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1.
Planta ; 254(4): 63, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477992

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The expression of stay-green (SG) characteristic in sorghum under water stress was related to N supply. SG genotype performed better than a non-stay-green (NSG) genotype at medium and high N levels. The differences in physiological parameters between SG and NSG genotypes were not significant at low N level and severe water stress. Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] with stay-green (SG) trait has the potential to produce more biomass and use soil water and nitrogen (N) more efficiently under post-flowering water stress. Previous studies were mostly conducted without N deficiency and more information is needed for interactions among soil N availability, SG genotype, and post-flowering water stress. In this study, the differences in leaf growth and senescence, shoot and root biomass, evapotranspiration (ET), water use efficiency (WUE), leaf photosynthetic responses, and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) between a SG genotype (BTx642) and a non-stay-green (NSG) genotype (Tx7000) were examined. The two genotypes were grown at three N levels (Low, LN; Medium, MN; High, HN) and under three post-flowering water regimes (No water deficit, ND; Moderate water deficit, MD; Severe water deficit, SD). The genotypic difference was generally significant while it frequently interacted with N levels and water regimes. At medium and high N levels, SG genotype consistently had greater green leaf area, slower senescence rate, more shoot biomass and root biomass, and greater WUE and NUE than the NSG genotype under post-flowering drought. However, differences in several variables (e.g., leaf senescence, ET, WUE and NUE) between genotypes were not significant under SD at LN. At HN and MN, photosynthetic function of SG genotype was better maintained under drought. At LN, SG genotype maintained greater green leaf area but had lower photosynthetic activity than the NSG genotype. Nonetheless, adequate N supply is important for SG genotype under drought and greater root biomass may contribute to greater NUE in SG genotype.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Secas , Grão Comestível , Nitrogênio , Sorghum/genética , Água
2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e242708, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495144

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential nonprotein-coding genes. In a range of organisms, miRNAs has been reported to play an essential role in regulating gene expressions at post-transcriptional level. They participate in most of the stress responsive processes in plants. Drought is an ultimate abiotic stress that affects the crop production. Therefore understanding drought stress responses are essential to improve the production of agricultural crops. Throughout evolution, plants have developed their own defense systems to cope with the adversities of environmental stresses. Among defensive mechanisms include the regulations of gene expression by miRNAs. Drought stress regulates the expression of some of the functionally conserved miRNAs in different plants. The given properties of miRNAs provide an insight to genetic alterations and enhancing drought resistance in cereal crops. The current review gives a summary to regulatory mechanisms in plants as well as miRNAs response to drought stresses in cereal crops. Some possible approaches and guidelines for the exploitation of drought stress miRNA responses to improve cereal crops are also described.


Assuntos
Secas , MicroRNAs , Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245379, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495147

RESUMO

Population growth is increasing rapidly around the world, in these consequences we need to produce more foods to full fill the demand of increased population. The world is facing global warming due to urbanizations and industrialization and in this concerns plants exposed continuously to abiotic stresses which is a major cause of crop hammering every year. Abiotic stresses consist of Drought, Salt, Heat, Cold, Oxidative and Metal toxicity which damage the crop yield continuously. Drought and salinity stress severally affected in similar manner to plant and the leading cause of reduction in crop yield. Plants respond to various stimuli under abiotic or biotic stress condition and express certain genes either structural or regulatory genes which maintain the plant integrity. The regulatory genes primarily the transcription factors that exert their activity by binding to certain cis DNA elements and consequently either up regulated or down regulate to target expression. These transcription factors are known as masters regulators because its single transcript regulate more than one gene, in this context the regulon word is fascinating more in compass of transcription factors. Progress has been made to better understand about effect of regulons (AREB/ABF, DREB, MYB, and NAC) under abiotic stresses and a number of regulons reported for stress responsive and used as a better transgenic tool of Arabidopsis and Rice.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Regulon , Secas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Regulon/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 410, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Water deficit is an abiotic stress that retards plant growth and destabilizes crop production. Long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of non-coding endogenous RNAs that participate in diverse cellular processes and stress responses in plants. lncRNAs could function as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNA) and represent a novel layer of gene regulation. However, the regulatory mechanism of lncRNAs as ceRNA in drought stress response is yet unclear. RESULTS: In this study, we performed transcriptome-wide identification of drought-responsive lncRNAs in rice. Thereafter, we constructed a lncRNA-mediated ceRNA network by analyzing competing relationships between mRNAs and lncRNAs based on ceRNA hypothesis. A drought responsive ceRNA network with 40 lncRNAs, 23 miRNAs and 103 mRNAs was obtained. Network analysis revealed TCONS_00021861/miR528-3p/YUCCA7 regulatory axis as a hub involved in drought response. The miRNA-target expression and interaction were validated by RT-qPCR and RLM-5'RACE. TCONS_00021861 showed significant positive correlation (r = 0.7102) with YUCCA7 and negative correlation with miR528-3p (r = -0.7483). Overexpression of TCONS_00021861 attenuated the repression of miR528-3p on YUCCA7, leading to increased IAA (Indole-3-acetic acid) content and auxin overproduction phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: TCONS_00021861 could regulate YUCCA7 by sponging miR528-3p, which in turn activates IAA biosynthetic pathway and confer resistance to drought stress. Our findings provide a new perspective of the regulatory roles of lncRNAs as ceRNAs in drought resistance of rice.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Desidratação/genética , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Células do Mesofilo/ultraestrutura , MicroRNAs/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA de Plantas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244011, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468510

