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1.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(4): 522-529, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955596

RESUMO

Microplastics are persistent, synthetic polymers that have managed to spread even to the most remote places on earth. Studies reporting on the abundance of microplastics have recently increased worldwide, which has raised environmental concerns among scientific communities. Nevertheless, evidence of microplastic contamination from Turkey is limited even though the location is a critical point and the population is higher than most countries in the region. Thus, we aimed to detect microplastics in sediment samples collected from the Marmara Sea in Istanbul-Turkey. In this study, fourteen sediment samples were collected and sub-sampled, then plastic debris was extracted, quantified and characterized by the morphology and polymer structure. The result revealed that all of the samples contained microplastics, and their concentrations ranged between 0.3 and 85.6 g/kg sediment, and the most abundant plastic types were acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, ethylene vinyl acetate, and polystyrene.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Microplásticos/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise , Água do Mar , Turquia
2.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(4): 513-521, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979081

RESUMO

Little is known about the prevalence of microplastics (MPs) in East Africa. In the present study, sediments were sampled at 18 sites along the Tanzanian coast that exhibit different levels of anthropogenic activity and were extracted using floatation methodology. Cockles (Anadara antiquata) were collected only from eight sites and MPs were extracted following NaOH digestion. MPs were most abundant at Mtoni Kijichi Creek (MKC, 2972 ± 238 particles kg-1 dry sediment), an industrial port in Dar es Salaam, and significantly higher than all other sites where the abundance range was 15-214 particles kg-1 dry sediment (p < 0.05, one-way ANOVA). Fragments and fibers were found at all sites. Polypropylene and polyethylene were identified polymers. MPs were found in cockles from all sampled sites with both frequencies of occurrence and MPs per individual subject to site-specific variation. This study provides a baseline of MP data in a previously uninvestigated area.


Assuntos
Arcidae/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Microplásticos/metabolismo , Poluentes da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Praias , Bioacumulação , Tanzânia
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111029, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888609

RESUMO

The chitin synthesis inhibitor teflubenzuron (TFB) is a feed antiparasitic agents used to impede molting of the salmon lice, an ecto-parasite that severely affects the salmon industry. Low absorption of oral administered TFB may cause elevated concentrations in the feces discharged from the salmon into the benthic environment. The polychaete Capitella sp. are often dominant in such habitats and consume organic waste deposited on the sediment. In the present study, Capitella sp. were exposed to doses of TFB in salmon feed of 1, 2 and 4 g TFB kg-1 (0 g TFB kg-1 in control group) over an experimental period of 32 days. Cumulative mortality was 12%-15% in both treatment groups with 1 and 2 g TFB kg-1 and reached 27% in the group with 4 g TFB kg-1. Only the highest dose (4 g TFB kg-1) negatively affected feed intake, growth and respiration of the polychaetes while food conversion efficiency was not affected. At the end of the experiment, the concentrations of TFB in the Capitella sp. were high, in the range of 9.24-10.32 µg g-1 for the three treatment groups. It was suggested that a maximum level of absorption rate was reached, also for the lowest dose. High concentrations of TFB in the Capitella sp. might pose a risk to crustaceans that forage for polychaetes in the vicinity of fish farms. We conclude that the effects of TFB on Capitella sp. may therefore primarily be to the predators rather than the Capitella sp.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/toxicidade , Benzamidas/toxicidade , Bioacumulação , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Poliquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antiparasitários/metabolismo , Benzamidas/metabolismo , Copépodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Pesqueiros , Modelos Teóricos , Poliquetos/metabolismo , Salmão/parasitologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
4.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(3): 468-473, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886144

RESUMO

Selenium (Se), iron (Fe), and free sulfides contents in pore waters were measured to study the liberation of soluble Se in suboxic conditions. The sediment core was collected in a salt marsh in Patos Lagoon estuary (southern Brazil), and it was obtained during a brackish water period, in a low intertidal stand vegetated by Spartina alterniflora. The redox potential (Eh), pH, andacid volatile sulfides (AVS) content were also investigated. Pore water results sustained the idea that S. alterniflora roots promote oxygen penetration to depths of ca. 10 cm below the salt marsh surface, increasing Eh and lowering the pH in this interval. High Se concentrations (e.g., 16.9 µg L-1), that are above US. EPA environmental criteria, were observed in the pore water to depths between 10 and 20 cm and are associated to low AVS contents and high concentrations of free sulfides. In the first 10 cm the lowering of Se contents probably happens due the low pH and biological volatilization of the metalloid.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Selênio/análise , Áreas Alagadas , Brasil , Estuários , Ferro/análise , Poaceae , Sulfetos/análise , Volatilização
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4658, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938931

