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1.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 407-415, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046934

RESUMO

In 2018, Cape Town, South Africa, nearly ran out of water. That this has not yet happened is in large part due to the water-saving efforts of its citizens. It is highly likely that this situation will be repeated in Cape Town and that similar situations will be experienced by major cities in other parts of the world. Efforts to save water should thus continue and the lessons learned in Cape Town should be shared. The functioning of Veterinary Services during a drought is affected in the same way as any business, in terms of running an office, but veterinary professionals face an increased risk of exposure to pathogens, compared to that of many occupations, and of veterinary officials becoming disease vectors. One component of Veterinary Services is veterinary laboratory services. Laboratory procedures rely heavily on water and, without advance planning, a laboratory's function can be severely limited by a restricted water supply. In many cases, innovative water-saving techniques can be used to reduce water use substantially without compromising the quality of the services offered. Here, the authors share their experiences and some lessons learned while working in Veterinary Services in the Western Cape province of South Africa.


Assuntos
Vetores de Doenças , Secas , Animais , Cidades , África do Sul
3.
Am J Bot ; 107(8): 1136-1147, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864741

RESUMO

PREMISE: Mortality events involving drought and pathogens in natural plant systems are on the rise due to global climate change. In Santa Barbara, California, United States, big berry manzanita (Arctostaphylos glauca) has experienced canopy dieback related to a multi-year drought and infection from fungal pathogens in the Botryosphaeriaceae family. A greenhouse experiment was conducted using Neofusicoccum australe to test the specific influences of drought and fungal infection on A. glauca. METHODS: A full factorial design was used to compare four treatment groups (drought + inoculation; drought - inoculation; watering + inoculation; and control: watering - inoculation). Data were collected for 10 weeks on stress symptoms, changes in leaf fluorescence and photosynthesis, and mortality. RESULTS: Results indicated significant effects of watering and inoculation treatments on net photosynthesis, dark-adapted fluorescence, and disease symptom severity (P < 0.05), and a strong correlation was found between physiological decline and visible stress (P < 0.0001). Mortality differed between treatments, with all groups except for the control experiencing mortality (43% mortality in drought - inoculation, 83% in watering - inoculation, and 100% in drought + inoculation). A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed drought + inoculation to have the least estimated survivorship compared to all other treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to a possible synergistic interaction between drought and fungal infection in disease onset and mortality rates in A. glauca, these results indicate that young, non-drought-stressed plants are susceptible to mortality from N. australe infection, with important implications for the future of wildland shrub communities.


Assuntos
Arctostaphylos , Ascomicetos , Secas , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237493, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946440

RESUMO

The phyllosphere epiphytic microbiome is composed of microorganisms that colonize the external aerial portions of plants. Relationships of plant responses to specific microorganisms-both pathogenic and beneficial-have been examined, but the phyllosphere microbiome functional and metabolic profile responses are not well described. Changing crop growth conditions, such as increased drought, can have profound impacts on crop productivity. Also, epiphytic microbial communities provide a new target for crop yield optimization. We compared Zea mays leaf microbiomes collected under drought and well-watered conditions by examining functional gene annotation patterns across three physically disparate locations each with and without drought treatment, through the application of short read metagenomic sequencing. Drought samples exhibited different functional sequence compositions at each of the three field sites. Maize phyllosphere functional profiles revealed a wide variety of metabolic and regulatory processes that differed in drought and normal water conditions and provide key baseline information for future selective breeding.


Assuntos
Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/microbiologia , Secas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genes de Plantas , Metagenômica , Microbiota , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Água/metabolismo , Zea mays/fisiologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4717, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948774

RESUMO

Unraveling the drivers controlling community assembly is a central issue in ecology. Although it is generally accepted that selection, dispersal, diversification and drift are major community assembly processes, defining their relative importance is very challenging. Here, we present a framework to quantitatively infer community assembly mechanisms by phylogenetic bin-based null model analysis (iCAMP). iCAMP shows high accuracy (0.93-0.99), precision (0.80-0.94), sensitivity (0.82-0.94), and specificity (0.95-0.98) on simulated communities, which are 10-160% higher than those from the entire community-based approach. Application of iCAMP to grassland microbial communities in response to experimental warming reveals dominant roles of homogeneous selection (38%) and 'drift' (59%). Interestingly, warming decreases 'drift' over time, and enhances homogeneous selection which is primarily imposed on Bacillales. In addition, homogeneous selection has higher correlations with drought and plant productivity under warming than control. iCAMP provides an effective and robust tool to quantify microbial assembly processes, and should also be useful for plant and animal ecology.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Aquecimento Global , Pradaria , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Secas , Modelos Biológicos , Filogenia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20190046, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876142