RESUMO

Climatic factors play an essential role in the growth of tree ring width. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the correlation between climatic variables and tree-ring growth characteristics of Pinus sibirica in Altai mountains, northwestern China. This study being is first of its kind on climate growth analysis of Pinus sibirica in northwestern China. The study showed great potential to understand the species growing under the specific climatic conditions. Total of 70 tree cores collected from three sites in the sampling area, out of which 63 tree cores considered for this study. The effect of climatic variables which was studied include precipitation, temperature and PDSI. Our results showed that Tree Ring Width chronology has a significantly positive correlation with the late winter (March) temperature and significant negative correlation with the July temperatures. A significant correlation was observed with the late summer precipitation whereas no significant relation found with the Palmer Drought Severity Index. These significant correlations with temperature and precipitation suggested that this tree species had the potential for the reconstruction of the past climate in the area.


Assuntos
Pinus , China , Secas , Temperatura , Árvores
6.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2658-2667, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472286

RESUMO

Lipids are important components of living organisms that participate in and regulate a variety of life activities. Lipids in plants also play important physiological functions in response to a variety of abiotic stresses (e.g. salt stress, drought stress, temperature stress). However, most research on lipids focused on animal cells and medical fields, while the functions of lipids in plants were overlooked. With the rapid development of "omics" technologies and biotechnology, the lipidomics has received much attention in recent years because it can reveal the composition and function of lipids in a deep and comprehensive way. This review summarizes the recent advances in the functions and classification of lipids, the development of lipidomics technology, and the responses of plant lipids against drought stress, salt stress and temperature stress. In addition, challenges and prospects were proposed for future lipidomics research and further exploration of the physiological functions of lipids in plant stress resistance.


Assuntos
Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lipídeos , Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148396, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465046

RESUMO

Droughts represent one of the most severe abiotic stress factors that could result in great crop yield loss. Numerous vegetation indices have been proposed for monitoring the vegetation condition under stress and assessing drought impacts on yield loss. However, the understanding and comparison between traditional vegetation indices (VIs) and the newly emerging satellite Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF) for monitoring vegetation condition is still limited especially under drought stress and at multiple spatial scales. In this study, the potential of satellite observation SIF for monitoring corn response to drought was investigated based on the 2012 drought in the US Corn Belt. The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) was used here to quantify drought. We found that all SPEI were above -1, except for July (-1.27), August (-1.39) and September (-1.14) in 2012, indicating the severity of this drought. We examined the relationship between satellite measurements of SIF, SIFyield, VIs (e.g., NDVI and EVI) and SPEI. Results indicated that SIFyield was sensitive to drought and SIF captured the stress more accurately both at the regional and state scales for the US Corn Belt. Quantitatively, SIFyield had a high correlation with SPEI (r = 0.987, p < 0.05) over the entire Corn Belt, and it indicated losses in response to drought approximately one month earlier than SIF/NDVI/EVI. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that SIF could be trusted as an effective indicator to study the relationship between GPP (R2 ≥ 0.8664, p < 0.01) under drought conditions across the Corn Belt. This study highlighted the advantage of using satellite SIF observations to monitor the drought stress on crop growth especially GPP at regional scale.