RESUMO

Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is an important marine osmolyte. Aphotic environments are only recently being considered as potential contributors to global DMSP production. Here, our Mariana Trench study reveals a typical seawater DMSP/dimethylsulfide (DMS) profile, with highest concentrations in the euphotic zone and decreased but consistent levels below. The genetic potential for bacterial DMSP synthesis via the dsyB gene and its transcription is greater in the deep ocean, and is highest in the sediment.s DMSP catabolic potential is present throughout the trench waters, but is less prominent below 8000 m, perhaps indicating a preference to store DMSP in the deep for stress protection. Deep ocean bacterial isolates show enhanced DMSP production under increased hydrostatic pressure. Furthermore, bacterial dsyB mutants are less tolerant of deep ocean pressures than wild-type strains. Thus, we propose a physiological function for DMSP in hydrostatic pressure protection, and that bacteria are key DMSP producers in deep seawater and sediment.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Água do Mar/química , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Compostos de Sulfônio/metabolismo , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Clorofila A/análise , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Genes Bacterianos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Pressão Hidrostática , Marinobacter/genética , Marinobacter/isolamento & purificação , Marinobacter/metabolismo , Metagenoma , Mutação , Oceanos e Mares , Prochlorococcus/genética , Prochlorococcus/isolamento & purificação , Prochlorococcus/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Sulfetos/análise , Sulfetos/metabolismo , Compostos de Sulfônio/análise , Synechococcus/genética , Synechococcus/isolamento & purificação , Synechococcus/metabolismo
6.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126916, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957301

RESUMO

4-Nonylphenol (4-NP), a phenolic endocrine disruptor chemical (EDC), is known to have high toxicity to aquatic organisms and humans. The remediation of 4-NP-contaminated marine sediments was studied using red algae-based biochar (RAB) thermochemically synthesized from Agardhiella subulata with simple pyrolysis process under different temperatures of 300-900 °C in CO2 atmosphere. The RAB was characterized by XRD, Raman, FTIR spectroscopy, and zeta potential measurements. The calcium in RAB efficiently activated sodium percarbonate (SPC) to generate reactive radicals for the catalytic degradation of 4-NP at pH 9.0. The oxygen-containing functional groups reacted with H2O2, which increased the generation of reactive radicals under alkaline pH condition. Ca2+ ion was the active species responsible for 4-NP degradation. CaO/CaCO3 on RAB surface enhanced direct electron transfer, increased HO production, and 4-NP degradation in marine sediments. Langmuir‒Hinshelwood type kinetics well described the 4-NP degradation process. Remediation of contaminated sediments using RAB could be a sustainable approach toward closed-loop biomass cycling in the degradation of 4-NP contaminants.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Fenóis/análise , Rodófitas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Biomassa , Carbonatos/química , Catálise , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Cinética
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110976, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800235

RESUMO

In this study, we first reviewed the current research progress regarding the presence of environmental microplastics (MPs) in environment in China from 2010 to 2019. Results showed that: (1) current research has primarily focused on river and marine environments rather than soils and dusts, mainly located in eastern China, i.e., the Yangtze river, Poyang lake, Dongting lake, Yellow sea, and Bohai sea; (2) the abundance of MPs found in water bodies (sediments) of the rivers in China ranged from 3.9 to 7900 items·m-3 (19.0 × 103-13600.5 × 103 items·km-2), and 20-24300 items·kg-2 (170-5500 × 106 items·km-2) in the sediments, respectively; in lake water the range was 340-8900 items·m-3 (5 × 103-340 × 105 items·km-2) and 8 to 1200 items·m-2/25-300 items·kg-1 in the sediments, respectively; in marine water the range was 0.003-540 items·m-3 (0-380,100 item·km-2) and 1.3-14700 item·kg-1 in the sediments, respectively; in fish, shellfish, and natural planktons from ocean and freshwater, the range was 0-57 items·individuals-1 (0-168 items·g-1); (3) The absorption and toxicological effects of MPs in freshwater and oceans have mainly focused on polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polystyrene (PS); (4) the sources of microplastics in soils and dusts primarily come from urban/town activities; for rivers and lakes (estuary), they primarily come from urban activities; for coastal waters, fishing gear and nets, and the maritime activities were the main sources.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Lagos/química , Microplásticos/análise , Rios/química , Solo/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Estuários , Oceanos e Mares , Polietileno/análise , Polipropilenos/análise , Poliestirenos/análise
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111084, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810644

