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1.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(4): 787-798, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970629

RESUMO

Ulansuhai nur is located in the cold and dry area of China, and the management of heavy metals in the sediments is related to water safety in the lower places of the Yellow River. Graphene oxide (GO) is modified to obtain magnetic graphene oxide (G-F) and chitosan grafted graphene oxide (G-N-C) materials, which are used to immobilize Cu in the sediments. The modified materials are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). G-F respectively reduces the concentration of Cu in the overlying and interstitial water by 61.5-66.3% and 22.4-47.1%, which is more effective than GO and G-N-C. Experiments are designed to determine the effect of phosphates concentration on immobilizing Cu in the sediments by modified materials. The results show that a low concentration of phosphates solution is beneficial to the immobilization of Cu in the sediments, and the capability of G-F to immobilize Cu is higher than that of GO and G-N-C. G-F presents a lower increase in organic phosphorus in the sediments than GO and G-N-C. In summary, the modified materials can immobilize Cu in the sediments, potentially reduce the water body eutrophication, and improve the lake ecological environment.


Assuntos
Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Sedimentos Geológicos , Grafite , Fósforo/análise
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 658, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974766

RESUMO

Batan Bay in Aklan, Philippines supports a population largely dependent on coastal fisheries. The development of aquaculture technologies coupled with over-crowded fish pens has negatively affected its natural dynamics and environmental quality. Land-use activities including ports and shipyard further aggravate the problem by contributing to chemical pollution. The present study applied sequential extraction techniques to determine the geochemical speciation of metals in fishpond sediments. Samples were processed and analyzed for Cu, Cd, and Pb using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Copper (Cu) showed the highest concentration (10.61-66.81 µg/g-dry weight of sediment). Lead (Pb) content ranged from below detection limit to 15.14 µg/g, while Cd concentration ranged from below detection limit to 2.50 µg/g. Fractionation study showed that the Cu present in the fishpond sediments is mostly non-residual (50.03-73.34%) and significantly associated with the oxidizable fraction (33.89-64.75%). In contrast, the residual fraction served as the dominant host of Pb (33.55-62.68%) in the sediments. Comparison of the results with US EPA and NOAA sediment quality guidelines also revealed that the Batan Bay sediments may be considered generally non-polluted with respect Cu, Pb, and Cd, and not expected to cause adverse effects to aquatic organisms under normal conditions. However, under certain redox conditions, most of the sites may be considered moderately polluted as a result of Cu mobilization from the non-residual fractions of the sediments. Overall, geochemical speciation studies in an important fishery area like Batan Bay will provide valuable insights into the availability of metal contaminants to aquatic organisms under certain environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Baías , Cádmio , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Chumbo , Filipinas
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111466, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892913

RESUMO

This study identifies the impact of river sediments on coastal ecosystems in the southwestern coastal region of Korea. Surface sediments were analyzed for their spatial distributions of organic matter, nutrients, and heavy metal concentrations. Furthermore, pollutants were identified according to the pollution load index (PLI) and potential ecological risk index (RI). Concentrations did not show serious pollution levels compared to generalized guidelines; however, some sites exceeded the PLI pollution standard, and were also identified as potential ecological risks. Through cluster analyses the sediment sites were classified into three groups: rivers with relatively high concentrations of organic matter and nutrients, rivers affected largely by artificial heavy metal pollution, and rivers with low levels of pollution by organic matter, nutrients, and heavy metals. It is evident that continuous monitoring and management are required to prevent major pollution from industrial complexes, agriculture, and commercial activities in the regions near these rivers.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , República da Coreia , Medição de Risco , Rios
4.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111482, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892917

RESUMO

Microplastics have received widespread attention as an emerging contaminant, but limited information was available during wetland restoration. The occurrence and characteristics of microplastics and their interaction with heavy metals in surface sediments from the Jinjiang Estuarine restored mangrove wetland were investigated. The abundance of microplastics ranged from 490 ± 127.3 to 1170 ± 99.0 items/500 g dry sediment, and the restored regions were much higher than mudflats, indicating mangrove restoration promoted its accumulation. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) were the main materials of microplastics after Raman spectroscopy identification. SEM-EDS images illustrated the mechanical erosion and chemical weathering on microplastics' surface, and Cr, Zn, Pb, and Cd were observed in elemental composition. The contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, and Cd accumulated in microplastics were not correlated with their total concentrations in sediments except for Hg, indicating that they might not be derived from sediments.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Áreas Alagadas
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111495, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892925