Assuntos
Clorofila , Secas , Fluorescência , Estações do Ano , Zea mays
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 649, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523031

RESUMO

The present study aims to assess the recent changes and trends in the extreme climate indices in the Kashmir basin using the observational records from 1980 to 2016. The extreme climate indices were computed using the ClimPACT2 software and a total of 39 indices were selected for the analysis having particular utility to various sectors like agriculture, water resources, energy consumption, and human health. Besides adopting the station scale analysis, regional averages were computed for each index. In terms of the mean climatology, an increase has been observed in the annual mean temperature with a magnitude of 0.024 °C/year. Further, differential warming patterns have been observed in the mean maximum and minimum temperatures with mean maximum temperature revealing higher increases than mean minimum temperature. On the other hand, the annual precipitation shows a decrease over most of the region, and the decreases are more pronouncing in the higher altitudes. The trend analysis of the extreme indices reveals that in consonance with the rising temperature there has been an increase in the warm temperatures and decrease in the cold temperatures across the Kashmir basin. Furthermore, our analysis suggests a decrease in the extreme precipitation events. The drought indices viz., Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI), and Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) manifest decreasing trends with the tendency towards drier regimes implying the need for better water resource management in the region under changing climate.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental , Secas , Humanos , Meteorologia , Temperatura
9.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 431-438, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542104

RESUMO

Climate change due to increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is one of the most pressing issues facing society on a global scale. The growth of GHG emissions between 2000 and 2010 was higher than in each of the previous three decades, and each of the past four decades has been successively warmer than any preceding decades since 1850. Continued GHG emissions will cause further warming and changes in the climate system. Climate change affects livestock production in multiple ways, both directly and indirectly. Many of the impacts on the livestock sector result from increasing frequency and magnitude of weather and climate extremes such as droughts, flash floods, untimely rains, frost, hail and severe storms. This article describes some of the most vulnerable disaster communities in Asia, Africa, Australia, Europe and South America. It then describes the importance of meteorological information provided by national Meteorological and Hydrological Services to help Veterinary Services support sustainable management of livestock in vulnerable pastoral communities.


Assuntos
Desastres , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Animais , Mudança Climática , Secas , Efeito Estufa , Gado
10.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 421-430, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542106

RESUMO

Climate change due to increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is one of the most pressing issues facing society on a global scale. The growth of GHG emissions between 2000 and 2010 was higher than in each of the previous three decades, and each of the past four decades has been successively warmer than any preceding decades since 1850. Continued GHG emissions will cause further warming and changes in the climate system. Climate change affects livestock production in multiple ways, both directly and indirectly. Many of the impacts on the livestock sector result from increasing frequency and magnitude of weather and climate extremes such as droughts, flash floods, untimely rains, frost, hail and severe storms. This article describes some of the most vulnerable disaster communities in Asia, Africa, Australia, Europe and South America. It then describes the importance of meteorological information provided by national Meteorological and Hydrological Services to help Veterinary Services support sustainable management of livestock in vulnerable pastoral communities.


Assuntos
Desastres , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Animais , Mudança Climática , Secas , Efeito Estufa , Gado
11.
J Environ Manage ; 298: 113552, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435572

RESUMO

Farmers adopt a range of technical and non-technical adaptation behaviors (TANAB) to alleviate the negative effects of drought. Understanding this adaptation behavior and its determinants is essential for improving adaptation capacity and promoting sustainable agriculture. In this study, we investigated the factors affecting TANAB using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A survey was conducted of 320 farmers in Dashtestan County, Bushehr Province, southern Iran, on the shores of Persian Gulf. We used multi-stage stratified random sampling to select the research samples and applied structural equation modeling to analyze the determinants of TANAB. The findings revealed that the self-efficacy variable is the most important predictor of TANAB. As well as self-efficacy, other determinants of technical adaptation behaviors (TAB) are perceived barriers, severity, and susceptibility. Self-efficacy and cue to action were found to determine non-technical adaptive behaviors (NAB). This study indicates the differences between the determinants of TAB and NAB and emphasizes the key role of self-efficacy. The results of this study have implications for policymakers in the agricultural sector and can help in the development of interventionist policies to improve rural development in response to environmental crises. Governments and policymakers need to reinforce capacity-building potential for agricultural extension systems and adaptation training through information and communication technologies. This investment in education is critical for sustainable agricultural development and encourages farmers to adopt appropriate drought strategies aiming reducing farmers' vulnerability.