RESUMO

A microcosm experiment was conducted to evaluate the impacts of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin on meiobenthic taxa abundance, nematode genus structure, and functional trait parameters. Sediment samples were experimentally enriched with four different doses of ciprofloxacin [D1 (50 ppm Dry weight 'DW'), D2 (100 ppm DW), D3 (200 ppm DW), and D4 (500 ppm DW)] and were then compared with non-enriched sediments (controls). After one month of exposure, the data showed that ciprofloxacin had altered the meiofaunal taxa abundance. A change in the structure of nematofaunal genera was observed, particularly with the highest dose (D4), which was characterized by the lowest taxonomic diversity. The SIMPER analysis revealed that the average dissimilarity between nematode communities increased with increasing doses of ciprofloxacin. Two dimensional (2D) non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) plots and relative abundances of functional groups of nematode genus assemblages revealed that all functional trait abundances were affected, particularly with the highest dose. However, only the amphid shape and feeding group functions showed a clear distribution separation between the control and ciprofloxacin treatments. The nMDS second-stage ordination of inter-matrix rank correlations for matrices including genus and functional traits showed that the tail shape was the closest functional trait to the generic distribution. Thus, only the curves of cumulative dominance related to the tail shape mirrored discernibly the sedimentary concentrations in ciprofloxacin.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Ciprofloxacino , Nematoides , Animais , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Análise Multivariada
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111065, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784014

RESUMO

In the present study, chemical analysis of contaminants (three classes of organic pollutants and seven metals) and elutriate toxicity test were adopted to evaluate the potential environmental hazards of dredged sediment samples from five sites (SS1-5) along Huangpu River Channel (Shanghai Harbor, China). The metal Pb, Cu, Cr, Zn and the organic pollutants including total hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) and total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) in the five samples exceeded the threshold for effects level (TEL) to varying degrees. The probable effect concentration quotients (QPECm) of contaminants from the five dredged samples were all above 0.25, which means potential toxicity risks. Elutriate toxicity tests using medaka fish (Oryzias melastigma) and manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) showed that SS2 caused mortality to both species and SS1 caused mortality to fish. To explore the molecular biomarkers that may reflect the toxic effects, differential expressed genes were identified by RNA-Seq-based transcriptome profiling from the survived clams exposed to the two polluted elutriates (SS1, SS2). In clams exposed to SS1 and SS2 elutriate, 368 and 860 differential expressed genes (DEGs) were up-regulated, 199 and 1304 genes were down-regulated, respectively. Fourteen DEGs were selected from the enriched pathways that reflect cytotoxicity and responses to xenobiotics for the following quantitative real time PCR analysis. The transcriptomic profiling and the selected gene's expression patterns from clams exposed to SS1 and SS2 showed significant differences with the non-contaminated and control groups. Using the expression data of the selected gene battery in Factor Analysis allowed the discrimination between contaminated and non-contaminated sites and may reflect an influence gradient of sites. The development of the assay of these molecular biomarkers may provide a rapid and high-throughput tool for the quality assessment of the dredging sediments.


Assuntos
Bivalves/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Bivalves/genética , China , DDT/toxicidade , Hexaclorocicloexano/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade
11.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127577, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758784

RESUMO

Tungsten (W) occurrence and speciation was investigated in sediments collected from Fallon, Nevada where previous studies have linked elevated W levels in human body fluids to an unusual cluster of childhood leukemia cases. The speciation of sedimentary W was determined by µ-XRF mapping and µ-XANES. The W content of the analyzed surface sediments ranged between 81 and 25,908 mg/kg, which is significantly higher than the W content in deeper sediments which ranged from 37 to 373 mg/kg at 30 cm depth. The µ-XANES findings reveal that approximately 20-50% of the total W in the shallow sediment occurs in the metallic form (W0); the rest occurs in the oxide form (WVIO3). Because W0 does not occur naturally, its elevated concentrations in surface sediments point toward a possible local anthropogenic origin. The oxidation of metallic W0 with meteoric waters likely leads to the formation of WVIO3. The chief water-soluble W species was identified as WO42- by chromatographic separation and speciation modeling. These results led us to postulate that W0 particles from a currently unknown but local source(s) is (are) deposited onto the soils and/or surface sediments. The W0 in interaction with meteoric water is oxidized to WVIO3, and as these sediment-water interactions progress, WO42- is formed in the water at pH ∼7. Under pH < 7, and sufficient W concentrations, tungstate tends to polymerize, and polymerized species are less likely to adsorb onto sediments. Polymerized species have lower affinity than monomers, which leads to enhanced mobility of W.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Tungstênio/química , Adsorção , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nevada , Solo/química , Síncrotrons , Compostos de Tungstênio/química , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111093, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805502

