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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526536

RESUMO

A 49-year-old man with a 37.5 pack-year smoking history presented with a suspected neoplasm of the right lung following the discovery of a metabolically active mass on positron emission tomography-CT imaging. The patient, who demonstrated poor oral hygiene, had a history of irregular problem-oriented dental visitation. Having excluded malignancy through histologic investigations, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-a well-established periodontal pathogen-was subsequently cultured from his pulmonary aspirate. The patient was therefore managed with systemic antimicrobials and adjunctive dental extractions to eliminate the likely source of infection, whereafter the mass resolved without complication. This case corroborates previous reports of extraoral isolation of A. actinomycetemcomitans, which may mimic cancer clinically and radiographically. While a definitive causative link between untreated periodontitis and systemic infection remains to be elucidated, such cases present a compelling argument in favour of promoting oral health to prevent systemic disease.


Assuntos
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/isolamento & purificação , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Abscesso Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/diagnóstico , Periodontite/diagnóstico , Nódulo Pulmonar Solitário/diagnóstico por imagem , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Secções Congeladas , Humanos , Abscesso Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/complicações , Periodontite/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Radiografia Panorâmica , Radiografia Torácica , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2230: 259-281, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197019

RESUMO

A method for preparing frozen sections with an adhesive film is described. In order to observe fine structures and weak fluorescence of samples, new types of adhesive films [Cryofilm type 3C(16UF) and 4D(16UF)] are used. The adhesive film is made with very clear and very low autofluorescence. For gene analysis, a very thin adhesive film (LMD film) is used to cut by means of the laser microdissection (LMD). For MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI), a conductive adhesive film (Cryofilm type MS) is used to avoid electric charge of the sample. A biological sample is frozen quickly and freeze-embedded. The frozen sample is cut with a very sharp disposable blade made from fine tungsten carbide. The combination of the adhesive films and the blade can generate 3 micrometer thick sections from samples including bone, while it is also possible to generate 1 µm thick sections. The morphology of bone and soft tissues are preserved using this method. Cells such as osteoblasts, fibroblasts, and osteoclasts are clearly observed with an oil immersion lens at high magnification. Sections generated using the Cryofilm type 3C(16UF) shows weak fluorescent signals more clearly than sections generated with the previously reported adhesive films [Cryofilm type 2C(9) and 2C(10)]. Furthermore fluorescence of the fine structures in cells is clearly shown using a super-high-resolution microscope. Several staining and experimental methods such as histology, histochemistry, enzyme histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization can be performed on these sections. This method is also useful for preparing frozen sections of large sample such as a whole-body mouse and rat. In gene analysis, gene quality of sample collected from the section made with the LMD film is superior to that of sample made by a conventional method. The Cryofilm type MS makes almost complete section from tissues including hard tissues and large samples. The satisfactory signals are detected from the section with MALDI-MSI.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/ultraestrutura , Secções Congeladas/métodos , Histocitoquímica/métodos , Microtomia/métodos , Animais , Criopreservação/métodos , Fibroblastos/ultraestrutura , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Hibridização In Situ/métodos , Camundongos , Microscopia/métodos , Osteoblastos/ultraestrutura , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2230: 283-302, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197020

RESUMO

Cartilage and bone are specialized skeletal tissues composed of unique extracellular matrices. Bone, in particular, has a highly calcified or mineralized matrix that makes microtomy and standard histological studies very challenging. Therefore, methods to appropriately fix and decalcify mineralized skeletal tissues have been developed to allow for paraffin processing and standard microtomy. In this chapter, we will illustrate methods for tissue grossing, fixation, decalcification, paraffin processing, embedding, sectioning, and routine histological staining of demineralized murine skeletal tissues. We will also discuss methods for decalcified frozen sectioning of skeletal tissues with and without the use of a tape-transfer system.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/ultraestrutura , Cartilagem/ultraestrutura , Técnica de Descalcificação/métodos , Microtomia/métodos , Animais , Secções Congeladas/métodos , Camundongos , Inclusão em Parafina/métodos , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Fixação de Tecidos/métodos
4.
Cancer Invest ; 39(2): 153-158, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317347

RESUMO

Treatment plan for ovarian neoplasms differs for benign, borderline and malignant tumors. With a turnaround time of 15-20 minutes, frozen section has become a reliable intraoperative diagnostic tool. The aim of this study is to correlate the frozen section diagnosis with subsequent histopathologic diagnosis and determine the accuracy of frozen section diagnosis. The study included 152 ovarian tumors, the overall accuracy of frozen section in diagnosing malignancy was 99.34%, whereas that for benign and borderline tumors were 97.37% and 96.71% respectively. However, the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for borderline tumors and mucinous tumors were found to be low.


