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1.
Clin Interv Aging ; 16: 571-582, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854307

RESUMO

Purpose: Temporary cessation of exercise but maintenance of habitual physical activity might be a frequent situation in older people's lives. Particularly the COVID-19 induced lockdown of exercise training facilities with individual outdoor activities still being allowed might be a blueprint for this potentially harmful scenario. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of 6 months of detraining after 18 months of high-intensity resistance exercise (HIT-RT) on body composition and cardiometabolic outcomes in predominately obese older men with osteosarcopenia. Materials and Methods: Community-dwelling predominately obese men 72-91 years old with low muscle and bone mass (n=43) were randomly assigned to an 18-month HIT-RT (EG: n=21) or a non-training control group (CG, n=22). After the intervention, participants of the EG discontinued HIT-RT for 6 months, but increased their habitual physical activity. Study outcomes were group differences in detraining changes ("effects") for lean body mass (LBM), total and abdominal body fat rate (determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and the Metabolic Syndrome Z-Score (MetSZ). We applied an intention-to-treat analysis with multiple imputation to analyze the data. Results: After the 18-month HIT-RT, we observed significant positive training effects for LBM, total and abdominal body fat rate and the MetSZ (all p<0.001). Abrupt cessation of HIT-RT for 6 months resulted in significantly higher unfavorable changes in the HIT-RT compared with the CG for LBM (p=0.001), total body fat (p=0.003) and the MetSZ (p=0.003), apart from abdominal body fat (p=0.059). However, significant overall effects were still present after 24 months for LBM and body fat indices but not for the MetSZ. Conclusion: The present study clearly indicates the unfavorable effects of 6 months of detraining after HIT-RT. Correspondingly, exercise protocols particularly for older people should focus on continuous exercise with short regeneration periods rather than on intermitted protocols with pronounced training breaks.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Gordura Abdominal , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Densidade Óssea , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/complicações , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/complicações , Treinamento de Resistência , Sarcopenia/complicações
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809723

RESUMO

Sarcopenia involves a progressive age-related decline of skeletal muscle mass and strength/function [...].


Assuntos
Sarcopenia/patologia , Disbiose/complicações , Disbiose/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Músculos/patologia , Sarcopenia/complicações
3.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(5): 413-418, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sarcopenia has been related to negative outcomes in different clinical scenarios from critical illness to chronic conditions. The aim of this study was to verify whether there was an association between low skeletal muscle index and in-hospital mortality, intensive care unit admission, and invasive mechanical ventilation need in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of a referral center for COVID-19. We included all consecutive patients admitted to the hospital between February 26 and May 15, 2020, with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. Skeletal muscle index was assessed from a transverse computed tomography image at the level of twelfth thoracic vertebra with National Institutes of Health ImageJ software, and statistical analysis was performed to find an association between skeletal muscle index and in-hospital mortality, need of invasive mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit admission. RESULTS: We included 519 patients, the median age was 51 (42-61) yrs, and 115 patients (22%) had low skeletal muscle index. On multivariable analysis, skeletal muscle index was not associated with mortality, intensive care unit admission, or invasive mechanical ventilation need nor in a subanalysis of patients 65 yrs or older. CONCLUSIONS: Skeletal muscle index determined by computed tomography at the level of twelfth thoracic vertebra was not associated with negative outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Sarcopenia/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Sarcopenia/mortalidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
4.
Int Heart J ; 62(1): 50-56, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518666

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular events and an elevated prevalence of sarcopenia. However, the relationship between cardiovascular events and sarcopenia in patients with DM remains unclear. This study examined this relationship and investigated the predictors of cardiovascular events in this population.This study enrolled 161 patients with DM and no history of cardiovascular diseases who were admitted to our hospital for the treatment of DM between September 2012 and December 2015. Patients were divided into sarcopenia and non-sarcopenia groups, and were followed until March 2019. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE).The mean age was 65.9 ± 1.8 years old and the mean follow-up period was 4.1 ± 0.8 years. The log-rank test indicated that MACE differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0.0001). Multivariate Cox hazard analysis identified the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and handgrip strength as independent predictors of MACE (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.18, P = 0.039; and HR = 0.70, P = 0.016, respectively).Handgrip strength is an indicator of sarcopenia in diabetic patients, and together with CAVI it was independently associated with the incidence of MACE. This suggests that the handgrip strength test might be useful in the management of patients with DM at high risk of cardiovascular outcomes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Sarcopenia/mortalidade , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Feminino , Seguimentos , Força da Mão , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sarcopenia/complicações
5.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435310

