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1.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47966

RESUMO

Em 2019, o sarampo aumentou em todo o mundo, atingindo o maior número de casos notificados em 23 anos. Destacados em uma publicação da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) e dos Centros para Controle e Prevenção de Doenças (CDC) dos Estados Unidos, os casos de sarampo notificados em todo o mundo aumentaram para 869.770 em 2019, o maior número registrado desde 1996 com aumentos em todas as regiões da OMS. As mortes globais por sarampo aumentaram quase 50% desde 2016, ceifando cerca de 207,5 mil vidas apenas em 2019.


Assuntos
Sarampo/mortalidade ,
2.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-11-11.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53014

RESUMO

Las vacunas salvan entre 2 y 3 millones de vidas cada año y protegen a toda la población contra más de una docena de enfermedades potencialmente mortales. Gracias a la vacunación se erradicó la viruela en el año 1980 y estamos en vías de erradicar la poliomielitis. No obstante, en los últimos años ha habido un aumento en los casos de sarampión, una de las enfermedades conocidas más contagiosas. Por esta razón es necesario alcanzar una cobertura de vacunación de 95% o más, lo que constituye un gran desafío técnico y de comunicación para el personal de salud. Los estudios demuestran que informar sobre la calidad, la seguridad, la eficacia y la oferta de las vacunas no es suficiente para lograr cambios de conducta frente a la vacunación y que, en general, no aumenta su cobertura. Por este motivo, es necesario comprender las razones que llevan a las personas a no vacunarse o a no vacunar a sus hijos, con vistas a iniciar un diálogo bidireccional basado en el respeto que redunde en mensajes mejores y más eficaces. En este contexto, las presentes orientaciones tienen como objetivo principal facilitar a los equipos de salud herramientas que sirvan de apoyo para la comunicación efectiva entre el personal de salud y la población general, con miras a lograr el objetivo de fortalecer, mantener o recuperar la confianza en las vacunas y en los programas de inmunización en la Región de las Américas.


Assuntos
Imunização , Vacinas , Vacinação , Cuidadores , Família , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Vacina Quadrivalente Recombinante contra HPV tipos 6, 11, 16, 18 , Papiloma , Sarampo , Vacinas contra Influenza , Vírus da Influenza A , Vírus da Influenza B , Influenzavirus C , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(45): 1700-1705, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180759

RESUMO

In 2010, the World Health Assembly (WHA) set the following three milestones for measles control to be achieved by 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) among children aged 1 year to ≥90% at the national level and to ≥80% in every district, 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to <5 cases per 1 million population, and 3) reduce global measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate* (1). In 2012, WHA endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan,† with the objective of eliminating measles§ in five of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2020. This report describes progress toward WHA milestones and regional measles elimination during 2000-2019 and updates a previous report (2). During 2000-2010, estimated MCV1 coverage increased globally from 72% to 84% but has since plateaued at 84%-85%. All countries conducted measles surveillance; however, approximately half did not achieve the sensitivity indicator target of two or more discarded measles and rubella cases per 100,000 population. Annual reported measles incidence decreased 88%, from 145 to 18 cases per 1 million population during 2000-2016; the lowest incidence occurred in 2016, but by 2019 incidence had risen to 120 cases per 1 million population. During 2000-2019, the annual number of estimated measles deaths decreased 62%, from 539,000 to 207,500; an estimated 25.5 million measles deaths were averted. To drive progress toward the regional measles elimination targets, additional strategies are needed to help countries reach all children with 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine, identify and close immunity gaps, and improve surveillance.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Objetivos , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Incidência , Lactente , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/mortalidade , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Organização Mundial da Saúde
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 735, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of COVID-19 has occurred close on the heels of a global resurgence of measles. In 2019, an unprecedented epidemic of measles affected Samoa, requiring a state of emergency to be declared. Measles causes an immune amnesia which can persist for over 2 years after acute infection and increases the risk of a range of other infections. METHODS: We modelled the potential impact of measles-induced immune amnesia on a COVID-19 epidemic in Samoa using data on measles incidence in 2018-2019, population data and a hypothetical COVID-19 epidemic. RESULTS: The young population structure and contact matrix in Samoa results in the most transmission occurring in young people < 20 years old. The highest rate of death is the 60+ years old, but a smaller peak in death may occur in younger people, with more than 15% of total deaths in the age group under 20 years old. Measles induced immune amnesia could increase the total number of cases by 8% and deaths by more than 2%. CONCLUSIONS: Samoa, which had large measles epidemics in 2019-2020 should focus on rapidly achieving high rates of measles vaccination and enhanced surveillance for COVID-19, as the impact may be more severe due to measles-induced immune paresis. This applies to other severely measles-affected countries in the Pacific, Europe and elsewhere.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sarampo/imunologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Samoa/epidemiologia , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
5.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 77(5): 282-286, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064699