RESUMO

Deposits of fluid mud on wave-dominated beaches are rare. Where they happen frequently and periodically, they can be associated with anthropic processes that bring fluid mud to the shoreface and surf zone. To determine the reason for the frequent deposition of fluid mud at Cassino Beach (Southern Brazil) in the 2014-2020 period, the La/Eu and Gd/Yb ratios in marine, beach, and adjacent Patos estuary sediments were investigated. Mud from the beach showed similar ratios of REE to dredged sediments from the harbor basin and navigation channel within the estuary. Industrial and port activity changes REE ratio in sediments of the navigation channel, and they are distinct from naturally deposited marine and estuarine sediments. We conclude that the mud deposition events at the beach are most likely associated with dredging processes in the estuary especially where overflow is the source of fluid mud on the beach shoreface.


Assuntos
Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111492, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892924

RESUMO

The concentrations of the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Cr, Co, and Ni of a total of 187 surface sediment samples collected from the western Taiwan Strait were analyzed. The distribution characteristics and degree of contamination of these elements were investigated. The mean concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Cr, Co, and Ni in the surface sediments of the study area were 10.2 mg/kg, 18.3 mg/kg, 51.7 mg/kg, 7.5 mg/kg, 38.7 mg/kg, 8.0 mg/kg, and 16.5 mg/kg, respectively. The heavy metals in the study area were mainly from natural sources. The regional pollution load index (PLIzone) was 0.64, indicating that there was no contamination, and an area with a relatively high PLIzone was found in the northern part of the study area. Furthermore, the impacts of the rapid development of Fujian's marine economy on the marine environment in the past decade should be further compared and analyzed.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Medição de Risco , Taiwan
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4658, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938931

RESUMO

Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is an important marine osmolyte. Aphotic environments are only recently being considered as potential contributors to global DMSP production. Here, our Mariana Trench study reveals a typical seawater DMSP/dimethylsulfide (DMS) profile, with highest concentrations in the euphotic zone and decreased but consistent levels below. The genetic potential for bacterial DMSP synthesis via the dsyB gene and its transcription is greater in the deep ocean, and is highest in the sediment.s DMSP catabolic potential is present throughout the trench waters, but is less prominent below 8000 m, perhaps indicating a preference to store DMSP in the deep for stress protection. Deep ocean bacterial isolates show enhanced DMSP production under increased hydrostatic pressure. Furthermore, bacterial dsyB mutants are less tolerant of deep ocean pressures than wild-type strains. Thus, we propose a physiological function for DMSP in hydrostatic pressure protection, and that bacteria are key DMSP producers in deep seawater and sediment.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Água do Mar/química , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Compostos de Sulfônio/metabolismo , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Clorofila A/análise , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Genes Bacterianos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Pressão Hidrostática , Marinobacter/genética , Marinobacter/isolamento & purificação , Marinobacter/metabolismo , Metagenoma , Mutação , Oceanos e Mares , Prochlorococcus/genética , Prochlorococcus/isolamento & purificação , Prochlorococcus/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Sulfetos/análise , Sulfetos/metabolismo , Compostos de Sulfônio/análise , Synechococcus/genética , Synechococcus/isolamento & purificação , Synechococcus/metabolismo
8.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126916, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957301