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents a major health burden for the elderly population, affecting approximately 25% of people over the age of 65 years. This percentage is expected to increase dramatically in the next decades in relation to the increased longevity of the population observed in recent years. Beyond microvascular and macrovascular complications, sarcopenia has been described as a new diabetes complication in the elderly population. Increasing attention has been paid by researchers and clinicians to this age-related condition-characterized by loss of skeletal muscle mass together with the loss of muscle power and function-in individuals with T2DM; this is due to the heavy impact that sarcopenia may have on physical and psychosocial health of diabetic patients, thus affecting their quality of life. The aim of this narrative review is to provide an update on: (1) the risk of sarcopenia in individuals with T2DM, and (2) its association with relevant features of patients with T2DM such as age, gender, body mass index, disease duration, glycemic control, presence of microvascular or macrovascular complications, nutritional status, and glucose-lowering drugs. From a clinical point of view, it is necessary to improve the ability of physicians and dietitians to recognize early sarcopenia and its risk factors in patients with T2DM in order to make appropriate therapeutic approaches able to prevent and treat this condition.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/complicações , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bases de Dados Factuais , Complicações do Diabetes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Sexuais
6.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 25(2): 183-188, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491032

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to determine whether sarcopenia is a predictive factor of future hip fractures. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Set: We searched for potentially suitable articles in PubMed, Cochrane library, Medline and EMBASE from inception to March 2020. The quality of the research was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Finally, a meta-analysis was conducted with the Stata software. PARTICIPANTS: Older community-dwelling residents. MEASUREMENTS: Hip fracture due to sarcopenia. RESULTS: We retrieved 2129 studies through our search strategy, and five studies with 23,359 individuals were analyzed in our pooled analyses. Sarcopenia increases the risk of future hip fractures with a pooled hazard ratio (HR) of 1.42 (95% CI: 1.18-1.71, P <0.001, I2 = 37.7%). In addition, in subgroup analyses based on different definitions of sarcopenia, sarcopenia was associated with the risk of future hip fractures with the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria with a pooled HR of 2.13(95% CI: 1.33-3.43). When subgroup analyses were conducted by sex, sarcopenia was associated with the risk for future hip fractures in females with pooled HRs of 1.69 (95% CI: 1.18-2.43). Sarcopenia was associated with the risk of future hip fractures in the group with a follow-up period of more than 5 years, with a pooled HR of 1.32 (95% CI: 1.08-1.61), and in the group with a follow-up period of less than 5 years, with a pooled HR of 2.13 (95% CI: 1.33-3.43). CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia could significantly increase the risk of future hip fracture in old people; thus, it is necessary to prevent hip fractures in individuals with sarcopenia.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril/etiologia , Sarcopenia/complicações , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
7.
Am J Emerg Med ; 42: 49-54, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450707

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low muscle mass is associated with an increased mortality risk due to medical comorbidities such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Computed tomography (CT) has been identified as the gold standard for measuring body composition. We evaluated the relationship between the L1 SMI measured from CT and in-hospital mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: From January 2015 to June 2015, 311 patients who were diagnosed with CAP and underwent CT in the ED were retrospectively analyzed. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. All variables with a significance level < 0.1 by univariate analysis were included in a multivariate logistic regression model. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Among the 311 patients, 33 (10.6%) died. We divided the patients into two groups based on the optimal sex-specific cut-off value of the L1 SMI (45 cm2/m2 in males and 40 cm2/m2 in females). A low L1 SMI was present in 90 (28.9%) of the 311 patients. In multivariate analysis, low L1 SMI, diabetes mellitus, albumin and APACHE II score were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (aOR 3.39, 3.73, 0.09 and 1.10, respectively). CONCLUSION: SMI assessment at L1 is achievable in patients with CAP receiving routine chest CT, and the L1 SMI is associated with high in-hospital mortality, more hospitalizations and ventilator application in patients with CAP in the ED. This could help establish an early strategy for critical care of patients with L1 SMI obtained by chest CT for diagnosis in CAP patients in the ED.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Sarcopenia/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/complicações , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/patologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/terapia , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/patologia , Pneumonia/terapia , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcopenia/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498519