RESUMO

This study aimed to characterize Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu seasonal production (seasonality) and its variation (climate risk) yearlong throughout Brazil. Data from weather stations in Brazil (1963-2009), were associated with an empirical herbage accumulation rate (HAR; kg DM ha-1 day-1) model which considers growing degree-days adjusted by a drought attenuation index. Simulations were performed under 20, 40, 60 and 100 mm of soil water holding capacities (SWHCs). HAR's means and standard deviations were calculated for the seasons of the year. Thereafter, cluster analysis and calculations were performed to gather similar weather stations and characterize seasonality and climate risk indexes. Cluster analysis resulted in four Groups per SWHC. The north of Brazil (Group 1) presented the lowest seasonality and climate risk indexes and low need for precautions. In the middle west (Group 2), the seasonality index ranged from medium-high to high. Winter and Summer presented the lowest and highest production, respectively. In the south of Brazil, some regions in the southeast and northeast (Group 3), Winter presented the lowest production and highest climate risk index, probably due to low temperatures. The northeast (Group 4) presented a seasonality index that ranged from medium-high to very high and low productions.


Assuntos
Clima , Brachiaria , Brasil , Secas , Estações do Ano
7.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20180811, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901675

RESUMO

In 2012, a severe drought struck the southeastern of Brazil compromising the Paraná River Basin reservoirs. Here, we described how this climatic event promoted a massive mortality of the giant freshwater mussel Anodontites trapesialis in Furnas reservoir and reported the consequences of this phenomenon. In November 2012, three quarters of 100 m2 were sampled in this reservoir, where 812 dead shells of A. trapesialis were analyzed and measured (33 Ë« 133 mm). The species showed an aggregated distribution with high density ( X ¯ : 1.0 - 5.5 ind/m2). Despite the massive mortality detected in field, it was possible to find living specimens in a small channel in the studied area, allowing the species to survive the water level fluctuations. Large adult individuals (100 Ë« 124 mm) were more affected by drought than juveniles, accounting for about 90% of the dead mussels analyzed. Two years after the massive mortality event, water level was not reestablished and a terrestrial succession (with elevations in the concentration of organic matter and calcium in sediment) was observed in the studied area. We verified that the damming associated with extreme climatic events affect negatively the populations of A. trapesialis and should be faced as a conservationist problem.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Secas , Animais , Brasil , Rios
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236186, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866164

RESUMO

AIM: To establish a gene co-expression network for identifying principal modules and hub genes that are associated with drought resistance mechanisms, analyzing their mechanisms, and exploring candidate genes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 42 data sets including PRJNA380841 and PRJNA369686 were used to construct the co-expression network through weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). A total of 1,896,897,901 (284.30 Gb) clean reads and 35,021 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained from 42 samples. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that photosynthesis, DNA replication, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, and cell cycle were significantly influenced by drought stress. Furthermore, the DEGs with similar expression patterns, detected by K-means clustering, were grouped into 29 clusters. Genes involved in the modules, such as dark turquoise, yellow, and brown, were found to be appreciably linked with drought resistance. Twelve central, greatly correlated genes in stage-specific modules were subsequently confirmed and validated at the transcription levels, including TraesCS7D01G417600.1 (PP2C), TraesCS5B01G565300.1 (ERF), TraesCS4A01G068200.1 (HSP), TraesCS2D01G033200.1 (HSP90), TraesCS6B01G425300.1 (RBD), TraesCS7A01G499200.1 (P450), TraesCS4A01G118400.1 (MYB), TraesCS2B01G415500.1 (STK), TraesCS1A01G129300.1 (MYB), TraesCS2D01G326900.1 (ALDH), TraesCS3D01G227400.1 (WRKY), and TraesCS3B01G144800.1 (GT). CONCLUSIONS: Analyzing the response of wheat to drought stress during different growth stages, we have detected three modules and 12 hub genes that are associated with drought resistance mechanisms, and five of those genes are newly identified for drought resistance. The references provided by these modules will promote the understanding of the drought-resistance mechanism. In addition, the candidate genes can be used as a basis of transgenic or molecular marker-assisted selection for improving the drought resistance and increasing the yields of wheat.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/genética , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , RNA-Seq , Seleção Genética
9.
Oecologia ; 194(1-2): 221-236, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965523