RESUMO

4-Nonylphenol (4-NP), a phenolic endocrine disruptor chemical (EDC), is known to have high toxicity to aquatic organisms and humans. The remediation of 4-NP-contaminated marine sediments was studied using red algae-based biochar (RAB) thermochemically synthesized from Agardhiella subulata with simple pyrolysis process under different temperatures of 300-900 °C in CO2 atmosphere. The RAB was characterized by XRD, Raman, FTIR spectroscopy, and zeta potential measurements. The calcium in RAB efficiently activated sodium percarbonate (SPC) to generate reactive radicals for the catalytic degradation of 4-NP at pH 9.0. The oxygen-containing functional groups reacted with H2O2, which increased the generation of reactive radicals under alkaline pH condition. Ca2+ ion was the active species responsible for 4-NP degradation. CaO/CaCO3 on RAB surface enhanced direct electron transfer, increased HO production, and 4-NP degradation in marine sediments. Langmuir‒Hinshelwood type kinetics well described the 4-NP degradation process. Remediation of contaminated sediments using RAB could be a sustainable approach toward closed-loop biomass cycling in the degradation of 4-NP contaminants.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Fenóis/análise , Rodófitas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Biomassa , Carbonatos/química , Catálise , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Cinética
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111029, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888609

RESUMO

The chitin synthesis inhibitor teflubenzuron (TFB) is a feed antiparasitic agents used to impede molting of the salmon lice, an ecto-parasite that severely affects the salmon industry. Low absorption of oral administered TFB may cause elevated concentrations in the feces discharged from the salmon into the benthic environment. The polychaete Capitella sp. are often dominant in such habitats and consume organic waste deposited on the sediment. In the present study, Capitella sp. were exposed to doses of TFB in salmon feed of 1, 2 and 4 g TFB kg-1 (0 g TFB kg-1 in control group) over an experimental period of 32 days. Cumulative mortality was 12%-15% in both treatment groups with 1 and 2 g TFB kg-1 and reached 27% in the group with 4 g TFB kg-1. Only the highest dose (4 g TFB kg-1) negatively affected feed intake, growth and respiration of the polychaetes while food conversion efficiency was not affected. At the end of the experiment, the concentrations of TFB in the Capitella sp. were high, in the range of 9.24-10.32 µg g-1 for the three treatment groups. It was suggested that a maximum level of absorption rate was reached, also for the lowest dose. High concentrations of TFB in the Capitella sp. might pose a risk to crustaceans that forage for polychaetes in the vicinity of fish farms. We conclude that the effects of TFB on Capitella sp. may therefore primarily be to the predators rather than the Capitella sp.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/toxicidade , Benzamidas/toxicidade , Bioacumulação , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Poliquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antiparasitários/metabolismo , Benzamidas/metabolismo , Copépodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Pesqueiros , Modelos Teóricos , Poliquetos/metabolismo , Salmão/parasitologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 740: 140042, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927538

RESUMO

There is increasing interest in understanding potential impacts of complex pollutant profiles to long-lived species such as the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas), a threatened megaherbivore resident in north Australia. Dietary ingestion may be a key exposure route for metals in these animals and marine plants can accumulate metals at higher concentrations than the surrounding environment. We investigated concentrations of 19 metals and metalloids in C. mydas forage samples collected from a group of offshore coral cays and two coastal bays over a period of 2-3 years. Although no samples exceeded sediment quality guidelines, coastal forage Co, Fe, and V concentrations were up to 2-fold higher, and offshore forage Sr concentrations were ~3-fold higher, than global seagrass means. Principal Component Analysis differentiated coastal bay from coral cay forage according to patterns consistent with underlying terrigenous-type or marine carbonate-type sediment geochemistry, such that coastal bay forage was higher in Fe, Co, Mn, Cu, and Mo (and others) but forage from coral cays was higher in Sr and U. Forage from the two coastal bays was differentiated according to temporal variation in metal profiles, which may be associated with a more episodic sediment disturbance regime in one of the bays. For all study locations, some forage metal concentrations were higher than previously reported in the global literature. Our results suggest that forage metal profiles may be influenced by the presence of some metals in insoluble forms or bound to ultra-fine sediment particles adhered to forage surfaces. Metal concentrations in Great Barrier Reef forage may be present at levels higher than expected from the global seagrass literature and appear strongly influenced by underlying sediment geochemistry.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Metais Pesados/análise , Tartarugas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Austrália , Baías , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 740: 140169, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927550