RESUMO

Osteopenia/osteoporosis and sarcopenia are common geriatric diseases among older adults and harm activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life (QOL). Osteosarcopenia is a unique syndrome that is a concomitant of both osteopenia/osteoporosis and sarcopenia. This review aimed to summarize the related factors and clinical outcomes of osteosarcopenia to facilitate understanding, evaluation, prevention, treatment, and further research on osteosarcopenia. We searched the literature to include meta-analyses, reviews, and clinical trials. The prevalence of osteosarcopenia among community-dwelling older adults is significantly higher in female (up to 64.3%) compared to male (8-11%). Osteosarcopenia is a risk factor for death, fractures, and falls based on longitudinal studies. However, the associations between osteosarcopenia and many other factors have been derived based on cross-sectional studies, so the causal relationship is not clear. Few studies of osteosarcopenia in hospitals have been conducted. Osteosarcopenia is a new concept and has not yet been fully researched its relationship to clinical outcomes. Longitudinal studies and high-quality interventional studies are warranted in the future.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas , Osteoporose , Sarcopenia , Acidentes por Quedas , Idoso , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/complicações , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/terapia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Fragilidade , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Mortalidade , Força Muscular , Osteoporose/complicações , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/complicações , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/terapia
9.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 51(4): 604-611, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine plus S-1 (NAC GS) has recently been reported in resectable pancreatic cancer, severe adverse events were frequently observed. Sarcopenia has been reported to be associated with reduced antitumor response and chemotherapy toxicity in several malignancies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of body composition on short-term outcomes of NAC GS in resectable pancreatic cancer patients. METHODS: Clinicopathological data of consecutive patients treated with NAC GS at our institution from February 2019 to April 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Anthropometric variables were calculated at the third lumbar vertebra using pretreatment computed tomography images. We investigated the association between body composition variables, and antitumor response and chemotherapy toxicity. RESULTS: Among 62 patients included in this study, 25 patients (40%) were sarcopenic at diagnosis. Sixty-one patients received surgery at our institution and 57 patients received pancreatic resection (R0/R1 resection 56/1). Fifty-six patients completed two cycles of NAC GS and severe adverse events (≥grade 3) occurred in 42 patients (hematologic toxicity 41 patients [66%]; non-hematologic toxicity 3 patients). Body mass index and total adipose tissue index were significantly lower in sarcopenic patients compared to non-sarcopenic patients. Completion rate of NAC, rate of treatment delay/interruption, relative dose intensity of gemcitabine and S-1, radiological and pathological tumor response after NAC were not different between sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic patients. Furthermore, there was no significant association between body composition, and severe adverse events and intolerance. CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, NAC GS was similarly tolerable and effective in resectable pancreatic cancer patients regardless of the presence of sarcopenia.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Composição Corporal , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Ácido Oxônico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Tegafur/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Frailty Aging ; 10(1): 63-69, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is associated with adverse outcomes in cancer, chemotherapy, solid organ transplants, intensive care and medical patients. It has also been proven to increase perioperative mortality, hospital length of stay and complications in patients of various age groups. However, a limited number of studies have examined the association of post-surgical outcomes and sarcopenia inclusively in patients aged 65 years and older. OBJECTIVE: This scoping review aimed to examine the relationship between adverse post-surgical outcomes and sarcopenia in patients aged 65 years and older. METHODOLOGY: EMBASE and Medline databases were searched for sarcopenia, perioperative period and post-surgical outcomes. The articles were screened based on exclusion and inclusion criteria and were reviewed systematically as per the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Methodology for Scoping Reviews. RESULTS: After duplicates removal and application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, eight articles were included for this study from a total of nine hundred initially identified articles. All studies defined sarcopenia as low muscle mass but did not include physical function or muscle strength as the parameter of sarcopenia. Low muscle mass was associated with higher mortality in emergency surgeries, reduced long term survival in open elective surgeries, and increased length of hospital stay in endoscopic surgeries. CONCLUSION: The current review suggests that low muscle mass is associated with higher mortality and various adverse post-surgical outcomes in the elderly. It remains to be determined if applying the definition of sarcopenia as per the international consensus/guidelines will affect the association of adverse post-surgical outcomes and sarcopenia.