Assuntos
Secções Congeladas/métodos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Feminino , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
5.
Ann Surg ; 272(5): 871-878, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Guidelines propose different extents of macroscopic proximal margin for gastric cancer and frozen margin investigation in selected cases, but data is lacking. This study was to evaluate the necessary extent of macroscopic proximal margin, accuracy of frozen margin investigation, and prognostic impact of tumor-free proximal margin length in pT2-pT4 gastric cancer. STUDY DESIGN: Proximal and distal frozen margins were routinely investigated intraoperatively in all pT2-pT4 gastric cancers resected between 2011 and 2017. Macroscopic and microscopic proximal margin lengths were correlated. For R0-resections, survival analysis was performed for distal gastrectomy (DG) with microscopic proximal margin length ≤3 cm versus >3 cm. RESULTS: Overall, 1484 patients were included. Microscopic proximal margin lengths were macroscopically more often misestimated in diffuse histology (P = 0.0004), but extent of underestimation in centimeter was similar to intestinal and mixed/undetermined type (P = 0.134). Fifteen cases (1.0%) resulted in R1-resection, 10 at distal, and 5 at proximal margin but none with macroscopic proximal margin ≥3 cm and negative frozen section. Overall agreement of frozen margin and final pathology was 2951/2968 (99.4%). Proximal margin length in DG did not correlate with survival or recurrence in R0-resected patients. DISCUSSION: Diffuse histology is at higher risk for underestimation of proximal margin length, but extent of underestimation is similar in other Laurén subtypes. If ≥3 cm macroscopic proximal margin length is applied with intraoperative frozen margin confirmation, R1-resection can be avoided. CONCLUSION: In pT2-T4a gastric cancer, proximal margin of ≥3 cm plus frozen margin confirmation provides high oncological safety. In DG patients with R0-resection, proximal margin length does not correlate with survival or recurrence.


Assuntos
Margens de Excisão , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Idoso , Feminino , Secções Congeladas , Gastrectomia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida
6.
Pol J Pathol ; 71(2): 146-154, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729305

RESUMO

Modified agarose cell-block (CB) technique can be effectively used to have the CB embedded in the OCT compound for the preparation of frozen CB (F-CB) sections in the same way as in the preparation of frozen sections from cryoembedded fresh tissue samples for the intraoperative consultation. In this report, we demonstrate the amenability of F-CB sections to the diagnostic immunocytochemistry. The pelleted cytologic material was at first compactly embedded in ultralow-gelling temperature agarose gel and then re-embedded in conventional agarose gel. The resulting agarose-embedded cell-pellet was cut in halves so that one half is embedded in OCT compound for cryosectioning on a cryostat, while the other half is reserved for the preparation of paraffin-embedded CB (P-CB). The F-CB sections were comparable to sections cut from the paraffin-embedded CB in terms of the quality of H&E-staining and immunocytochemistry. We suppose this method can also facilitate a rapid quantitative and qualitative assessment of the future P-CB. We have extended this technique to the cryo-embedded cell-block method, in which the compact agarose cell pellet is directly embedded in the OCT compound so that the frozen sections can be cut from the cryo-embedded cell block in the same way as in intraoperative frozen section analysis. In this technical report, we illustrate how the frozen cell blocks (F-CBs) can be effectively prepared not only from liquid-based cytology samples but also from conventional fine-needle aspiration cytology slides.


