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3.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 35, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted routine measles immunisation and supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs) in most countries including Kenya. We assessed the risk of measles outbreaks during the pandemic in Kenya as a case study for the African Region. METHODS: Combining measles serological data, local contact patterns, and vaccination coverage into a cohort model, we predicted the age-adjusted population immunity in Kenya and estimated the probability of outbreaks when contact-reducing COVID-19 interventions are lifted. We considered various scenarios for reduced measles vaccination coverage from April 2020. RESULTS: In February 2020, when a scheduled SIA was postponed, population immunity was close to the herd immunity threshold and the probability of a large outbreak was 34% (8-54). As the COVID-19 contact restrictions are nearly fully eased, from December 2020, the probability of a large measles outbreak will increase to 38% (19-54), 46% (30-59), and 54% (43-64) assuming a 15%, 50%, and 100% reduction in measles vaccination coverage. By December 2021, this risk increases further to 43% (25-56), 54% (43-63), and 67% (59-72) for the same coverage scenarios respectively. However, the increased risk of a measles outbreak following the lifting of all restrictions can be overcome by conducting a SIA with ≥ 95% coverage in under-fives. CONCLUSION: While contact restrictions sufficient for SAR-CoV-2 control temporarily reduce measles transmissibility and the risk of an outbreak from a measles immunity gap, this risk rises rapidly once these restrictions are lifted. Implementing delayed SIAs will be critical for prevention of measles outbreaks given the roll-back of contact restrictions in Kenya.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo/provisão & distribução , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sarampo/sangue , Sarampo/complicações , Cobertura Vacinal
4.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 10(1): 2, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451324

RESUMO

Measles is a highly contagious disease. A 24 years old patient, recently exposed to measles (unvaccinated), presented in the emergency department with severe agitation, compatible with an acute psychotic episode, during the measles epidemic which spread in Israel in 2018-2019. Upon hospital admission, strict isolation was instructed, yet, without compliance, probably due to the patient's status. Measles diagnosis was promptly confirmed. As measles transmission was eminent, public health measures were employed through immediate implementation of the section 15 of the Public Health Ordinance, allowing for compulsory short-term isolation. The patient's condition improved within a few days and the measures were no longer necessary. This measles case occurred in the pre-Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic when use of a Public Health Ordinance was considered an extreme measure. This is in contrast to the current global use of Public Health laws to enforce strict quarantine and isolation on persons infected or potentially exposed to COVID-19. Nevertheless, minimizing infectious diseases transmission is a core function of public health law. Utilizing legal enforcement in circumstances of immediate public health hazard, such as nosocomial measles transmission, necessitates careful consideration. The integrative clinical and public health approach and prompt measures employed in this exceptional case, led to prevention of further infection spread.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Isolamento de Pacientes/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Doença Aguda , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sarampo/complicações , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/etiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 2, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Through a combination of strong routine immunization (RI), strategic supplemental immunization activities (SIA) and robust surveillance, numerous countries have been able to approach or achieve measles elimination. The fragility of these achievements has been shown, however, by the resurgence of measles since 2016. We describe trends in routine measles vaccine coverage at national and district level, SIA performance and demographic changes in the three regions with the highest measles burden. FINDINGS: WHO-UNICEF estimates of immunization coverage show that global coverage of the first dose of measles vaccine has stabilized at 85% from 2015 to 19. In 2000, 17 countries in the WHO African and Eastern Mediterranean regions had measles vaccine coverage below 50%, and although all increased coverage by 2019, at a median of 60%, it remained far below levels needed for elimination. Geospatial estimates show many low coverage districts across Africa and much of the Eastern Mediterranean and southeast Asian regions. A large proportion of children unvaccinated for MCV live in conflict-affected areas with remote rural areas and some urban areas also at risk. Countries with low RI coverage use SIAs frequently, yet the ideal timing and target age range for SIAs vary within countries, and the impact of SIAs has often been mitigated by delays or disruptions. SIAs have not been sufficient to achieve or sustain measles elimination in the countries with weakest routine systems. Demographic changes also affect measles transmission, and their variation between and within countries should be incorporated into strategic planning. CONCLUSIONS: Rebuilding services after the COVID-19 pandemic provides a need and an opportunity to increase community engagement in planning and monitoring services. A broader suite of interventions is needed beyond SIAs. Improved methods for tracking coverage at the individual and community level are needed together with enhanced surveillance. Decision-making needs to be decentralized to develop locally-driven, sustainable strategies for measles control and elimination.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Programas de Imunização , Imunização Secundária , Sarampo , Regionalização/organização & administração , Cobertura Vacinal/tendências , África/epidemiologia , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , /prevenção & controle , Criança , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Erradicação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Imunização Secundária/métodos , Imunização Secundária/estatística & dados numéricos , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo/uso terapêutico , Região do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 132, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420104