Assuntos
Secas , Fazendeiros , Agricultura , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Planta ; 254(3): 47, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374841

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Various phenolic compounds of sorghum are effective in the management of abiotic stress (salt, nutrients) and biotic stress (caused by birds, fungi and aphids). The health and industrial application of phenolics is mainly contributed by inherent antioxidant and nutraceutical potential. In a natural environment, plant growth is affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. In every ecosystem, the presence of a wide range of harmful biological agents (bacteria, fungi, nematodes, mites, and insects) and undesirable environmental factors (drought, salinity, heat, excessive or low rainfall, etc.) may cause a heavy loss in crop productivity. Being sessile during evolution, plants have evolved multiple defense mechanisms against various types of microbial pathogens and environmental stresses. A plant's natural defense system produces some compounds named secondary metabolites, which include phenolics, terpenes, and nitrogen. The phenolic profile of grain sorghum, the least utilized staple crop, is unique, more diverse, and more abundant than in any other common cereal grain. It mainly contains phenolic acids, 3-deoxyanthocyanidins and condensed tannins. Sorghum polyphenols play a major role in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stresses and have many additional health benefits along with various industrial applications. The objective of this review is to discuss the phenolic compounds derived from grain sorghum and describe their role in plant defense, human health, and industrial applications.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Secas , Ecossistema , Grão Comestível , Humanos , Polifenóis , Estresse Fisiológico
13.
Planta ; 254(3): 50, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386845

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Overexpression of the leaf color (Lc) gene in Ma bamboo substantially increased the accumulation level of anthocyanin, and improved plant tolerance to cold and drought stresses, probably due to the increased antioxidant capacity. Most bamboos, including Ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro), are naturally evergreen and sensitive to cold and drought stresses, while it's nearly impossible to make improvements through conventual breeding due to their long and irregular flowering habit. Moreover, few studies have reported bamboo germplasm innovation through genetic engineering as bamboo genetic transformation remains difficult. In this study, we have upregulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in Ma bamboo, to generate non-green Ma bamboo with increased abiotic stress tolerance. By overexpressing the maize Lc gene, a bHLH transcription activator involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis in Ma bamboo, we generated purple bamboos with increased anthocyanin levels including cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, peonidin 3-O-rutinoside, and an unknown cyanidin pentaglycoside derivative. The expression levels of 9 anthocyanin biosynthesis genes were up-regulated. Overexpression of the Lc gene improved the plant tolerance to cold and drought stress, probably due to increased antioxidant capacity. The levels of the cold- and drought-related phytohormone jasmonic acid in the transgenic plants were also enhanced, which may also contribute to the plant stress-tolerant phenotypes. High anthocyanin accumulation level did not affect plant growth. Transcriptomic analysis showed higher expressions of genes involved in the flavonoid pathway in Lc transgenic bamboos compared with those in wild-type ones. The anthocyanin-rich bamboos generated here provide an example of ornamental and multiple agronomic trait improvements by genetic engineering in this important grass species.