Assuntos
Citodiagnóstico , Secções Congeladas , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Imuno-Histoquímica , Coloração e Rotulagem
8.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 73(9): 1700-1705, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Penoscrotal extramammary Paget's disease is a rarely found intraepithelial adenocarcinoma in older male patients. The challenge for surgeons to perform high-quality post-surgery reconstruction is mostly case-dependent. Here, we present a review of post-surgical reconstruction practice in 21 cases using various scrotal skin flaps. METHODS: During the 10-year study period (from 2008 to 2018), all 21 male patients diagnosed with penoscrotal extramammary Paget's diseases at Sun Yat-sen memorial hospital were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent expanding resections guided by frozen sections and penoscrotal reconstructions using various scrotal skin flaps alone or combined with pubic skin flaps and partial thickness skin graft depending on individual defects. The patient's clinical data, specifically the diagnosis, surgical outcome, and follow-up evaluation were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The size of skin lesions ranged from 4 × 5 cm to 16 × 18 cm approximately. Out of 21 total cases, 13 patients received combined scrotal and pubic flaps, three patients received single scrotal flaps, and five patients received scrotal flaps and partial thickness skin grafts. Limited flap tip necrosis (two cases) and wound dehiscence (one case) were observed, and secondary resections were performed in four cases with positive post-operative pathological results. All patients experienced complete wound healing and had well-maintained penile morphology and function. CONCLUSION: Various scrotal skin flaps alone or combined with pubic skin flaps designed for individual lesion conditions in patients with penoscrotal extramammary Paget's disease are efficient for scrotal reconstruction. A good match of the local skin texture helps to maintain the morphology and function of the penis and scrotum.


Assuntos
Doença de Paget Extramamária/cirurgia , Neoplasias Penianas/cirurgia , Escroto/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Secções Congeladas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Cicatrização
9.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 154(3): 387-393, 2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We sought to make pathologists' intraoperative consultation (IOC) results immediately available to the surgical team, other clinicians, and laboratory medicine colleagues to improve communication and decrease postanalytic errors. METHODS: We created an IOC report in our stand-alone laboratory information system that could be signed out prior to, and independent of, the final report, and transfer immediately to the electronic health record (EHR) as a preliminary diagnosis. We evaluated two metrics: preliminary (IOC) result review in the EHR by clinicians and postanalytic errors. RESULTS: We assessed 2,886 IOC orders from the first 22 months after implementation. Clinicians reviewed 1,956 (68%) of the IOC results while in preliminary status, including 1,399 (48%) within the first 24 hours. We evaluated 150 cases preimplementation and 300 cases postimplementation for discrepancies between the pathologist's IOC result and the IOC result recorded by the surgeon in the operative note. Discrepancies dropped from 12 of 150 preimplementation to 6 of 150 and 7 of 150 in postimplementation years 1 and 2. One of the 25 discrepancies had a major clinical impact. CONCLUSIONS: Real-time reporting of IOC results to the EHR reliably transmits results immediately to clinical teams. This strategy reduces but does not eliminate postanalytic interpretive errors by clinical teams.


Assuntos
Secções Congeladas , Patologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Comunicação , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório
10.
Acta Cytol ; 64(5): 492-497, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450564