RESUMO

Deciduous and evergreen trees are usually considered the main coexisting functional groups in seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF). We compared leaf and stem traits of 22 woody species in the Brazilian Caatinga to investigate whether deciduous (DC) and evergreen (EV) species have divergent water-use strategies. Our hypothesis was that DC trees compensate for their short leaf longevity by being less conservative in water use and showing higher variation in the seasonal water potential after leaf shedding. Evergreen species should exhibit a highly conservative water use strategy, which reduces variations in seasonal water potential and the negative effects of desiccation. Our leaf dynamics results indicate that the crown area of DC trees is more sensitive to air and soil drought, whereas EV trees are only sensitive to soil drought. Deciduous species exhibit differences in a set of leaf traits confirming their acquisitive strategy, which contrasts with evergreen species. However, when stomatal traits are considered, we found that DC and EV have similar stomatal regulation strategies (partially isohydric). We also found divergent physiological strategies within DC. For high wood density DC, the xylem water potential (Ψxylem) continued to drop during the dry season. We also found a negative linear relationship between leaf life span (LL) and the transpiration rate per unit of hydraulic conductivity (Λ), indicating that species with high LL are less vulnerable to hydraulic conductivity loss than early-deciduous species. Collectively, our results indicate divergence in the physiology of deciduous species, which suggests that categorizing species based solely on their leaf phenology may be an oversimplification.


Assuntos
Secas , Clima Tropical , Brasil , Florestas , Folhas de Planta , Árvores , Água , Madeira
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(9): 576, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778970

RESUMO

Drought, which has become one of the most severe environmental problems worldwide, has serious impacts on ecological, economic, and socially sustainable development. The drought monitoring process is essential in the management of drought risks, and drought index calculation is critical in the tracking of drought. The Palmer Drought Severity Index is one of the most widely used methods in drought calculation. The drought calculation according to Palmer is a time-consuming process. Such a troublesome can be made easier using advanced machine learning algorithms. Therefore, in this study, the advanced machine learning algorithms (LR, ANN, SVM, and DT) were employed to calculate and estimate the Palmer drought Z-index values from the meteorological data. Palmer Z-index values, which will be used as training data in the classification process, were obtained through a special-purpose software adopting the classical procedure. This special-purpose software was developed within the scope of the study. According to the classification results, the best R-value (0.98) was obtained in the ANN method. The correlation coefficient was 0.98, Mean Squared Error was 0.40, and Root Mean Squared Error was 0.56 in this success. Consequently, the findings showed that drought calculation and prediction according to the Palmer Index could be successfully carried out with advanced machine learning algorithms. Graphical Abstract.


Assuntos
Secas , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Algoritmos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Aprendizado de Máquina
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 140002, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846505

RESUMO

Enjoying the potential climate benefits of restoration requires linking key forest-water and land-atmosphere interactions to the existential benefits provided on the ground. We apply what we call the "forest-water and land-atmosphere interaction lens" to current strategies for improving landscape resilience in the West African Sahel and the concept of the Great Green Wall (GGW). The severe and extensive drought of the 1970's-1990's led many to assess future climate and promote strategies to counter the gradual southward expansion of the Sahara. The idea for the GGW, a wall of trees intended to slow desert encroachment, grew out of this period of tremendous upheaval and human tragedy. Despite partial recovery in the local rainfall regime, we know far too little about whether the GGW strategy can even work. Further, it seems disingenuous to ignore the climatic envelope, which sets the boundaries within which forest-water and land-atmosphere interactions occur. Applying the "forest-water and land-atmosphere interaction lens" to landscape restoration as a tool for achieving improved resilience and human welfare in the Sahel provides meaningful input for re-thinking the GGW strategy. We upgrade current knowledge with the specific biophysical conditions likely to better support appropriate forest-water and land atmosphere interactions in the region and further fit such approaches within the context of the climatic envelope. The principal components of an improved strategy include a focus on large scale precipitation recycling all the way from the West African coast on into the Sahel, as well as improved tree, shrub and forest cover in the Sahel proper to promote infiltration, groundwater recharge, rainfall triggering potential and land surface cooling. Agroforestry can further broadly promote landscape resilience in the greater region. Strategies broadly focused on increasing rainfall recycling, water availability and the promotion of landscape resilience appear more likely to steer future efforts in useful directions.