RESUMO

Hydrological extremes of unusually high or low river discharge may deeply affect the biogeochemistry of coastal lagoons, but the effects are poorly explored. In this study, microbial nitrogen processes were analyzed through intact core incubations and 15N-isotope addition at three sites in the eutrophic Sacca di Goro lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea) both under high discharge (spring) and after prolonged low discharge (late-summer) of the main freshwater inputs. Under high discharge/nitrate load, denitrification was the leading process and there was no internal recycling. The site located at the mouth of the main freshwater input and characterized by low salinity exhibited the highest denitrification rate (up to 1150 ± 81 µmol N m-2 h-1), mostly sustained by nitrification stimulated by burrowing macrofauna. In contrast, we recorded high internal recycling under low discharge, when denitrification dropped at all sites due to low nitrate concentrations, reduced bioturbation and nitrification. The highest recycling was measured at the sites close to the sea entrance and characterized by high salinity and particularly at the clams cultivated area (up to 1003 ± 70 µmol N m-2 h-1). At this site, internal recycling was sustained by ammonification of biodeposits, bivalve excretion and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), which represented 30% of nitrate reduction. Flash floods and high nitrate loads may overwhelm the denitrification capacity of the lagoon due to the reduced residence time and to the saturation of microbial enzymatic activity, resulting in high transport of nitrate to the sea. Prolonged dry periods favor large internal recycling, due to a combination of high temperatures, low oxygen solubility and low bioturbation, which may prolong the extent of algal blooms with negative effects on lagoon biogeochemical services. We conclude that hydrological extremes, which are expected to become more frequent under climate change scenarios, strongly alter N cycling in coastal sediments.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/análise , Animais , Desnitrificação , Sedimentos Geológicos , Hidrologia , Nitratos/análise , Nitrogênio/análise
12.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 97: 120-131, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933727

RESUMO

Despite laboratory experiments that have been performed to study internal heavy metal release, our understanding of how heavy metals release in shallow eutrophic lakes remains limited for lacking in-situ evidence. This study used automatic environmental sensors and a water sampling system to conduct high-frequency in-situ observations (1-hr intervals) of water environmental variables and to collect water samples (3-hr intervals), with which to examine the release of internal heavy metals in Lake Taihu, China. Under conditions of disturbance by strong northerly winds, sediment resuspension in both the estuary area and the lake center caused particulate heavy metal resuspension. However, the patterns of concentrations of dissolved heavy metals in these two areas were complex. The concentrations of dissolved Se and Mo increased in both areas, indicating that release of internal dissolved Se and Mo is triggered by sediment resuspension. The concentrations of dissolved Ni, Zn, As, Mn, Cu, V, and Co tended to increase in the estuary area but decrease in the lake center. The different trends between these two areas were controlled by pH and cyanobacteria, which are related to eutrophication. During the strong northerly winds, the decrease in concentrations of dissolved heavy metals in the lake center was attributable primarily to absorption by the increased suspended solids, and to growth-related assimilation or surface adsorption by the increased cyanobacteria. The findings of this study suggest that, short-term changes of environmental conditions are very important in relation to reliable monitoring and risk assessment of heavy metals in shallow eutrophic lakes.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Lagos
13.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 97: 169-179, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933732

RESUMO

Total contents of metals in soil and sediments on the Tibetan Plateau of China have been widely analyzed, but existing information is insufficient to effectively evaluate metal ecological risk because of a lack of metal bioavailability data. In this study, distribution, potential risk, mobility and bioavailability of metals in sediments of Lake Yamdrok Basin in Tibet of China were explored by combined use of total digestion, sequential extraction and the diffusive gradient in thin-films (DGT). Average concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in surface sediments were 31.25, 30.31, 22.00, 45.04, 31.32, 0.13 and 13.39 mg/kg, respectively. Higher levels of metals were found near the inflowing rivers. Residual form was dominant in Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb, and reducible form was dominant in As and Cd. Metals in surface sediments showed a low enrichment degree overall, but Cd and As had higher ecological risk levels than the other metals. Furthermore, there was a larger average proportion of exchangeable form of As (20.4%) and Cd (9.0%) than the other metals (1.7%-3.3%), implying their higher mobility and release risk. Average DGT-labile concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb were 0.5, 4.5, 0.7, 25.1, 60.0, 0.22 and 1.0 µg/L, respectively. The DGT-labile As was significantly correlated with extractable As forms (p< 0.01), suggesting that extractable As in sediments acts as a "mobile pool" for bioavailable As. These results suggest potential risks of As and Cd, especially As, deserve further attention in Lake Yamdrok Basin.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Lagos , Medição de Risco , Tibet
14.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 97: 186-193, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933734