RESUMO

The use of pesticides to reduce mosquito vector populations is a cornerstone of global malaria control efforts, but the biological impact of most pesticides on human populations, including pregnant women and infants, is not known. Some pesticides, including carbamates, have been shown to perturb the human immune system. We measure the systemic absorption and immunologic effects of bendiocarb, a commonly used carbamate pesticide, following household spraying in a cohort of pregnant Ugandan women and their infants. We find that bendiocarb is present at high levels in maternal, umbilical cord, and infant plasma of individuals exposed during pregnancy, indicating that it is systemically absorbed and trans-placentally transferred to the fetus. Moreover, bendiocarb exposure is associated with numerous changes in fetal immune cell homeostasis and function, including a dose-dependent decrease in regulatory CD4 T cells, increased cytokine production, and inhibition of antigen-driven proliferation. Additionally, prenatal bendiocarb exposure is associated with higher post-vaccination measles titers at one year of age, suggesting that its impact on functional immunity may persist for many months after birth. These data indicate that in utero bendiocarb exposure has multiple previously unrecognized biological effects on the fetal immune system.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feto/imunologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Sarampo/sangue , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Seguimentos , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malária/prevenção & controle , Troca Materno-Fetal/imunologia , Sarampo/imunologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Vacina contra Sarampo/imunologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Praguicidas/análise , Fenilcarbamatos/efeitos adversos , Fenilcarbamatos/análise , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
Nature ; 589(7842): 415-419, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328634

RESUMO

The safe, highly effective measles vaccine has been recommended globally since 1974, yet in 2017 there were more than 17 million cases of measles and 83,400 deaths in children under 5 years old, and more than 99% of both occurred in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)1-4. Globally comparable, annual, local estimates of routine first-dose measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) coverage are critical for understanding geographically precise immunity patterns, progress towards the targets of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP), and high-risk areas amid disruptions to vaccination programmes caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)5-8. Here we generated annual estimates of routine childhood MCV1 coverage at 5 × 5-km2 pixel and second administrative levels from 2000 to 2019 in 101 LMICs, quantified geographical inequality and assessed vaccination status by geographical remoteness. After widespread MCV1 gains from 2000 to 2010, coverage regressed in more than half of the districts between 2010 and 2019, leaving many LMICs far from the GVAP goal of 80% coverage in all districts by 2019. MCV1 coverage was lower in rural than in urban locations, although a larger proportion of unvaccinated children overall lived in urban locations; strategies to provide essential vaccination services should address both geographical contexts. These results provide a tool for decision-makers to strengthen routine MCV1 immunization programmes and provide equitable disease protection for all children.


Assuntos
Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mapeamento Geográfico , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Sarampo/imunologia , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Incerteza , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333819

RESUMO

On 21 January 2019, public health authorities of two neighboring Austrian provinces reported an increase in measles cases. We investigated this occurrence to identify clusters of epidemiologically linked cases and the associated vaccination status in order to generate hypotheses on those factors explaining the size of the measles clusters. Probable cases were residents of the provinces of Styria or Salzburg with clinical presentation of measles after 1 January 2019 who were linked to a confirmed case using RNA virus detection. We collected data on age, rash onset, certificate-based vaccination status and reasons for being unvaccinated. Contact history was used to identify chains of transmission. By 11 March, we identified 47 cases, with 40 (85.1%) in unvaccinated patients. A cluster of 35 cases with a median age of seven years (IQR: 1-11) occurred between 9 January and 20 February in the province of Styria due to one transmission chain with four case generations. Of 31 vaccine-eligible cases, 25 (80.6%) were unvaccinated, of which 13 refused vaccination. Between 10 January and 1 March, we identified 12 cases as part of five unlinked clusters in the province of Salzburg. Each of these five clusters consisted of two generations: the primary case and the successive cases (median age: 22 years, IQR: 11-35). Eleven of 12 cases occurred in unvaccinated patients, with none of the 11 having a vaccination-refusing attitude. An extended measles cluster in a vaccination-refusing community, compared to five short-lived clusters concurrently occurring in the neighboring province, illustrates how vaccine refusal may hamper control of transmission.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Sarampo , Adolescente , Adulto , Áustria/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374998