RESUMO

Measles is an exanthematous disease caused by a virus of the Morbillivirus genus. On February 23, 2020, the exanthema began in the first confirmed case of measles this year. At the same time, on February 28, 2020, the first case of the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was confirmed. Up to June 6, 2020, 176 measles cases have been confirmed: 137 in Mexico City, 37 in the state of Mexico, and two in the state of Campeche. In Mexico City, municipalities with more cases were Gustavo A. Madero, Miguel Hidalgo, and Iztapalapa; in the State of Mexico were Ecatepec, Tlalnepantla, and Netzahualcoyotl; in Campeche, there are only two cases reported. On the other hand, 7,065,133 cases of COVID-19 have been registered worldwide with a global case fatality rate of 5.7%. In Mexico, there have been 113,619 confirmed cases and 13,511 deaths, while in Mexico City, there have been 30,223 cases and 3062 deaths. Iztapalapa and Gustavo A. Madero are the locations with more cases reported. Hence, a campaign of social distancing started as part of the strategies to control the spread of the infection. The potential threat is that as social confinement measures are relaxed and mobility is initiated, both viruses could continue to spread. It is expected that due to the time that has passed since the last reported measles case, control of this disease will be achieved.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Isolamento Social , Adulto Jovem
6.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(14): 1109-1116, 2020.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108997

RESUMO

CME Dermatology 22: Measles - Empidemiology and Clinical Manifestations Abstract. Measles is a highly contagious, acute and febrile illness that results from infection with measles virus. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates a worldwide prevalence of ten million patients per year, leading to approximately 142 000 deaths (case fatality rate 1.4 %). The illness begins with fever, malaise and typically with at least one of the following signs: cough, coryza and/or conjunctivitis. Three to four days later, the characteristical rash appears. The primary clinical diagnosis needs to be confirmed by detection of specific IgM antibodies in serum or viral RNA by a throat swap. The management mainly consists of supportive therapy, a specific antiviral treatment does not exist. Therefore, prevention by widespread measles vaccination has absolute priority.


Assuntos
Exantema , Sarampo , Dermatologia , Humanos , Sarampo/diagnóstico , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Vírus do Sarampo , Vacinação
7.
Am J Public Health ; 110(S3): S312-S318, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001718

RESUMO

Objectives. To understand changes in how Facebook pages frame vaccine opposition.Methods. We categorized 204 Facebook pages expressing vaccine opposition, extracting public posts through November 20, 2019. We analyzed posts from October 2009 through October 2019 to examine if pages' content was coalescing.Results. Activity in pages promoting vaccine choice as a civil liberty increased in January 2015, April 2016, and January 2019 (t[76] = 11.33 [P < .001]; t[46] = 7.88 [P < .001]; and t[41] = 17.27 [P < .001], respectively). The 2019 increase was strongest in pages mentioning US states (t[41] = 19.06; P < .001). Discussion about vaccine safety decreased (rs[119] = -0.61; P < .001) while discussion about civil liberties increased (rs[119] = 0.33; Py < .001]). Page categories increasingly resembled one another (civil liberties: rs[119] = -0.50 [P < .001]; alternative medicine: rs[84] = -0.77 [P < .001]; conspiracy theories: rs[119] = -0.46 [P < .001]; morality: rs[106] = -0.65 [P < .001]; safety and efficacy: rs[119] = -0.46 [P < .001]).Conclusions. The "Disneyland" measles outbreak drew vaccine opposition into the political mainstream, followed by promotional campaigns conducted in pages framing vaccine refusal as a civil right. Political mobilization in state-focused pages followed in 2019.Public Health Implications. Policymakers should expect increasing attempts to alter state legislation associated with vaccine exemptions, potentially accompanied by fiercer lobbying from specific celebrities.