RESUMO

Kongsfjorden is known for its characteristic multi-layer water mass formed by the convergence of freshwaters from nearby glaciers and rivers and saline water from the Atlantic and Arctic. The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the water column of Kongsfjorden was investigated and their potential sources were analyzed. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs in the surface seawater and river water were in the range of 33.4-79.8 ng/L (mean 48.5 ng/L) and 2.3-201.4 ng/L (mean 126.1 ng/L), respectively. Horizontally, PAHs were mainly concentrated around river estuaries and the glacier front in the dissolved phase. Vertically, the PAHs in the particulate phase followed surface-enrichment and depth-depletion patterns in most stations, with the maximum concentration found at 50 m depth in the central area of Kongsfjorden. The compositions of PAHs in seawater and rivers were similar, with two-ring and tricyclic PAHs comprising the majority of the dissolved and particulate phases. PAHs found in Kongsfjorden waters appeared to be derived from multiple sources such as petroleum and coal combustion. PAHs in the bay mouth of Kongsfjorden were mainly introduced by the West Spitsbergen Current and the Arctic waters, while in the inner bay, atmospheric deposition and local sources were the major contributors. The distribution of PAHs was mainly attributed to the suspended particulate distribution.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Rios
15.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 97: 194-199, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933736

RESUMO

Eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in benthos collected onboard the 'Snow Dragon' in the Northern Bering Sea Shelf and Chukchi Sea Shelf during the 6th Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE 2014). Σ18PAHs for all biota samples ranged from 34.2 to 128.1 ng/g dry weight (dw), with the highest concentration observed in fish muscle (Boreogadus saida) samples close to St. Lawrence Island. The PAH composition pattern was dominated by the presence of lighter 3 ring (57%) and 2 ring (28%) PAHs, indicating oil-related or petrogenic sources as important origins of PAH contamination. Concentrations of alkyl-PAHs (1-methylnaphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene) were lower than their parent PAH (naphthalene) in all biological tissue, and their percentage also decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared with those in the corresponding sediment. There were no significant relationships between PAH concentrations and trophic levels, which is possibly due to the combined results of the complex benthic foodweb in the subarctic/Arctic shelf region, as well as a low assimilation/effective metabolism for PAHs. According to toxic potency evaluation results from TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs) and BaP-equivalent (BaPE) values, whelk (Neptunea heros) and starfish (Ctenodiscus crispatus) are two macroinvertebrate species showing relatively higher dioxin-like toxicity and carcinogenic risk.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos
16.
J Environ Manage ; 275: 111288, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866925

RESUMO

The spatial distribution of water quality status, especially in water bodies near intensively urbanized areas, is tightly associated with patterns of human activities. For establishing a robust assessment of the sediment quality in an urban aquatic environment, the source apportionment and risk assessment of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb in sediments from an anthropogenic-influenced lake were carried out with considering uncertainties from the analysis methods, random errors in the sample population and the spatial sediment heterogeneity. The distribution analysis of the trace metals with inverse distance weighting-determined method showed that the pollutants were concentrated in the middle and southern areas of the lake. According to the self-organizing map and constrained positive matrix factorization receptor model, agricultural sources (24.8%), industrial and vehicular sources (42.5%), and geogenic natural sources (32.7%) were the primary contributors to the given metals. The geogenic natural had the largest random errors, but the overall result was reliable according to the uncertainty analysis. Furthermore, the stochastic contamination and ecological risk models identified a moderate/considerable contamination level and a moderate ecological risk to the urban aquatic ecosystem. With consideration of uncertainties from the spatial heterogeneity, the contamination level of Hg, and the ecological risk of Cd in had a 20-30% probability of the increase.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Incerteza , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(4): 513-521, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979081

