Polio-3, DTwP-3, and Measles). Specifically, using multivariate regression analysis, we identify the socio-economic and demographic factors influencing childhood immunization coverage. We further analyse the socio-economic and demographic correlates of the age-appropriateness of the measles and DTwP-3 vaccination coverage. RESULTS: Our findings show that parental education and use of healthcare services are strong predictors of full immunization and age-appropriate vaccinations. This study also finds evidence of spatial heterogeneity in both full immunization rates and age-appropriate vaccinations for measles and DTwP-3 vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis finds that despite an improvement in the timing of vaccinations over the last two decades, a significant proportion of children continue to receive their measles and DTwP vaccinations age inappropriately. In particular, we find that maternal education and maternal engagement with healthcare services are critical in improving age appropriateness of vaccinations. From a policy perspective, these results call for concerted efforts by policy makers to address regional gaps in access to health services and immunization coverage, as well as to improve the age-appropriateness of vaccination.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização , Sarampo , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Indonésia , Vacinação , Vacina contra Sarampo , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche , Imunização , Esquemas de Imunização
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(46): 1465-1470, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395065

RESUMO

Vaccination is the main means for preventing measles, mumps, and rubella virus infections and their related complications (1,2). Achieving and maintaining high 2-dose measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination coverage in the United States has led to elimination of endemic measles in 2000, rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in 2004, and a sharp decrease in mumps cases. However, measles and rubella remain endemic in many countries, leading to importations of cases and occasional local transmission within the United States (3). Reported U.S. mumps cases declined >99% from the prevaccine period (4); however, mumps is endemic worldwide, and since 2006, the number of mumps cases and mumps outbreaks has increased in the United States, with wider geographic spread since 2016 (4). Given the risk for importation of measles and rubella and the resurgence of mumps, maintaining high measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination coverage is important. Since 1978, only one MMR vaccine, M-M-R II (Merck and Co., Inc.), has been available in the United States. On June 6, 2022, the Food and Drug Administration approved a second MMR vaccine, PRIORIX (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals), for the prevention of measles, mumps, and rubella in persons aged ≥12 months. The three live attenuated viruses contained in PRIORIX are genetically similar or identical to the corresponding components in M-M-R II (Table) (5-7). On June 23, 2022, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) unanimously recommended PRIORIX as an option to prevent measles, mumps, and rubella according to the existing recommended schedules and for off-label uses (i.e., indications not included in the package insert)* (1,2). ACIP considered PRIORIX to be safe, immunogenic, and noninferior to M-M-R II. Both PRIORIX and M-M-R II are fully interchangeable for all indications for which MMR vaccination is recommended. This report contains ACIP recommendations specific to PRIORIX and supplements the existing ACIP recommendations for MMR use (1,2).


Assuntos
Sarampo , Caxumba , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão) , Humanos , Comitês Consultivos , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Caxumba/prevenção & controle , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinação
19.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1846, 2022 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36192739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Germany, a measles vaccine mandate came into effect in March 2020, requiring proof of measles immunization for children attending kindergarten or school and for staff in a variety of facilities. Mandates can be successful if implemented with care and in a context-sensitive manner. They may, however, also lead to inequities and decreased uptake of other vaccines. The aim of this study was to investigate the acceptance and potential unintended consequences of the measles vaccine mandate in Germany. METHODS: As part of a larger evaluation project on the new mandate, we conducted an online survey among parents in August/September 2020. We assessed differences in knowledge about the mandate and the measles vaccine by socio-economic status. We used linear and logistic regression to estimate how reactance to the mandate was associated with vaccination status and vaccination intention against other diseases. We used mediation analysis to measure how trust in institutions had an impact on the attitude towards the mandate, mediated by level of reactance. RESULTS: In total, 4,863 parents participated in the study (64.2% female, mean age = 36.8 years). Of these, 74.1% endorsed a measles vaccine mandate for children. Parents with lower socio-economic status had less knowledge about the mandate and the measles vaccine. The higher parents' levels of reactance, the lower the vaccination intentions and the likelihood for the child to be vaccinated against other diseases. Furthermore, higher institutional trust decreased the level of reactance and increased positive attitudes towards the mandate (partial mediation). CONCLUSIONS: The new measles vaccine mandate in Germany, though well accepted by many, might have unintended consequences. Parents with lower socio-economic status, who know less about the mandate and vaccine, might be less likely to comply with it. The mandate may also lead to some parents omitting other childhood vaccines, as a way to restore their freedom. This could decrease vaccination coverage of other vaccines. Any potential loss of trust might provoke more reactance and lower acceptance of mandates. Policymakers should now expand communication activities on the mandate, monitor trends in vaccination coverage carefully and take measures to strengthen trust.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Sarampo , Sarampo , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Alemanha , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Pais , Vacinação , Cobertura Vacinal
20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6439, 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36307480

RESUMO

Measles is the most contagious airborne viral infection and the leading cause of child death among vaccine-preventable diseases. We show here that aerosolized lipopeptide fusion inhibitor, derived from heptad-repeat regions of the measles virus (MeV) fusion protein, blocks respiratory MeV infection in a non-human primate model, the cynomolgus macaque. We use a custom-designed mesh nebulizer to ensure efficient aerosol delivery of peptide to the respiratory tract and demonstrate the absence of adverse effects and lung pathology in macaques. The nebulized peptide efficiently prevents MeV infection, resulting in the complete absence of MeV RNA, MeV-infected cells, and MeV-specific humoral responses in treated animals. This strategy provides an additional means to fight against respiratory infection in non-vaccinated people, that can be readily translated to human trials. It presents a proof-of-concept for the aerosol delivery of fusion inhibitory peptides to protect against measles and other airborne viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, in case of high-risk exposure.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sarampo , Animais , Humanos , Vírus do Sarampo , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/metabolismo , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Macaca fascicularis/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...