Assuntos
Fragilidade/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Sarcopenia/complicações , Idoso , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Força Muscular , Período Pós-Operatório , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Nutrition ; 81: 111016, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059127

RESUMO

The world is currently facing the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic which places great pressure on health care systems and workers, often presents with severe clinical features, and sometimes requires admission into intensive care units. Derangements in nutritional status, both for obesity and malnutrition, are relevant for the clinical outcome in acute illness. Systemic inflammation, immune system impairment, sarcopenia, and preexisting associated conditions, such as respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases related to obesity, could act as crucial factors linking nutritional status and the course and outcome of COVID-19. Nevertheless, vitamins and trace elements play an essential role in modulating immune response and inflammatory status. Overall, evaluation of the patient's nutritional status is not negligible for its implications on susceptibility, course, severity, and responsiveness to therapies, in order to perform a tailored nutritional intervention as an integral part of the treatment of patients with COVID-19. The aim of this study was to review the current data on the relevance of nutritional status, including trace elements and vitamin status, in influencing the course and outcome of the disease 3 mo after the World Health Organization's declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic.


Assuntos
/complicações , Desnutrição/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Oligoelementos/deficiência , /epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Estado Nutricional , Pandemias , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/imunologia , Doenças Respiratórias/fisiopatologia , Sarcopenia/complicações , Replicação Viral
12.
J Surg Res ; 257: 252-259, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency laparotomy (EL) is an increasingly common procedure in the elderly. Factors associated with mortality in the subpopulation of frail patients have not been thoroughly investigated. Sarcopenia has been investigated as a surrogate for frailty and poor prognosis. Our primary aim was to evaluate the association between easily measured sarcopenia parameters and 30-day postoperative mortality in elderly patients undergoing EL. Length of stay (LOS) and admission to an intensive care unit were secondary end points. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study, over a 5-year period, of patients aged 65 y and older who underwent EL at a tertiary university hospital. Sarcopenia was evaluated on admission computed tomography scan by two methods, first by psoas muscle attenuation and second by the product of perpendicular cross-sectional diameters (PCSDs). The lowest quartile of PCSDs and attenuation were defined as sarcopenic and compared with the rest of the cohort. Attenuation was stratified for the use of contrast enhancement. Multivariant logistic regression was performed to determine independent risk factors. RESULTS: During the study period, 403 patients, older than 65 y, underwent EL. Of these, 283 fit the inclusion criteria and 65 (23%) patients died within 30 d of surgery. On bivariate analysis, psoas muscle attenuation, but not PCSDs, was found to be associated with 30-day mortality (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.34-4.38, P = 0.003) and longer LOS (35.7 d versus 22.2 d, Δd 13.5, 95% CI = 6.4-20.7, P < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, psoas muscle attenuation, but not PCSDs, was an independent risk factor for 30-day postoperative mortality (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.16-4.76, P = 0.017) and longer LOS (Δd = 14.4, 95% CI = 7.7-21.0, P < 0.001). Neither of the sarcopenia parameters was associated with increased admission to an intensive care unit. DISCUSSION: Psoas muscle attenuation is an independent risk factor for 30-day postoperative mortality and LOS after EL in the elderly population. This measurement can inform clinicians about the operative risk and hospital resource utilization.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/efeitos adversos , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Músculos Psoas/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Fragilidade/complicações , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/complicações , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
13.
Am J Surg ; 221(1): 149-154, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation and low skeletal muscle volume (presarcopenia) have received increasing attention in many malignancies. However, their association and the combined effect on postoperative survival in esophageal cancer (EC) patients have been poorly studied. METHODS: Eighty-nine patients with EC who underwent surgery between 2006 and 2014 were included in this study. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) ≥3.0 was categorized as having systemic inflammation. Presarcopenia was defined as a Skeletal muscle index (SMI) less than 52.4 cm2/m2 for men and less than 38.5 cm2/m2 for women. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed that presarcopenia was an independent prognostic preoperative factor for overall survival (OS) (p = 0.004). Multivariate analysis for OS stratified by systemic inflammation revealed that presarcopenia with systemic inflammation (Hazard ratio(HR),20.70; 95% confidence interval (CI),1.34-318.90) was associated with nearly a seven-fold higher risk of death than those without systemic inflammation (HR, 2.94; 95%CI, 1.04-8.34). CONCLUSIONS: Systemic inflammation enhanced the effect of presarcopenia on the prognosis of EC patients. The combined assessment of those factors may have potential prognostic value for EC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/complicações , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Esofagectomia , Inflamação/complicações , Sarcopenia/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5245-5254, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To determine whether BMI and sarcopenia were related to treatment-limiting toxicity or efficacy of pembrolizumab treatment in melanoma patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Medical records for melanoma patients undergoing pembrolizumab treatment at Duke University from January 2014 to September 2018 were reviewed. Pre-treatment measurements such as BMI were collected. Pre-treatment CT imaging was used to determine psoas muscle index (PMI). Patients in the lowest sex-specific tertile of PMI were sarcopenic. Logistic regression measured associations with treatment toxicity and response. Kaplan-Meier analysis assessed progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Among 156 patients, the overall objective response rate was 46.2% and 29 patients (18.6%) experienced treatment-limiting toxicity. Sarcopenia was not significantly associated with toxicity, response, or survival. However, obese patients (BMI >30) experienced higher rates of toxicity (p=0.0007). CONCLUSION: Sarcopenia did not appear to predict clinically relevant outcomes. Obesity, however, represents a readily available predictor of pembrolizumab toxicity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Melanoma/complicações , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Prognóstico , Sarcopenia/complicações , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 47: e20202528, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901706