Assuntos
Árvores , Água , África do Norte , Secas , Ecossistema , Florestas , Humanos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237834, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853269

RESUMO

Water deficit is one of the major limitations to food production worldwide and most climate change scenarios predict an aggravation of the situation. To face the expected increase in drought stress in the coming years, breeders are working to elucidate the genetic control of barley growth and productivity traits under water deficit. Barley is known as a relatively drought tolerant crop and genetic variability was observed for drought tolerance traits. The objectives of the present study were the quantification of morphological and physiological responses in a collection of 209 spring barley genotypes to drought stress, and the genetic analysis by genome-wide association study to find quantitative trait loci (QTL) and the allele contributions for each of the investigated traits. In six pot experiments, 209 spring barley genotypes were grown under a well-watered and water-limited regime. Stress phases were initiated individually for each genotype at the beginning of tillering and spiking for the vegetative- and the generative stage experiments, respectively, and terminated when the transpiration rates of stress treatments reached 10% of the well-watered control. After the stress phase, a total of 42 productivity related traits such as the dry matter of plant organs, tiller number, leaf length, leaf area, amount of water soluble carbohydrates in the stems, proline content in leaves and osmotic adjustment of corresponding well-watered and stressed plants were analysed, and QTL analyses were performed to find marker-trait associations. Significant water deficit effects were observed for almost all traits and significant genotype x treatment interactions (GxT) were observed for 37 phenotypic traits. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) revealed 77 significant loci associated with 16 phenotypic traits during the vegetative stage experiment and a total of 85 significant loci associated with 13 phenotypic traits during the generative stage experiment for traits such as leaf area, number of green leaves, grain yield, harvest index and stem length. For traits with significant GxT interactions, genotypic differences for relative values were analysed using one way ANOVA. More than 110 loci for GxT interaction were found for 17 phenotypic traits explaining in many cases more than 50% of the genetic variance.


Assuntos
Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/fisiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Estações do Ano , Água , Adaptação Fisiológica , Análise de Variância , Biomassa , Desidratação , Secas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Hordeum/anatomia & histologia , Padrões de Herança/genética , Fenótipo , Análise de Regressão
14.
J Environ Manage ; 274: 111144, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798851

RESUMO

Drought is one of the most prominent natural threats to grassland productivity, although the magnitude of this threat is uncertain due to the different drought-levels. However, drought-productivity dynamics has not yet received much attention. It is necessary to establish the method to evaluate quantitatively the effect of different drought-levels on grassland productivity. To better understand the impact of different drought-levels on productivity dynamics, an assessment method to assess the quantitative effects of different drought-levels on grassland productivity was proposed based-on long-term observation data, standardized precipitation index (SPI) and Biome-BGC process model. Based-on assessment indicator of net primary productivity (NPP), NPP loss caused by moderate, severe and extreme drought was dramatically different in grasslands with a significant exponential change with gradient of different drought-levels. Furthermore, NPP loss variation in different grassland types under the same drought level was significantly different. Besides, the effect of drought on NPP gradually decreased by an exponential relationship in desert, typical and meadow steppe. However, the percentage of NPP loss in desert, typical and meadow steppe reduced by 20.5%, 13.1% and 17.5% with U-shaped, respectively. Meanwhile, our results can offer scientific basis to improve assessment impact of extreme climate events used by ecosystem model and data, and cope with carbon cycling management and climate change.


Assuntos
Secas , Ecossistema , Ciclo do Carbono , Mudança Climática , Pradaria
15.
J Environ Manage ; 274: 110992, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798852

RESUMO

The pastoral areas of China are mainly located in ecologically fragile regions, where its ecosystems are highly sensitive to drought trends. Although numerous studies have been carried out on the response of vegetation to droughts, it is not entirely clear whether soil properties can influence this relationship. Using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), covering the period 1982 to 2015, we carefully analyzed drought impacts on vegetation in China's pastoral areas, to determine the effects of vegetation communities and soil types on vegetation response to multi-time-scale drought. Significantly positive correlations between NDVI and SPEI were observed in most regions, properly indicating that vegetation was largely influenced by drought, particularly the pastures in Inner Mongolia. Generally, forest was sensitive to longer time-scales of droughts, while grassland and cropland showed a close relationship with shorter or median drought time-scales. However, noticeable differences were found on the Tibetan Plateau, mainly because drought was not the main factor affecting vegetation growth in the region. The NDVI-SPEI correlations and the corresponding SPEI time-scales of each soil texture differed considerably, even in areas of the same land cover type, revealing that soil properties, here mainly refer to soil texture (classified by fractions of each separate soil, i.e., sand, silt, and clay), can assuredly affect the resistance and resilience of vegetation to drought stress. The underlying mechanism is the difference in particle size and permeability which can alter the storage and position of available soil water, thus affecting water absorption by the root system. Our results highlight the considerable importance of properly integrating edaphic factors when exploring the impact of likely climate change on ecosystems.