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly impacted essential health services. Simultaneously, it has created opportunities for citizens to raise awareness of personal hygiene, mask wearing, and other preventive measures. This brief report aims to clarify the epidemiological trends of measles and rubella in Japan and to explore future challenges for controlling these diseases during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Although Japan eliminated measles in 2015, the number of measles patients has gradually increased since then, and reached 744 in 2019. In the 2010s, Japan experienced two large rubella epidemics, and the majority of the patients were reported in Tokyo and other metropolitan areas. While the transmission of measles and rubella seems to be suppressed during the COVID-19 pandemic, closing the gap in routine childhood vaccination will be challenging in any country. Moreover, supplementary immunization campaigns for adults have also been disrupted, and they must be invigorated. While the pandemic has a devastating effect on a global scale, it should be utilized as a good opportunity to regain faith in vaccines, implement an evidence-based vaccination policy, and strengthen international cooperation.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização , Sarampo , Pandemias , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão) , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
13.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Despite a safe and effective vaccine being available for many years, the number of measles cases has been increasing again worldwide since 2018. Our report aims to identify putative reasons for this development. METHODS: We conducted a selective literature search. Further, current reports and data from the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the World Bank were evaluated. RESULTS: According to the WHO, Madagascar, the Ukraine, and Israel had the highest incidences of measles worldwide between 1 July 2018 and 30 June 2019. Measles outbreaks are a sign of inadequate vaccination rates caused by multiple structural and psychological barriers. Structural barriers to measles vaccination, such as a lack of routine vaccination programs, have been identified as the main cause of low measles vaccination rates, particularly in fragile countries e.g. due to armed conflicts, but also in some subpopulations of higher-income countries e.g. due to lacking resources for vaccination services. Psychological barriers leading to vaccination skepticism were prevalent mainly in developed countries with well-functioning health systems and a high standard of living. CONCLUSION: The reasons for the global measles crisis are manifold and in some cases have existed for decades. However, the consequences appear to be accumulating and have had a dramatic impact on case numbers since 2018. The goal of measles elimination and maintenance of the necessary vaccination programs is a constant challenge that requires strict and permanent compliance with WHO recommendations. The number of measles cases reported in Germany is still at a level above the key target for measles elimination specified in the national immunization plan. Timely and/or locally restricted as well as nationwide outbreaks continue to occur. Since infectious agents can be transmitted across borders, the international perspective is an essential component of national health policy in Germany.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Sarampo , Sarampo , Conflitos Armados , Criança , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(45): 1700-1705, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180759

RESUMO

In 2010, the World Health Assembly (WHA) set the following three milestones for measles control to be achieved by 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) among children aged 1 year to ≥90% at the national level and to ≥80% in every district, 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to <5 cases per 1 million population, and 3) reduce global measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate* (1). In 2012, WHA endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan,† with the objective of eliminating measles§ in five of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2020. This report describes progress toward WHA milestones and regional measles elimination during 2000-2019 and updates a previous report (2). During 2000-2010, estimated MCV1 coverage increased globally from 72% to 84% but has since plateaued at 84%-85%. All countries conducted measles surveillance; however, approximately half did not achieve the sensitivity indicator target of two or more discarded measles and rubella cases per 100,000 population. Annual reported measles incidence decreased 88%, from 145 to 18 cases per 1 million population during 2000-2016; the lowest incidence occurred in 2016, but by 2019 incidence had risen to 120 cases per 1 million population. During 2000-2019, the annual number of estimated measles deaths decreased 62%, from 539,000 to 207,500; an estimated 25.5 million measles deaths were averted. To drive progress toward the regional measles elimination targets, additional strategies are needed to help countries reach all children with 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine, identify and close immunity gaps, and improve surveillance.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Objetivos , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Incidência , Lactente , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/mortalidade , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Organização Mundial da Saúde
15.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(11): 1034-1037, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151866