RESUMO

Phenolic Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) have drawn more and more interest due to their prevalence and persistence in aquatic environment. To study the adsorption of various phenolic EDCs on river sediments under natural conditions, we first sought to analyze the distribution characteristics of phenol and bisphenol A (BPA) in sediment from the Bahe River. The static adsorption experiments contained either single- or dual-contaminant of phenol and/or BPA in the system; they were conducted to characterize the adsorption of these two pollutants in the surface sediments and the main factors affecting the adsorption processes of the dual-contaminant system, including particle size, humic acid (HA) concentration, pH, and temperature. Results showed that in certain seasons, there was a significant correlation between the levels of phenol and BPA in Bahe sediments. When comparing the adsorption behaviors of phenol and BPA on sediments in single- and dual-contaminant systems, we found that the phenol adsorption behavior varied, while that of BPA remained consistent across the different systems. Moreover, different effects were observed with regards to a single factor and the interaction of multiple factors on the adsorption of pollutants. Of the four single factors, only HA concentration had a significant effect on the phenol adsorption in sediment. When considering the interaction of multiple factors, the interaction between HA concentration and temperature significantly promoted the adsorption of phenol. The influence of factors on the adsorption of BPA was in the following order: particle size > HA concentration > pH > temperature. Particle size significantly inhibited BPA adsorption in the sediment, while the interaction between particle size and pH increased BPA adsorption.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/química , Fenol/química , Fenóis/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Adsorção , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Poluentes Ambientais , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenóis/análise , Rios/química , Temperatura , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237909, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853249

RESUMO

The influence of water content on mode I fracture toughness (KIc) of mudstones has been studied using semi-circular bend (SCB) specimens subject to three-point bendings. And the mudstone SCB specimens are divided into three types, including Type-A, Type-B and Type-C, corresponding to the three configurations of the bedding planes, including divider direction, arrester direction, and transverse direction, respectively. The test results show that the values of KIc for the three types of specimens are different due to the bedding structure, the Type-A specimens have the largest value of KIc for the same soak period, while the Type-C specimens possess the smallest value. As the soak period increases, the KIc of the three kinds of mudstone specimens decreases, and the fracture mechanisms of the specimens change gradually from the brittle failure form to the ductile failure form. Moreover, the standard deviation was used to quantify the anisotropy degree of the KIc of the mudstone samples. As the water content increases, the standard deviation increases from 0.057 to 0.139, which indicates a significant increase in anisotropy of the KIc of the mudstone specimens. In addition, the acoustic emission (AE) system was used to detect the AE events associated with the fracture initiation and propagation in the mudstone specimens for the different water content, with the raising water content, the cumulative AE events decrease, and the standard deviation of AE events increases, repesenting that the anisotropy of the AE events of the three types of specimens becomes more prominent. Further, the relationship between the tensile strength (σt) and the KIc of the three types of mudstone specimens for different water contents has been proved to be the linear relation.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Água/química , Acústica , Anisotropia , Difração de Raios X
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236579, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735596

RESUMO

The pollution of the natural environment, especially the world's oceans, with conventional plastic is of major concern. Biodegradable plastics are an emerging market bringing along potential chances and risks. The fate of these materials in the environment and their possible effects on organisms and ecosystems has rarely been studied systematically and is not well understood. For the marine environment, reliable field test methods and standards for assessing and certifying biodegradation to bridge laboratory respirometric data are lacking. In this work we present newly developed field tests to assess the performance of (biodegradable) plastics under natural marine conditions. These methods were successfully applied and validated in three coastal habitats (eulittoral, benthic and pelagic) and two climate zones (Mediterranean Sea and tropical Southeast Asia). Additionally, a stand-alone mesocosm test system which integrated all three habitats in one technical system at 400-L scale independent from running seawater is presented as a methodological bridge. Films of polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymer (PHA) and low density polyethylene (LD-PE) were used to validate the tests. While LD-PE remained intact, PHA disintegrated to a varying degree depending on the habitat and the climate zone. Together with the existing laboratory standard test methods, the field and mesocosm test systems presented in this work provide a 3-tier testing scheme for the reliable assessment of the biodegradation of (biodegradable) plastic in the marine environment. This toolset of tests can be adapted to other aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ambiente Controlado , Oceanos e Mares , Plásticos/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cadeia Alimentar , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Plásticos/química , Plásticos/isolamento & purificação , Água do Mar/química , Temperatura
15.
Aquat Toxicol ; 227: 105604, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846286