Assuntos
Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Antocianinas , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo
14.
Planta ; 254(3): 56, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420086

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: H2 gas, usually in the form of H2-saturated water, could play a useful role in improving many aspects of plant growth and productivity, including resistance to stress tolerance and improved post-harvest durability. Therefore, molecular hydrogen delivery systems should be considered as a valuable addition within agricultural practice. Agriculture and food security are both impacted by plant stresses, whether that is directly from human impact or through climate change. A continuously increasing human population and rising food consumption means that there is need to search for agriculturally useful and environment friendly strategies to ensure future food security. Molecular hydrogen (H2) research has gained momentum in plant and agricultural science owing to its multifaceted and diverse roles in plants. H2 application can mitigate against a range of stresses, including salinity, heavy metals and drought. Therefore, knowing how endogenous, or exogenously applied, H2 enhances the growth and tolerance against numerous plant stresses will enhance our understanding of how H2 may be useful for future to agriculture and horticulture. In this review, recent progress and future implication of H2 in agriculture is highlighted, focusing on how H2 impacts on plant cell function and how it can be applied for better plant performance. Although the exact molecular action of H2 in plants remains elusive, this safe and easy to apply treatment should have a future in agricultural practice.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Secas , Hidrogênio , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5102, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429405

RESUMO

Range shifts of infectious plant disease are expected under climate change. As plant diseases move, emergent abiotic-biotic interactions are predicted to modify their distributions, leading to unexpected changes in disease risk. Evidence of these complex range shifts due to climate change, however, remains largely speculative. Here, we combine a long-term study of the infectious tree disease, white pine blister rust, with a six-year field assessment of drought-disease interactions in the southern Sierra Nevada. We find that climate change between 1996 and 2016 moved the climate optimum of the disease into higher elevations. The nonlinear climate change-disease relationship contributed to an estimated 5.5 (4.4-6.6) percentage points (p.p.) decline in disease prevalence in arid regions and an estimated 6.8 (5.8-7.9) p.p. increase in colder regions. Though climate change likely expanded the suitable area for blister rust by 777.9 (1.0-1392.9) km2 into previously inhospitable regions, the combination of host-pathogen and drought-disease interactions contributed to a substantial decrease (32.79%) in mean disease prevalence between surveys. Specifically, declining alternate host abundance suppressed infection probabilities at high elevations, even as climatic conditions became more suitable. Further, drought-disease interactions varied in strength and direction across an aridity gradient-likely decreasing infection risk at low elevations while simultaneously increasing infection risk at high elevations. These results highlight the critical role of aridity in modifying host-pathogen-drought interactions. Variation in aridity across topographic gradients can strongly mediate plant disease range shifts in response to climate change.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Mudança Climática , Doenças das Plantas , Ribes , Clima , Secas , Florestas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas , Prevalência , Água
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10394-10404, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445860

RESUMO

Broccoli is a cruciferous crop rich in health-promoting metabolites. Due to several factors, including anthropogenic global warming, aridity is increasing in many cultivation areas. There is a great demand to characterize the drought response of broccoli and use this knowledge to develop new cultivars able to maintain yield under water constraints. The aim of this study is to characterize the drought response at the physiological and molecular level of different broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica Plenck) cultivars, previously characterized as drought-sensitive or drought-tolerant. This approach aims to identify different traits, which can constitute limiting factors for drought stress tolerance in broccoli. For this purpose, we have compared several physiological parameters and the complete profiles of amino acids, primary metabolites, hormones, and ions of drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive cultivars under stress and control conditions. We have found that drought-tolerant cultivars presented higher levels of methionine and abscisic acid and lower amounts of urea, quinic acid, and the gluconic acid lactone. Interestingly, we have also found that a drought treatment increases the levels of most essential amino acids in leaves and in florets. Our results have established physiological and molecular traits useful as distinctive markers to predict drought tolerance in broccoli or which could be reliably used for breeding new cultivars adapted to water scarcity. We have also found that a drought treatment increases the content of essential amino acids in broccoli.


Assuntos
Brassica , Ácido Abscísico , Brassica/genética , Secas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10017-10035, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459588

RESUMO

Seed priming is a cost-effective, practical, environmental, and farmer-friendly method to improve seed germination that can potentially increase the growth and yield of plants. The priming process enhances various physiological and biochemical mechanisms of defense and empowers the seeds or seedlings to overcome different environmental stresses. However, under critical circumstances, plants are hindered from absorbing specific chemical priming reagents owing to their larger size, molecular structure, or lack of carriers. Therefore, nanoscale materials having exceptional physiochemical properties and a large surface/volume ratio are expected to be better absorbed by the seeds/seedlings as priming agents in comparison to bulk chemicals and can trigger enhanced molecular interactions at the cellular level. Further, the flexibility in altering the surface chemical properties of the nanomaterials can facilitate better interaction with the seeds/seedlings while inhibiting the wastage of priming agents. In this review, we have systematically discussed the potentiality of various nanostructured materials as priming agents in alleviating the adverse effects of various abiotic stresses, viz., drought, salinity, high temperature, cold temperature, and heavy metals, by studying the growth parameters and physiological and biochemical response of various crop plants subjected to these stress conditions. Also, we have highlighted the molecular mechanism and activation of genes involved in enabling abiotic stress tolerance in plants after being primed with nanostructured materials.