Assuntos
Secas , Solo , China , Ecossistema , Florestas
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237334, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776991

RESUMO

We studied the correlation of synonymous codon usage (SCU) on gene expression levels under drought stress in rice. Sixty genes related to drought stress (with high, intermediate and low expression) were selected from rice meta-analysis data and various codon usage indices such as the effective number of codon usage (ENC), codon adaptation index (CAI) and relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) were calculated. We found that in genes highly expressing under drought 1) GC content was higher, 2) ENC value was lower, 3) the preferred codons of some amino acids changed and 4) the RSCU ratio of GC-end codons relative to AT-end codons for 18 amino acids increased significantly compared with those in other genes. We introduce ARSCU as the Average ratio of RSCUs of GC-end codons to AT-end codons in each gene that could significantly separate high-expression genes under drought from low-expression genes. ARSCU is calculated using the program ARSCU-Calculator developed by our group to help predicting expression level of rice genes under drought. An index above ARSCU threshold is expected to indicate that the gene under study may belong to the "high expression group under drought". This information may be applied for codon optimization of genes for rice genetic engineering. To validate these findings, we further used 60 other genes (randomly selected subset of 43233 genes studied for their response to drought stress). ARSCU value was able to predict the level of expression at 88.33% of the cases. Using third set of 60 genes selected amongst high expressing genes not related to drought, only 31.65% of the genes showed ARSCU value of higher than the set threshold. This indicates that the phenomenon we described in this report may be unique for drought related genes. To justify the observed correlation between CUB and high expressing genes under drought, possible role of tRNA post transcriptional modification and tRFs was hypothesized as possible underlying biological mechanism.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Genes de Plantas/genética , Oryza/fisiologia , Composição de Bases , Uso do Códon , Simulação por Computador , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla
17.
Gene ; 761: 145043, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777530

RESUMO

Tonoplast Intrinsic Proteins (TIPs) constitute a significant class of the aquaporins. The TIPs control water trade among cytosolic and vacuolar compartments and can also transport glycerol, ammonia, urea, hydrogen peroxide, metals/metalloids, and so forth. Additionally, TIPs are engaged with different abiotic stress responses and developmental processes like leaf expansion, root elongation and seed germination. In this study, ten TIP genes in the rice genome were identified from Oryza sativa ssp indica. Among these, representative groups of TIP genes were cloned and sequenced whilst some TIP sequences showed stop codons in the coding region. The secondary structure analysis represented six conserved transmembrane helices along with the inter-helical regions having conserved motifs. The representative three-dimensional tetrameric design of protein sequence of TIP1;1 displayed key features like NPA motifs, aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filters, and Froger's residues. The vacuolar localization, transmembrane topological properties, and conserved motif analysis of the cloned genes altogether supported their identity as TIPs. An unrooted phylogenetic tree delineated the relatedness of TIPs from Oryza with different species and bunched them into five clades. The promoter analysis uncovered key regulons associated with administering abiotic stress responses. Gene expression studies showed thatTIPsare differentially regulated under salt and drought stress at various time points in shoots and roots of rice. Also, the pattern of expression was found to be significantly variable in five different rice tissues. The heat-map based tissue and stress- specific expression analysis supported the experimental findings. In conclusion, the identification and transcript-level expression studies of TIPs significantly contribute towards the comprehension of their utilitarian significance in the abiotic stress response.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Aquaporinas/genética , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Vacúolos/genética , Água/metabolismo
18.
Am J Bot ; 107(8): 1177-1188, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754914