RESUMO

River sediment is the ultimate sink for heavy metal pollution. Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are consistently found at environmentally significant levels in sediments worldwide. We hypothesized that the bioavailability and potential ecological risk of Cu and Zn in river sediments may be affected by seasonal variations and spatial distribution. In this study, we tested our hypothesis using highly industrialized river sediments (Laojie River) as an example. The concentration of heavy metals, pollution indexes, and risk indexes were evaluated and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. We found that seasonal variations affect heavy metal contamination, pollution indexes, and potential ecological risk in sediments and this effect was more severe in the dry season. In addition, higher levels of metal contamination, pollution indexes, and potential ecological risk were observed midstream and downstream of the Laojie River. We found that Cu and Zn were the primary contaminants in Laojie River sediments and may originate from common anthropogenic sources. Analysis of the chemical fractions further revealed that Cu and Zn exhibited high mobility and potential bioavailability risk. In addition, a high percentage and amount of Cu and Zn were found in exchangeable fractions, suggesting they pose a great risk to aquatic organisms. Our results indicate that seasonal variations and spatial distribution affect the bioavailability and potential ecological risk of Cu and Zn in river sediments. These findings suggest that seasonal variations and spatial distribution are important parameters to consider for environmental monitoring and environmental management in aquatic environments.


Assuntos
Cobre/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zinco/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , China , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Rios/química , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110874, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619890

RESUMO

The adverse impacts of detrimental thallium (Tl) contamination are of increasing concerns to sustainable development. Herein, the contents, distributions and sources of Tl and potential toxic elements (PTEs) (Pb, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Sb, Cd and U) were investigated in sediments collected in Gaofeng River, which has been contaminated by long-term mining activities, located in Yunfu City, Southern China. Results indicated that excessive Tl levels were found in sediments (1.80-16.70 mg/kg). Sequential extraction procedure indicated that despite a large amount of Tl entrapped in residual fraction, a significant level of Tl (0.28-2.34 mg/kg) still exhibited in geochemically labile fractions, which was easy for Tl mobilization and availability. Pb isotope tracing method further confirmed that the pyrite exploitations may be the prime contaminated contributor (47-76%) to these sediments. These findings highlight that it is essential to establish more effective measures for Tl contamination control and call for engineered remediation countermeasures towards polluted river sediments.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Tálio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Cidades , Poluição Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Ferro , Isótopos , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Rios/química , Sulfetos
17.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(2): 734-742, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608732

RESUMO

Spatial and temporal characteristics of release fluxes of sediment nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) were investigated in the high-risk period of algal blooms in Lake Erhai. Moreover, the influence factors were examined. Results show that the release flux of N and P increased in recent years, exhibiting a clear increase in the period from 2009 to 2013, and a slight increase in the period since 2013. The release flux of dissolved total nitrogen (DTN) ranged between 11.71-14.15 mg·(m2·d)-1, within which the release flux of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) were 6.39-8.42 mg·(m2·d)-1 and 5.31-5.73 mg·(m2·d)-1, accounting for 58% and 42% of the DTN, respectively. The release flux of dissolved total phosphorus (DTP) ranged between 0.11-0.14 mg·(m2·d)-1, within which the release flux of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) were 0.04-0.05 mg·(m2·d)-1 and 0.07-0.09 mg·(m2·d)-1, accounting for 34% and 66% of the DTP, respectively. The distribution of release flux of N showed a decreasing order:south > north > middle, while P was north > middle > south. The release flux of N increased by 17%, 13% and 23%, and the release flux of P increased by 19%, 28%, and 29% in north, middle, and south part of Lake Erhai from 2009 to 2018. Comparing the years 2009, 2013 and 2018, although the contents of N and P were stable, the release flux of N and P in the sediment was enhanced due to increasing pH and decreasing DO. Therefore, the increasing release of nitrogen and phosphorus from sediments, caused by changes in the water environment factors, should be paid attention to for the protection of Lake Erhai.