Assuntos
Plântula , Estresse Fisiológico , Secas , Salinidade , Sementes
18.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104908, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446212

RESUMO

Histone acetylation plays important roles in eukaryotic chromatin modification and gene expression regulation. Acetylation levels are modulated by histone deacetylases (HDACs), which function as key epigenetic factors that regulate gene expression in response to various stresses. HDT701, a member of the HD2 subfamily of HDACs, plays crucial roles in plant responses to abiotic stress and pathogen infection. Here, we analysed the expression pattern of SbHDT701 in sorghum. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) results showed that expression of SbHDT701 was tissue-specific, and up-regulated under drought (d-mannitol) and salt (NaCl) stresses. We also determined the optimal expression conditions for SbHDT701 protein accumulation, and successfully expressed and purified SbHDT701 protein. Besides, overexpression of SbHDT701 in could promote the growth of recombinant cells under abiotic stress. SbHDT701 expression in Escherichia coli also increased acetylation modification levels following treatment with 750 mM NaCl, and 100 mM or 300 mM d-mannitol. In summary, the sorghum HDAC SbHDT701 mediates stress responses by enhancing acetylation modification levels.


Assuntos
Histona Desacetilases , Sorghum , Acetilação , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Sorghum/genética
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112519, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364122

RESUMO

Drought stress is reducing the production of crops globally. This research was designed to evaluate the role of titanium dioxide (TiO2 NPs) nanoparticles and calcium phosphate on wheat facing drought stress. TiO2 NPs were prepared by green synthesis and their characterization (by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX)) was also done. The results showed that TiO2 NPs worked efficiently and improved plant growth under drought. However, the best results were obtained from combined applications of 40 ppm TiO2 NPs and 40 ppm calcium phosphate on plants. They increased root length (33%), shoot length (53%), fresh weight (48%), and dry weight (44%) of wheat as compared to control. The physiological parameters including chlorophyll content, relative water content, membrane stability index, and osmolyte content (proline and sugar) were also improved. The increase in superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and, catalase activity by the combined application of TiO2 NPs and calcium phosphate was 83% and 78%, 74% and 52%, 81%, and 67% in Pakistan-13 and Zincol-16 respectively, as compared to untreated drought exposed plants. They also enhanced the nutrients uptake (including potassium, phosphorus, and nitrogen) that ultimately improved plant biomass. They also maintained the level of growth hormones in plants. These hormones regulate cellular processes and are responsible for germination, development, and plant reaction in drought stress. The increase in the yield was also significant, hence it is recommended that the 40 ppm concentration of TiO2 NPs along with calcium phosphate improves the productivity of wheat under drought stress.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Triticum , Fosfatos de Cálcio , Secas , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Titânio/toxicidade
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361030

RESUMO

Drought is a main factor limiting crop yields. Modern agricultural technologies such as irrigation systems, ground mulching, and rainwater storage can prevent drought, but these are only temporary solutions. Understanding the physiological, biochemical, and molecular reactions of plants to drought stress is therefore urgent. The recent rapid development of genomics tools has led to an increasing interest in phenomics, i.e., the study of phenotypic plant traits. Among phenomic strategies, high-throughput phenotyping (HTP) is attracting increasing attention as a way to address the bottlenecks of genomic and phenomic studies. HTP provides researchers a non-destructive and non-invasive method yet accurate in analyzing large-scale phenotypic data. This review describes plant responses to drought stress and introduces HTP methods that can detect changes in plant phenotypes in response to drought.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Secas , Fenômica/métodos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Estresse Fisiológico
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