RESUMO

PREMISE: The young seedling life stage is critical for reforestation after disturbance and for species migration under climate change, yet little is known regarding their basic hydraulic function or vulnerability to drought. Here, we sought to characterize responses to desiccation including hydraulic vulnerability, xylem anatomical traits, and impacts on other stem tissues that contribute to hydraulic functioning. METHODS: Larix occidentalis, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Pinus ponderosa (all ≤6 weeks old) were imaged using x-ray computed microtomography during desiccation to assess seedling biomechanical responses with concurrently measured hydraulic conductivity (ks ) and water potential (Ψ) to assess vulnerability to xylem embolism formation and other tissue damage. RESULTS: In non-stressed samples for all species, pith and cortical cells appeared circular and well hydrated, but they started to empty and deform with decreasing Ψ which resulted in cell tearing and eventual collapse. Despite the severity of this structural damage, the vascular cambium remained well hydrated even under the most severe drought. There were significant differences among species in vulnerability to xylem embolism formation, with 78% xylem embolism in L. occidentalis by Ψ of -2.1 MPa, but only 47.7% and 62.1% in P. ponderosa and P. menziesii at -4.27 and -6.73 MPa, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Larix occidentalis seedlings appeared to be more susceptible to secondary xylem embolism compared to the other two species, but all three maintained hydration of the vascular cambium under severe stress, which could facilitate hydraulic recovery by regrowth of xylem when stress is relieved.


Assuntos
Pseudotsuga , Traqueófitas , Dessecação , Secas , Plântula , Água , Xilema
19.
Am J Bot ; 107(8): 1122-1135, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779767

RESUMO

PREMISE: Water stored in the xylem of woody plants is important for supporting the transpiration stream under prolonged drought, yet the source of stored water within the xylem during drought remains unclear. Insights into xylem water utilization during drought will uncover the adaptation strategies of the test species to stress. METHODS: To fill the existing knowledge gap, we excised twigs of Abies firma (Japanese fir, conifer), Cercidiphyllum japonicum (katsura tree, diffuse-porous) and Quercus serrata (konara oak, ring-porous) to quantify interspecific variation of water transfer in xylem corresponding with increasing cumulative water release (CWR) using micro x-ray computed tomography and cryo-SEM. RESULTS: For all species studied, the main components of water storage within the operating range of water potential were not living cells but cavitation release and capillaries. Abies firma maintained water in the earlywood-like cells, for possible maintenance of the transpiration stream. Cercidiphyllum japonicum maintained water in its vessels over 200 kg m-3 of CWR, while Q. serrata lost most of its water in vessels with increasing CWR up to 100 kg m-3 . Cercidiphyllum japonicum exhibited a higher water storage capacity than Q. serrata. Under high CWR, narrow conduits stored xylem water in C. japonicum and imperforate tracheary elements in Q. serrata. CONCLUSIONS: Among the species examined, increasing CWR appears to indicate differential utilization of stored water in relation to variation of xylem structure, thereby providing insight into the interspecific responses of tree species to drought.


Assuntos
Árvores , Água , Desidratação , Secas , Humanos , Xilema
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111160, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853864

RESUMO

The functional similarity between indigenous plant species (IPS) and invasive alien species (IAS) governs the invasion process of successful IAS because IPS and coexisting IAS suffer alike or even same ecological selection pressures. The aggravated condition created by heavy metal pollution (HMP) and drought stress may generate a noticeable impact on the invasive competitiveness and invasion process of IAS possibly via the variations in the functional similarity between IPS and IAS. Consequently, it is necessary to illumine the functional similarity between IPS and IAS under HMP and drought stress to clarify the mechanisms underlying the successful invasion of IAS. This study aims to estimate the functional similarity between IPS Amaranthus tricolor L. and IAS A. retroflexus L. under the condition with the alone and combined effects of HMP with different kinds (e.g., Cu and Pb) and drought stress [simulated by polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG) solution]. HMP notably declines A. tricolor growth but has no remarkable effect on A. retroflexus growth. A. retroflexus displays a strong competitive intensity than A. tricolor under HMP. Further, HMP makes a greater stress intensity on A. tricolor growth than A. retroflexus growth. Therefore, HMP can accelerate A. retroflexus invasion. A. retroflexus displays a poor competitive intensity under drought stress. Thus, drought stress can hinder A. retroflexus invasion. However, drought stress causes a greater stress intensity on A. tricolor growth than A. retroflexus growth. Thus, the continued drought stress may converse the adverse effects of drought stress on A. retroflexus invasion potentially. The two Amaranthus species tend to diverge functionally under the combined HMP and drought stress. Further, A. retroflexus shows a strong competitive intensity than A. tricolor under the combined HMP and drought stress. Moreover, the combined HMP and drought stress induces a greater stress intensity on A. tricolor growth than A. retroflexus growth. Thus, the combined HMP and drought stress can facilitate A. retroflexus invasion. Meanwhile, the competitiveness for sunlight acquisition and leaf photosynthetic capacity may play a key role in the successful invasion of A. retroflexus under the combined HMP and drought stress.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/efeitos dos fármacos , Secas , Espécies Introduzidas , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Amaranthus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Teóricos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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