Assuntos
Movimento contra Vacinação , Direitos Civis , Surtos de Doenças , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Mídias Sociais , Recusa de Vacinação , California/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 753, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Safety of live vaccines in patients treated with immunosuppressive therapies is not well known, resulting in contradictory vaccination recommendations. We describe here the first case of vaccine-associated measles in a patient on natalizumab treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: A young female patient with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis on natalizumab treatment received the live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in preparation for a change in her treatment in favour of fingolimod, with established immunosuppressive qualities. Seven days after receiving the vaccine, our patient experienced diffuse muscle pain, fatigue, and thereafter developed a fever and then an erythematous maculopapular rash, compatible with vaccine associated measles. This was later confirmed by a positive measles RT-PCR throat swab. The patient's symptoms resolved without any sequelae. CONCLUSION: In this case report we review the immunosuppressive qualities of natalizumab and the evidence in favour and against live vaccines in patients on this treatment. Our findings reveal the insufficient understanding of the immunosuppressive effects of new immunomodulators, and thus of the safety of live vaccines in patients on such medications. While this case triggers precaution, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that natalizumab treatment could favor the onset of vaccine-associated measles.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Sarampo/efeitos adversos , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/uso terapêutico , Sarampo/etiologia , Natalizumab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Exantema/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressão/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Sarampo/diagnóstico , Vacina contra Sarampo/uso terapêutico , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/efeitos adversos , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Natalizumab/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/uso terapêutico
9.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 69(3): 121-126, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086853

RESUMO

AIM: Due to mandatory vaccination introduced in the Czech Republic since 1969, only few measles cases were reported annually until recently. However, a rapid increase of cases has been recorded in last two years. In contrast to the pre-vaccination era, in recent measles outbreaks, many cases have been reported among vaccinated adults. Health care workers (HCWs) are particularly at high risk of contact with measles. Therefore, to minimize transmission in health care settings, many hospitals evaluate measles immune status of their HCWs and offer free vaccination to those with too low anti-measles antibody levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against measles in all HCWs of the Strakonice Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-measles IgG serum levels were measured using quantitative ELISA. RESULTS: Almost all HCWs born before 1969, when the mandatory vaccination started, showed high levels of IgG antibodies (93.5%). Contrarily, among previously vaccinated individuals, only 64.8% were seropositive. A high percentage of seronegative or borderline samples was observed even in the age groups who were previously vaccinated with two doses. CONCLUSIONS: In total, 25.4% of all HCWs of the Strakonice Hospital had too low anti-measles IgG levels, and most of them were immunized with one dose of MMR vaccine. Prioritized vaccination substantially decreased the number of staff at higher risk of measles acquisition and, at the same time, of those who would need to be quarantined after exposure.


Assuntos
Sarampo , República Tcheca , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
10.
N Engl J Med ; 383(10): 905-907, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877580
14.
Vaccine ; 38(45): 7146-7155, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has affected routine immunization globally. Impact will likely be higher in low and middle-income countries with limited healthcare resources and fragile health systems. We quantified the impact, spatial heterogeneity, and determinants for childhood immunizations of 48 million population affected in the Sindh province of Pakistan. METHODS: We extracted individual immunization records from real-time provincial Electronic Immunization Registry from September 23, 2019, to July 11, 2020. Comparing baseline (6 months preceding the lockdown) and the COVID-19 lockdown period, we analyzed the impact on daily immunization coverage rate for each antigen by geographical area. We used multivariable logistic regression to explore the predictors associated with immunizations during the lockdown. RESULTS: There was a 52.5% decline in the daily average total number of vaccinations administered during lockdown compared to baseline. The highest decline was seen for Bacille Cal-mette Guérin (BCG) (40.6% (958/2360) immunization at fixed sites. Around 8438 children/day were missing immunization during the lockdown. Enrollments declined furthest in rural districts, urban sub-districts with large slums, and polio-endemic super high-risk sub-districts. Pentavalent-3 (penta-3) immunization rates were higher in infants born in hospitals (RR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15) and those with mothers having higher education (RR: 1.19-1.50; 95% CI: 1.13-1.65). Likelihood of penta-3 immunization was reduced by 5% for each week of delayed enrollment into the immunization program. CONCLUSION: One out of every two children in Sindh province has missed their routine vaccinations during the provincial COVID-19 lockdown. The pool of un-immunized children is expanding during lockdown, leaving them susceptible to vaccine-preventable diseases. There is a need for tailored interventions to promote immunization visits and safe service delivery. Higher maternal education, facility-based births, and early enrollment into the immunization program continue to show a positive association with immunization uptake, even during a challenging lockdown.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/imunologia , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Sistema de Registros , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , População Rural , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , População Urbana , Vacinação/psicologia , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem
15.
N Z Med J ; 133(1522): 71-83, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994618