RESUMO

Little is known about the prevalence of microplastics (MPs) in East Africa. In the present study, sediments were sampled at 18 sites along the Tanzanian coast that exhibit different levels of anthropogenic activity and were extracted using floatation methodology. Cockles (Anadara antiquata) were collected only from eight sites and MPs were extracted following NaOH digestion. MPs were most abundant at Mtoni Kijichi Creek (MKC, 2972 ± 238 particles kg-1 dry sediment), an industrial port in Dar es Salaam, and significantly higher than all other sites where the abundance range was 15-214 particles kg-1 dry sediment (p < 0.05, one-way ANOVA). Fragments and fibers were found at all sites. Polypropylene and polyethylene were identified polymers. MPs were found in cockles from all sampled sites with both frequencies of occurrence and MPs per individual subject to site-specific variation. This study provides a baseline of MP data in a previously uninvestigated area.


Assuntos
Arcidae/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Microplásticos/metabolismo , Poluentes da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Praias , Bioacumulação , Tanzânia
18.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(4): 546-552, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870331

RESUMO

The heavy metals were studied in water, sediments, algae, and various tissues of Glyptosternon reticulatum and Cyprinus carpio from River Swat, Pakistan, using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The Zn, Cu, Pb and Ni were higher in water at sewage site compared to upstream and downstream sites. In sediments, the Ni and Cd were not detected whereas Cu, Pb and Zn were higher at downstream followed by sewage and upstream sites. The Ni and Zn in algae were higher at upstream and sewage sites compared to downstream site whereas Pb and Cd were higher at upstream site compared to sewage and downstream sites and Cu was found same at all the three sites. The heavy metals (Zn > Cu > Pb and Ni) in tissues (liver > gills > skin > muscles) of G. reticulatum was higher than in C. carpio. This study recommends the proper monitoring of River Swat in order to save its water and inhabitant aquatic life.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Rios/química , Spirogyra/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Metais Pesados/análise , Paquistão , Especificidade da Espécie , Distribuição Tecidual , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Aquat Toxicol ; 227: 105594, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911329

RESUMO

Diatoms are highly sensitive to perturbations in their environment and are thus useful as bioindicators for anthropogenic impacts such as pollution. However, there is no consensus about what aspects of diatom populations to measure (e.g., diversity, physiology, or morphology) and efficient and reliable survey protocols are lacking. Here, we evaluated the ecological status of diatom communities using both traditional and relatively novel methods on two islands (Deokjeok island and Daeijak island) affected by anthropogenic activities due to extensive agricultural practices and exploitation and that are under consideration for representative touristic sites in South Korea. Dissolved concentrations of metals and metalloid (As, Cu, Cr, Cd, Ni, Hg, Pb, and Zn) were below the ecological screening and toxicity reference values in water fractions but were above these values for sediment, particularly at one island, Deokjeok. The tested methods were generally consistent in finding little evidence for disruption of diatom communities, with dominance by Navicula and Gyrosigma, relatively high diversity, and typical abundance of lipid bodies and morphological deformities. However, analysis of lipid bodies and morphological deformities suggested greater potential anthropogenic disturbance at one site in Deokjeok. Future planning is required to ensure the maintenance of the near-pristine environments present on these islands.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Agricultura , China , Saúde Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Ilhas , Mercúrio/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , República da Coreia , Medição de Risco
20.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(4): 522-529, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955596

RESUMO

Microplastics are persistent, synthetic polymers that have managed to spread even to the most remote places on earth. Studies reporting on the abundance of microplastics have recently increased worldwide, which has raised environmental concerns among scientific communities. Nevertheless, evidence of microplastic contamination from Turkey is limited even though the location is a critical point and the population is higher than most countries in the region. Thus, we aimed to detect microplastics in sediment samples collected from the Marmara Sea in Istanbul-Turkey. In this study, fourteen sediment samples were collected and sub-sampled, then plastic debris was extracted, quantified and characterized by the morphology and polymer structure. The result revealed that all of the samples contained microplastics, and their concentrations ranged between 0.3 and 85.6 g/kg sediment, and the most abundant plastic types were acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, ethylene vinyl acetate, and polystyrene.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Microplásticos/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise , Água do Mar , Turquia
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