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the impact of probable sarcopenia (PS) on the survival of oncological patients submitted to major surgeries. METHOD: prospective cohort bicentrical study enrolling adult oncological patients submitted to major surgeries at Cancer Hospital and Santa Casa de Misericordia in Cuiabá-MT. The main endpoint was the verification of postoperative death. Demographic and clinical data was collected. PS was defined as the presence of 1) sarcopenia risk assessed by SARC-F questionnaire and 2) low muscle strength measured by dynamometry. The cumulative mortality rate was calculated for patients with either PS or non PS using Kaplan Meier curve. The univariate and multivariate Cox regression model was used to evaluate the association of mortality with various investigated confounding variables. RESULTS: a total of 220 patients with a mean (SD) age of 58.7±14.0 years old, 60.5% males participated of the study. Patients with PS had higher risk to postoperative death (RR=5.35 95%CI 1.95-14.66; p=0,001) and for infectious complications (RR=2.45 95%CI 1.12-5.33; p=0.036). The 60 days mean survival was shorter for patients with PS: 44 (IQR=32-37) vs 58 (IQR=56-59) days (log rank <0,001). The Cox multivariate regression showed that PS was an independent risk factor (HR=5.8 95%CI 1.49-22.58; p=0.011) for mortality. CONCLUSION: patients bearing PS submitted to major oncological surgery have less probability of short term survival and preoperative PS is an independent risk for postoperative mortality.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/cirurgia , Sarcopenia/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/mortalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237740, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is defined as the loss of muscle mass combined with loss of muscle strength, with or without loss of muscle performance. The use of this parameter as a risk factor for complications after surgery is not currently used. This meta-analysis aims to assess the impact of sarcopenia defined by radiologically and clinically criteria and its relationship with complications after gastrointestinal surgeries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of the literature was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42019132221). Articles were selected from the PUBMED and EMBASE databases that adequately assessed sarcopenia and its impact on postoperative complications in gastrointestinal surgery patients. Pooled estimates of pre-operative outcome data were calculated using the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analysis were performed to assess each type of surgery. RESULTS: The search strategy returned 1323, with 11 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. A total of 4265 patients were analysed. The prevalence of sarcopenia between studies ranged from 6.8% to 35.9%. The meta-analysis showed an OR for complications after surgery of 3.01 (95% CI 2.55-3.55) and an OR of 2.2 (95% CI 1.44-3.36) for hospital readmission (30 days). CONCLUSION: Sarcopenia, when properly diagnosed, is associated with an increase in late postoperative complications, as well as an increase in the number of postoperative hospital readmissions for various types of gastrointestinal surgery. We believe that any preoperative evaluation should include, in a patient at risk, tests for the diagnosis of sarcopenia and appropriate procedures to reduce its impact on the patient's health.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Sarcopenia/complicações , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/cirurgia , Humanos , Período Pós-Operatório , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237454, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764814

RESUMO

There is growing interest in "osteosarcopenia" as the coexistence of osteoporosis and sarcopenia exacerbates negative outcomes. However, limited information is available regarding the risk factors of osteosarcopenia development in patients with osteoporosis. Therefore, we retrospectively reviewed 276 consecutive patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis who regularly visited Showa University Hospital. Patients were eligible for the study if they were ≥65 years of age and underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, blood sampling, and physical performance assessment. Patients were divided into the osteosarcopenia and osteoporosis alone groups according to the diagnostic criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. Of the 276 patients with osteoporosis, 54 patients (19.6%) had osteosarcopenia. Patients in the osteosarcopenia group had a greater risk of frailty than did those in the osteoporosis alone group (odds ratio 2.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-4.80, P = 0.028). Low body mass index seemed to be the strongest factor related to the development of osteosarcopenia, and none of the patients in the osteosarcopenia group were obese (BMI ≥27.5 kg/m2). Multiple logistic analyses revealed that patients aged 65-74 years who had comorbidities such as kidney dysfunction and high levels of HbA1c were at risk of developing osteosarcopenia. Thus, we strongly recommend the assessment of the key components of the diagnosis of osteosarcopenia in an osteoporosis clinic for patients with low body mass index. Furthermore, appropriate assessments, including comorbidities, will help in identifying patients at greater risk of developing osteosarcopenia.