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Since the late 1970s, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been used for several solid malignancies to identify lymph node metastases. This procedure is associated with less surgical morbidity than complete lymphadenectomy. Recent evidence suggests that axillary lymphadenectomy is not required for breast sentinel nodes with micrometastases (≤2 mm). Current clinical management of sentinel nodes indicates that only macrometastases (>2 mm) should be detected intraoperatively. In Japan, an intraoperative histopathological frozen section (FS) method is used to identify lymph node metastases, but this method takes more than 30 min and requires complex techniques and expensive equipment. Touch imprint cytology (TIC) is an easier, less expensive, and faster method, but its sensitivity has been shown to be low. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if TIC is more useful than FS in identifying macrometastases in sentinel lymph nodes in preoperative node-negative breast cancer operations. METHODS: A prospective review of 49 consecutive patients with node-negative breast cancer treated with SLNB and intraoperative TIC and FS between November 2017 and June 2019 was performed. TIC samples were stained using Papanicolaou and Diff-Quick stains. Results were compared with routine postoperative paraffin sections. RESULTS: With TIC, the Papanicolaou stain took a mean of 12 min, and the Diff-Quick stain took a mean of 10 min. Results of both TIC stain methods were the same. In contrast, the FS method took a mean of 80 min (including the transfer of specimens to a different hospital with the necessary equipment). TIC confirmed macrometastases in 5 cases. All macrometastases were diagnosed equally by the 2 techniques. Both the sensitivity and specificity of TIC were 100% for detection of macrometastases. CONCLUSION: TIC of SLNB for breast cancer is an easy and useful method for the detection of macrometastases of breast sentinel nodes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Citodiagnóstico/métodos , Secções Congeladas/métodos , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela , Linfonodo Sentinela/patologia , Axila , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Linfonodo Sentinela/cirurgia
11.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 154(3): 414-423, 2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To share our experience with digital slide telepathology for intraoperative frozen section consultations (IOCs) and to describe its evolution over time by reporting performance metrics and addressing organizational and economic aspects. METHODS: Since 2013, a technician has been alone at the surgical site. At the other site, the pathologist opens the digital slide from a local server via the intranet. Three periods were compared: a 6-month period of conventional IOC (period 1), a 24-month period of telepathology at 6 months after implementation (period 2), and a 12-month period of telepathology at 3.5 years after implementation (period 3). RESULTS: In total, 87 conventional IOCs and 464 and 313 IOCs on digital slides were performed respectively during periods 1, 2, and 3; mean turnaround time was 27, 36, and 38 minutes, respectively, and there were a mean number of 1.1, 1.1, and 1.3 slides, respectively, per IOC. Diagnostic accuracy was achieved in 95.4%, 92.7%, and 93.9%, respectively, of IOCs (not significant). The additional cost is in the same range as the cost of urgent transport by courier. CONCLUSIONS: Developing IOC with digital slides is a challenge but is necessary to optimize medical time in the current context of pathologist shortage and budget restrictions.


Assuntos
Secções Congeladas , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Telepatologia , França , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(1): H235-H241, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469635

RESUMO

To maximize data obtainment from valuable cardiac tissue, we hypothesized that myocardium fixed in optimal cutting temperature (OCT) medium for histology could also be used to investigate the function of myofilament proteins in situ. We compared tissue prepared via conventional liquid nitrogen (LN) snap freezing with tissue fixed in OCT and then sectioned in fiber-parallel orientation. We found that actin-myosin Ca2+ sensitivity, activation rate by Ca2+, cooperativity along the thin filament, as well as cross-bridge cycling rate were unaffected by OCT storage and could reliably be interpreted after sectioning. Absolute values in maximum force generation per cross-sectional area, as well as passive strain, are difficult to investigate after sectioning, as myofibrillar continuity along the preparation cannot be guaranteed. We have shown that myocardial tissue stored in OCT and sectioned before analysis is available for functional analysis, a valuable means of maximizing usage of precious cardiac biopsies.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Myocardial tissue in optimal cutting temperature (OCT) fixation and cryostat sectioning was tested as a means of storing and preparing tissue for myofilament function analysis in relation to conventional liquid nitrogen freezing and dissection. Actomyosin interaction, Ca2+ force activation, and passive compliance were tested. The study concluded that OCT storage and cryostat sectioning do not interfere with the actomyosin cross-bridge dynamics or Ca2+ activation but that absolute tension values suffer and may not be investigated by this method.


Assuntos
Criopreservação/métodos , Secções Congeladas/métodos , Miocárdio/citologia , Miofibrilas/metabolismo , Inclusão em Parafina/métodos , Animais , Criopreservação/normas , Secções Congeladas/normas , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miofibrilas/ultraestrutura , Inclusão em Parafina/normas
13.
J Vis Exp ; (157)2020 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281983

RESUMO

Multispectral fluorescence imaging on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues enables the detection of multiple markers in a single tissue sample that can provide information about antigen coexpression and spatial distribution of the markers. However, a lack of suitable antibodies for formalin-fixed tissues may restrict the nature of markers that can be detected. In addition, the staining method is time-consuming. Here we describe a rapid method to perform multispectral fluorescence imaging on frozen tissues. The method includes the fluorophore combinations used, detailed steps for the staining of mouse and human frozen tissues, and the scanning, acquisition, and analysis procedures. For staining analysis, a commercially available semiautomated multispectral fluorescence imaging system is used. Through this method, up to six different markers were stained and detected in a single frozen tissue section. The machine learning analysis software can phenotype cells that can be used for quantitative analysis. The method described here for frozen tissues is useful for the detection of markers that cannot be detected in FFPE tissues or for which antibodies are not available for FFPE tissues.