RESUMO

Despite New Zealand's "measles elimination" status, the risk of measles outbreaks persists, due to ongoing measles importation and sub-optimal vaccination coverage, including specific sub-populations with higher proportions of susceptible people. From February to April 2019, Canterbury experienced a measles outbreak with 38 local cases and an unidentified index case. The outbreak strain was linked to a large outbreak in the Philippines. The whole-of-health-system response included active case and contact follow-up by public health and hospital staff, and a prioritised vaccination campaign in primary care. Important features of a measles outbreak response in an "elimination" context include cross-system liaison, co-ordination of communications, careful prioritisation of use of available resources, and support for households affected by isolation and/or quarantine requests. Closer analysis of the effectiveness of outbreak control measures would help prioritise use of scarce public health and health care resources during outbreaks. Future measles outbreaks could be prevented by a systematic primary care-based MMR catch-up campaign.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Sarampo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbillivirus/classificação , Morbillivirus/genética , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 37(3): 231-236, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measles cases are reemerging in many countries across the globe. There was an outbreak of imported measles between November 2018 and February 2019 in Chile, raising concern among the public and health authorities. Many were worried about the Chilean measles herd immunity, a factor that relates to the reproductive capacity of the virus (measure of transmissibility of a pathogen). AIM: Here we estimate the effective reproductive number (Re) of this measles outbreak. RESULTS: Although the estimate is highly uncertain due to the low number of cases and the absence of homogeneous mixing of the population, we found Re was approximately 1.5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Consequently we estimated about 90,3 % had measles immunity, consistent with administrative estimates from the Ministry of Health. These results suggest the Chilean population has established herd immunity against the introduction of imported measles cases, reflecting adequate preventive management of this disease.


Assuntos
Sarampo , Vacinação , Chile , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Imunidade Coletiva , Vacina contra Sarampo
19.
Euro Surveill ; 25(31)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762795

RESUMO

The number of measles cases declined in European Union/European Economic Area countries and the United Kingdom in 2020. Reported cases to The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control decreased from 710 to 54 between January and May. Epidemic intelligence screening observed a similar trend. Under-diagnoses and under-reporting during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic should be ruled out before concluding reduced measles circulation is because of social distancing and any community control measures taken to control COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , União Europeia , Humanos , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
Wiad Lek ; 73(4): 782-785, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To study the clinical and epidemiological peculiarities of measles in adults according to the data of the Regional Clinical Infectious Disease Hospital in Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The article analyzes the epidemiological and clinical features of 113 cases of measles among adults who undergone inpatient treatment in 2017-2018. The diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of antiviral Ig M antibodies. Determination of the genotype of the virus was performed in Regional WHO Reference Laboratory in Luxembourg. RESULTS: Results: The genotype of the measles virus was MVs/Cambridge GBR/5.16 D8 is circulating through the region territory. In 98.3% of adult patients a typical clinical picture of moderate severity was observed. Measles was accompanied by complications such as acute bronchitis (23.9%), reactive hepatitis (13.3%), reactive pancreatitis (10.6%) andpneumonia (7.1%). CONCLUSION: Сonclusions: The following epidemiological peculiarities in adult patients with measles: young people are mostly ill, urban residents are not vaccinated, partly vaccinated or with an unknown vaccine status. There was a change in the genotype of the virus of measles circulating in the Ivano-Frankivsk region: in 2012 genotype MVs/ManchesterGBR/10.09D4was confirmed, now the genotype of the measles virus is MVS/ CambridgeGBR/5.16D8. In 98 (86.73%) patients was a typical clinical picture of the disease, of moderate severity. Among the complications of the disease were diagnosed: bronchitis and pneumonia (23.9% and 7.1% respectively), reactive hepatitis and reactive pancreatitis (13.3% and 10.6%).


Assuntos
Sarampo , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais , Surtos de Doenças , Genótipo , Humanos , Vírus do Sarampo , Ucrânia
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