Assuntos
Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteossarcoma/diagnóstico , Absorciometria de Fóton , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Fragilidade/complicações , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Modelos Logísticos , Força Muscular , Razão de Chances , Osteoporose/complicações , Osteossarcoma/complicações , Pós-Menopausa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/complicações , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico
19.
Clin Interv Aging ; 15: 953-967, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612355

RESUMO

Purpose: Whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) especially in combination with a high-protein supplementation has been established as an efficient treatment against sarcopenia. However, there are several case reports of rhabdomyolysis after WB-EMS application. Thus, we asked if this training could potentially lead to deteriorations of the cardiac as well as the renal function. Materials and Methods: One hundred sarcopenic obese men aged 70 years and older were randomly balanced (1-1-1) and allocated to one of the three study arms. During 16 weeks of intervention, these groups either performed WB-EMS and took a protein supplement (WB-EMS&P), solely received the protein supplement (Protein) or served as control group (CG). WB-EMS consisted of 1.5×20 min (85 Hz, 350 µs, 4 s of strain to 4 s of rest) applied with moderate-to-high intensity while moving. We further generated a daily protein intake of 1.7-1.8 g/kg/body mass per day. At baseline and 8-10 days after completion of the intervention, blood was drawn and biomarkers of muscle, cardiac and renal health were assessed. Results: Hereby, we found slight but significant elevations of creatine kinase (CK) levels in the WB-EMS group pointing to minor damages of the skeletal muscle (140 U/l [81-210], p < 0.001). This was accompanied by a significant, low-grade increase of creatine kinase-muscle brain (CK-MB, 0.43 ng/mL [-0.29-0.96], p < 0.01) and high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT, 0.001 ng/mL. [0.000-0.003], p < 0.001) but without a higher risk of developing heart failure according to N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, -5.7 pg/mL [-38.8-24.6], p = 0.17). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was impaired neither by the high-protein supplementation alone nor in combination with WB-EMS (CG 76.0 mL/min/1.73 m2 [71.9-82.2] vs Protein 73.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 [63.0-78.9] vs WB-EMS&P 74.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 [62.8-84.1], p = 0.478). Conclusion: In conclusion, even in the vulnerable group of sarcopenic obese seniors, the combination of WB-EMS with a high-protein intake revealed no short-term, negative impact on the eGFR, but potential consequences for the cardiovascular system need to be addressed in future studies.


Assuntos
Dieta Rica em Proteínas/métodos , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Obesidade/terapia , Sarcopenia/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sarcopenia/complicações , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia
20.
Int Heart J ; 61(4): 769-775, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684606

RESUMO

The number of heart failure patients is increasing rapidly in Japan because of its large elderly population. As age increases, arterial stiffness and physical dysfunction progress. This study aimed to evaluate the association between the physical function and arterial stiffness in elderly heart failure patients.This retrospective, observational study includes data from 100 heart failure patients aged ≥ 65 years who were admitted to our hospital and underwent cardiac rehabilitation. The Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index (CAVI) was measured as an indicator of arterial stiffness. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. To determine the degree of physical function, we assessed handgrip strength, five-meter walk speed (5MWS), five-repetition sit-to-stand time (5RSST) and six-minute walk distance (6MWD). Sarcopenia was defined using Asian guidelines based on physical function and body composition.Among 100 patients, 47.0% of patients had sarcopenia. After adjustments for age, sex, atrial fibrillation, and ischemic cardiomyopathy, CAVI was significantly higher in with sarcopenia patients than those without sarcopenia. Age, handgrip strength, 5MWS, 5RSST, and 6MWD were associated with CAVI, and 6MWD was as an independent determinant factor of CAVI.6MWD was recognized as an accurate physical function indicator. These findings suggested that physical function and arterial stiffness complement each other. To restore cardiac dysfunction, improving both arterial stiffness and physical function might be useful.


Assuntos
Índice Vascular Coração-Tornozelo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Rigidez Vascular , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Composição Corporal , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcopenia/complicações
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