Assuntos
Eutrofização , Lagos/química , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Análise Espaço-Temporal
18.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(2): 230-236, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671410

RESUMO

Fifty-four surface sediments from the typical coal mining area were analyzed for pristane, phytane and C8-C40 n-alkanes using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The spatial distribution, homolog profiles and source apportionment of aliphatic hydrocarbons were investigated. Bimodal distribution pattern, centered at C16-C20 and C27-C33 n-alkanes, were observed in all sediment samples with an obvious dominance of low molecular weight homologues. Principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) was used to predict the contributions of different sources. The result implied that natural input was the main source, contribution of which accounted for 60.8%, and the contributions of different sources were estimated as follow: 21.8% for terrestrial higher plants, 24.1% for algae and photosynthetic bacteria, 14.9% for submerged/floating macrophytes, 23.5% for fossil fuel combustion and 15.7% for petroleum hydrocarbons. Moreover, relatively high median concentrations of fossil fuel combustion were observed in Shou County and Fengtai County, indicating the high contribution of fossil fuel combustion in these two areas.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Petróleo/análise , Alcanos/análise , China , Diterpenos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Terpenos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127576, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688317

RESUMO

In this study, a hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediment was treated applying ex-situ thermal desorption (ESTD) at bench-scale. Temperatures up to 280 °C and heating times (t) in the 5-30 min range were investigated. Results revealed that temperatures in the range 200-280 °C led to Total Petrol Hydrocarbon (TPH)-removal efficiency (RE) from 75 to 85% (t = 10 min). The maximum RE of 89% was obtained at 200 °C for 30 min. However, a shorter remediation time of 5 min (or lower temperatures of 160 and 180 °C with longer times) is needed to reach the TPH standard limit. Data also demonstrated the selectivity of the treatment in TPH fraction removal. The modelling of the TPH removal kinetics and desorption isotherm jointly with activation energy calculation (>30 kJ mol-1) indicated that ESTD process is quite unfavorable for marine sediments. This is due to the fact that ESTD is regulated by chemisorption processes and occurred in two distinct TPH removal phases: evaporation and boiling vaporization. This depends on the strong affinity of the TPH with the fine sediment particles, as well as on the high initial water, salinity, organic matter and sulfides content. However, the comparison between alternative processes has shown that ESTD is the most feasible treatment process for TPH-contaminated marine sediment remediation. Obtained results also add relevant information that can be used as a basis for future scaling-up investigations of ESTD for hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediments.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Poluição por Petróleo , Cinética , Mar Mediterrâneo , Salinidade , Temperatura , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
20.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127605, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688319

RESUMO

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) and their precursors - pentachlorophenol (PCP) and triclosan (TCS), constitute a group of persistent, highly toxic multimedia pollutants, being easily transported via atmosphere over long distances, thus particularly threatening to the polar areas. The global fate of PCDD/Fs is temperature-dependent, and their transfer and immobilization at the Poles are described by the grasshopper effect and the cold trap phenomenon. The aim of this interdisciplinary study was to perform a preliminary assessment of the present state of pollution of Arctic and Antarctic marine sediments by PCP and TCS along with determination of PCDD/Fs contamination by immunoassay. Sediments from 20 stations were collected during two polar expeditions (2013-2016). The study area covered Hornsund Fjord and the southwest coast of Wedel-Jarlsberg Land (Arctic) - Skodde Bay, Nottingham Bay, Isbjørnhamna Bay and Admiralty Bay (Antarctica) - Suszczewski Cove, Halfmoon Cove and Herve Cove. The studied contaminants were quantified in 60% of the collected sediments, with almost half exceeding the environmentally safe levels according European regulations and worldwide literature. The determined levels of PCP, TCS and PCDD/F in Arctic and Antarctic sediments were to be comparable to those reported in the southern Baltic Sea located in the intense industrialized mid-latitudes. Maximum concentrations were observed in the vicinity of retreating, marine terminating glaciers. This observation confirms reemission of POPs into the global cycle with respect to the worldwide ocean warming. The results of this study should gain attention of the international and regional environmental agencies as well as the main chlorine production decision makers.


Assuntos
Dibenzofuranos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Regiões Antárticas , Benzofuranos/análise , Mudança Climática , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Dioxinas , Poluição Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Pentaclorofenol
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