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 is an emerging pandemic infection whose significant ability to spread in a naïve population is well established. The first response of states to the COVID-19 outbreak was to impose lock-down and social barrier measures, such as wearing a surgical mask or social distancing. One of the consequences of this pandemic in terms of public health was the suspension or slowdown of infant vaccination campaigns, in almost all countries. The indirect effects of COVID-19 may therefore weigh on mortality from measles and polio in developing countries. In this pandemic chaos, the only hope lies in the rapid development of an effective vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, acceptance of this vaccine has not yet been won, as beyond the many unknowns that will inevitably weigh around such rapid development, skepticism among vaccine hesitants is growing.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Programas de Imunização/normas , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Participação do Paciente/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/normas , Saúde Pública/tendências , Cobertura Vacinal/organização & administração , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
16.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 77(5): 282-286, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064699

RESUMO

Measles is an exanthematous disease caused by a virus of the Morbillivirus genus. On February 23, 2020, the exanthema began in the first confirmed case of measles this year. At the same time, on February 28, 2020, the first case of the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was confirmed. Up to June 6, 2020, 176 measles cases have been confirmed: 137 in Mexico City, 37 in the state of Mexico, and two in the state of Campeche. In Mexico City, municipalities with more cases were Gustavo A. Madero, Miguel Hidalgo, and Iztapalapa; in the State of Mexico were Ecatepec, Tlalnepantla, and Netzahualcoyotl; in Campeche, there are only two cases reported. On the other hand, 7,065,133 cases of COVID-19 have been registered worldwide with a global case fatality rate of 5.7%. In Mexico, there have been 113,619 confirmed cases and 13,511 deaths, while in Mexico City, there have been 30,223 cases and 3062 deaths. Iztapalapa and Gustavo A. Madero are the locations with more cases reported. Hence, a campaign of social distancing started as part of the strategies to control the spread of the infection. The potential threat is that as social confinement measures are relaxed and mobility is initiated, both viruses could continue to spread. It is expected that due to the time that has passed since the last reported measles case, control of this disease will be achieved.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Isolamento Social , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 735, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of COVID-19 has occurred close on the heels of a global resurgence of measles. In 2019, an unprecedented epidemic of measles affected Samoa, requiring a state of emergency to be declared. Measles causes an immune amnesia which can persist for over 2 years after acute infection and increases the risk of a range of other infections. METHODS: We modelled the potential impact of measles-induced immune amnesia on a COVID-19 epidemic in Samoa using data on measles incidence in 2018-2019, population data and a hypothetical COVID-19 epidemic. RESULTS: The young population structure and contact matrix in Samoa results in the most transmission occurring in young people < 20 years old. The highest rate of death is the 60+ years old, but a smaller peak in death may occur in younger people, with more than 15% of total deaths in the age group under 20 years old. Measles induced immune amnesia could increase the total number of cases by 8% and deaths by more than 2%. CONCLUSIONS: Samoa, which had large measles epidemics in 2019-2020 should focus on rapidly achieving high rates of measles vaccination and enhanced surveillance for COVID-19, as the impact may be more severe due to measles-induced immune paresis. This applies to other severely measles-affected countries in the Pacific, Europe and elsewhere.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sarampo/imunologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Samoa/epidemiologia , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
20.
N Z Med J ; 133(1522): 71-83, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994618

RESUMO

Despite New Zealand's "measles elimination" status, the risk of measles outbreaks persists, due to ongoing measles importation and sub-optimal vaccination coverage, including specific sub-populations with higher proportions of susceptible people. From February to April 2019, Canterbury experienced a measles outbreak with 38 local cases and an unidentified index case. The outbreak strain was linked to a large outbreak in the Philippines. The whole-of-health-system response included active case and contact follow-up by public health and hospital staff, and a prioritised vaccination campaign in primary care. Important features of a measles outbreak response in an "elimination" context include cross-system liaison, co-ordination of communications, careful prioritisation of use of available resources, and support for households affected by isolation and/or quarantine requests. Closer analysis of the effectiveness of outbreak control measures would help prioritise use of scarce public health and health care resources during outbreaks. Future measles outbreaks could be prevented by a systematic primary care-based MMR catch-up campaign.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Sarampo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbillivirus/classificação , Morbillivirus/genética , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem
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