Assuntos
Fluorescência , Secções Congeladas/métodos , Fixação de Tecidos/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6618, 2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313132

RESUMO

Despite current progress achieved in the surgical technique of radical prostatectomy, post-operative complications such as erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence persist at high incidence rates. In this paper, we present a methodology for functional intra-operative localization of the cavernous nerve (CN) network for nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy using near-infrared cyanine voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging, which visualizes membrane potential variations in the CN and its branches (CNB) in real time. As a proof-of-concept experiment, we demonstrate a functioning complex nerve network in response to electrical stimulation of the CN, which was clearly differentiated from surrounding tissues in an in vivo rat prostate model. Stimulation of an erection was confirmed by correlative intracavernosal pressure (ICP) monitoring. Within 10 minutes, we performed trans-fascial staining of the CN by direct VSD administration. Our findings suggest the applicability of VSD imaging for real-time, functional imaging guidance during nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy.


Assuntos
Carbocianinas/química , Corantes/química , Sistemas Computacionais , Raios Infravermelhos , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Pênis/inervação , Pênis/cirurgia , Imagens com Corantes Sensíveis à Voltagem , Animais , Artefatos , Secções Congeladas , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento (Física) , Pênis/diagnóstico por imagem , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Anticancer Res ; 40(3): 1711-1717, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the current role of frozen section in identifying patients who could benefit from an immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), following the criteria of the ASOCOG Z0011 and IBCSG 23-10 trials. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed involving 2,079 patients with early breast cancer who underwent conservative surgery or total mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy. RESULTS: Sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy were 63.8% and 90.3%, respectively. Sensitivity was significantly higher (p<0.001) in finding macrometastases (81.8%) compared to micrometastases (11.9%). Frozen section was useful only in 7.7% of the patients who met the criteria of the IBCSG 23-01 and ACOSOG Z0011 trials. CONCLUSION: Frozen section continues to be very useful in the intraoperative assessment of the SLN, offering a high sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy. Omission of ALND in 24.4% of patients who met the ACOSOG Z0011 criteria would have resulted in their undertreatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Secções Congeladas/métodos , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/métodos , Linfonodo Sentinela/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Linfonodo Sentinela/patologia
16.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(1)2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155034

RESUMO

Sox10 immunostaining is used for the diagnosis and margin evaluation of melanocytic lesions. Sox10 was initially thought not to stain fibrohistiocytic processes. Consequently, it was believed to reliably distinguish desmoplastic melanoma from scar. However, recent data from formalin sections suggest Sox10 is less specific than previously thought. In this report, we demonstrate that Sox10-stained Mohs sections commonly show strong, fractional staining of scar. When using Sox10 with frozen section immunohistochemistry, Mohs practitioners should recognize the potential of this marker to stain scar to avoid overdiagnosis of desmoplastic melanoma.


Assuntos
Cicatriz/patologia , Corantes/efeitos adversos , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Fatores de Transcrição SOXE/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Secções Congeladas , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Melanoma/cirurgia , Cirurgia de Mohs , Fatores de Transcrição SOXE/química , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Coloração e Rotulagem
17.
Planta ; 251(3): 73, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140780

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Endogenous auxin determines the pattern of adventitious shoot formation. Auxin produced in the dominant shoot is transported to the internodal segment and suppresses growth of other shoots. Adventitious shoot formation is required for the propagation of economically important crops and for the regeneration of transgenic plants. In most plant species, phytohormones are added to culture medium to induce adventitious shoots. In ipecac (Carapichea ipecacuanha (Brot.) L. Andersson), however, adventitious shoots can be formed without phytohormone treatment. Thus, ipecac culture allows us to investigate the effects of endogenous phytohormones during adventitious shoot formation. In phytohormone-free culture, adventitious shoots were formed on the apical region of the internodal segments, and a high concentration of IAA was detected in the basal region. To explore the relationship between endogenous auxin and adventitious shoot formation, we evaluated the effects of auxin transport inhibitors, auxin antagonists, and auxin biosynthesis inhibitors on adventitious shoot formation in ipecac. Auxin antagonists and biosynthesis inhibitors strongly suppressed adventitious shoot formation, which was restored by exogenously applied auxin. Auxin biosynthesis and transport inhibitors significantly decreased the IAA level in the basal region and shifted the positions of adventitious shoot formation from the apical region to the middle region of the segments. These data indicate that auxin determines the positions of the shoots formed on internodal segments of ipecac. Only one of the shoots formed grew vigorously; this phenomenon is similar to apical dominance. When the largest shoot was cut off, other shoots started to grow. Naphthalene-1-acetic acid treatment of the cut surface suppressed shoot growth, indicating that auxin produced in the dominant shoot is transported to the internodal segment and suppresses growth of other shoots.


Assuntos
Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Ipeca/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transporte Biológico , Secções Congeladas , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/citologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 21(3): 647-651, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improvements in the process of staging and surgical treatment of axillary lymph nodes in recent years, have led to the use of intra operative frozen section pathology to examine the sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we evaluated the results of the Sentinel biopsy in 102 patients with early stage breast cancer, which were negative clinical lymph nodes, and analyzing the true positive and false negative rate, diagnostic accuracy of frozen section lymph node biopsy. It also studied the factors affecting the sentinel and non-sentinel lymph nodes in patients treated by axillary lymph dissection. RESULTS: In this study, we investigated 102 patients' stage 1and 2 breast cancer with clinical negative axillary lymph node and candidates for sentinel lymph node biopsy, were placed under investigation. 15.7 % of the real positive results of sentinel and 62.7 % of the real negative and 2 % false positives and 20.9 % false negative results and% 78. 4 diagnostic accuracy, has been frozen section. Among the patients who were initially or delayed in the axillary dissection, 37% had more than two lymph nodes. While in general, 16.7% of patients had a need for axillary lymph node dissection based on z11 criteria. Lymph-vascular invasion was a major contributor to lentil involvement in Sentinel and non-Sentinel nodes. CONCLUSION: Frozen section pathology during the operation of sentinel lymph node biopsy has been initiated to prevent the need for a reoperation in early stage breast cancer patients. However, due to low tumor burden in patients who are candidates for this procedure, and the constraints in the initial sections and their false negative results, also the removal of frozen section will not have an effect on the rate of increasing reoperation and can be effective in reducing the time and cost of surgery.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Secções Congeladas , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Virchows Arch ; 477(4): 497-506, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215719

RESUMO

Frozen section examination of adenocarcinomas with poorly cohesive growth, including signet-ring cell carcinoma, is challenging. Due to their diffuse morphology, the tumor cells may be indistinct and difficult to distinguish from inflammatory or stromal cells. Misdiagnosis may result in significant adverse clinical outcome. We performed a detailed retrospective analysis of such cases to identify features that are helpful to avoid misdiagnosis at the time of frozen section. We reviewed the original frozen section slides from 50 patients with poorly cohesive carcinoma (PCC) including 32 with positive and 18 with negative frozen section slides. Tumor cells and inflammatory cells were evaluated for 17 distinct cytologic and nine architectural or stromal features. Features with 100% specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) for carcinoma included the presence of cells with a single distinct cytoplasmic mucin vacuole, focal gland formation, and perineural invasion. Features with high specificity, sensitivity, PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV) (all > 75%) included irregular nuclear contours, large nuclear size with many nuclei > 4× the size of a small lymphocyte, and disruption/obliteration of normal structures. Other features with high specificity and PPV (both ≥ 85%) but relatively low sensitivity and NPV-included crescent-shaped/indented nuclei, prominent nucleoli, anisonucleosis (> 4:1 difference in nuclear size), multinucleation, and the presence of mitotic figures. We characterized useful histologic features of poorly cohesive carcinoma that may serve to distinguish carcinoma cells from benign inflammatory or stroma cells. Knowledge of the relatively specific features in particular may help surgical pathologists avoid false-negative interpretation resulting in significant clinical morbidity.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células em Anel de Sinete/patologia , Secções Congeladas , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Erros de Diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
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