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1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0235103, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075068

RESUMO

PCNA sliding clamp binds factors through which histone deposition, chromatin remodeling, and DNA repair are coupled to DNA replication. PCNA also directly binds Eco1/Ctf7 acetyltransferase, which in turn activates cohesins and establishes cohesion between nascent sister chromatids. While increased recruitment thus explains the mechanism through which elevated levels of chromatin-bound PCNA rescue eco1 mutant cell growth, the mechanism through which PCNA instead worsens cohesin mutant cell growth remains unknown. Possibilities include that elevated levels of long-lived chromatin-bound PCNA reduce either cohesin deposition onto DNA or cohesin acetylation. Instead, our results reveal that PCNA increases the levels of both chromatin-bound cohesin and cohesin acetylation. Beyond sister chromatid cohesion, PCNA also plays a critical role in genomic stability such that high levels of chromatin-bound PCNA elevate genotoxic sensitivities and recombination rates. At a relatively modest increase of chromatin-bound PCNA, however, fork stability and progression appear normal in wildtype cells. Our results reveal that even a moderate increase of PCNA indeed sensitizes cohesin mutant cells to DNA damaging agents and in a process that involves the DNA damage response kinase Mec1(ATR), but not Tel1(ATM). These and other findings suggest that PCNA mis-regulation results in genome instabilities that normally are resolved by cohesin. Elevating levels of chromatin-bound PCNA may thus help target cohesinopathic cells linked that are linked to cancer.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , DNA Fúngico/genética , Instabilidade Genômica , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Acetilação , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos , Replicação do DNA , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
2.
Cell Prolif ; 53(10): e12895, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: DNA damage and errors of accurate chromosome segregation lead to aneuploidy and foetal defects. DNA repair and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) are the mechanisms developed to protect from these defects. Checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) is reported to be an important DNA damage response protein in multiple models, but its functions remain unclear in early mouse embryos. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunofluorescence staining, immunoblotting and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used to perform the analyses. Reactive oxygen species levels and Annexin-V were also detected. RESULTS: Loss of CHK1 activity accelerated progress of the cell cycle at the first cleavage; however, it disturbed the development of early embryos to the morula/blastocyst stages. Further analysis indicated that CHK1 participated in spindle assembly and chromosome alignment, possibly due to its regulation of kinetochore-microtubule attachment and recruitment of BubR1 and p-Aurora B to the kinetochores, indicating its role in SAC activity. Loss of CHK1 activity led to embryonic DNA damage and oxidative stress, which further induced early apoptosis and autophagy, indicating that CHK1 is responsible for interphase DNA damage repair. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that CHK1 is a key regulator of the SAC and DNA damage repair during early embryonic development in mice.


Assuntos
Quinase 1 do Ponto de Checagem/metabolismo , Reparo do DNA , Pontos de Checagem da Fase M do Ciclo Celular , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Aurora Quinase B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Quinase 1 do Ponto de Checagem/antagonistas & inibidores , Segregação de Cromossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinetocoros/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem da Fase M do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
3.
PLoS Genet ; 16(9): e1009001, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886661

RESUMO

During meiosis, diploid organisms reduce their chromosome number by half to generate haploid gametes. This process depends on the repair of double strand DNA breaks as crossover recombination events between homologous chromosomes, which hold homologs together to ensure their proper segregation to opposite spindle poles during the first meiotic division. Although most organisms are limited in the number of crossovers between homologs by a phenomenon called crossover interference, the consequences of excess interfering crossovers on meiotic chromosome segregation are not well known. Here we show that extra interfering crossovers lead to a range of meiotic defects and we uncover mechanisms that counteract these errors. Using chromosomes that exhibit a high frequency of supernumerary crossovers in Caenorhabditis elegans, we find that essential chromosomal structures are mispatterned in the presence of multiple crossovers, subjecting chromosomes to improper spindle forces and leading to defects in metaphase alignment. Additionally, the chromosomes with extra interfering crossovers often exhibited segregation defects in anaphase I, with a high incidence of chromatin bridges that sometimes created a tether between the chromosome and the first polar body. However, these anaphase I bridges were often able to resolve in a LEM-3 nuclease dependent manner, and chromosome tethers that persisted were frequently resolved during Meiosis II by a second mechanism that preferentially segregates the tethered sister chromatid into the polar body. Altogether these findings demonstrate that excess interfering crossovers can severely impact chromosome patterning and segregation, highlighting the importance of limiting the number of recombination events between homologous chromosomes for the proper execution of meiosis.


Assuntos
Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , Troca Genética/genética , Meiose/genética , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Cromátides/genética , Cromatina/genética , Posicionamento Cromossômico/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Endodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Recombinação Genética
4.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(17): 9660-9680, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890403

RESUMO

Maintenance of genome integrity is critical to guarantee transfer of an intact genome from parent to offspring during cell division. DNA polymerases (Pols) provide roles in both replication of the genome and the repair of a wide range of lesions. Amongst replicative DNA Pols, translesion DNA Pols play a particular role: replication to bypass DNA damage. All cells express a range of translesion Pols, but little work has examined their function in parasites, including whether the enzymes might contribute to host-parasite interactions. Here, we describe a dual function of one putative translesion Pol in African trypanosomes, which we now name TbPolIE. Previously, we demonstrated that TbPolIE is associated with telomeric sequences and here we show that RNAi-mediated depletion of TbPolIE transcripts results in slowed growth, altered DNA content, changes in cell morphology, and increased sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. We also show that TbPolIE displays pronounced localization at the nuclear periphery, and that its depletion leads to chromosome segregation defects and increased levels of endogenous DNA damage. Finally, we demonstrate that TbPolIE depletion leads to deregulation of telomeric variant surface glycoprotein genes, linking the function of this putative translesion DNA polymerase to host immune evasion by antigenic variation.


Assuntos
Variação Antigênica , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Telômero/genética , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/genética , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/enzimologia , Núcleo Celular/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos , Replicação do DNA , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Protozoário , Humanos , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Telômero/metabolismo , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/metabolismo , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/patogenicidade , Glicoproteínas Variantes de Superfície de Trypanosoma/genética
5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(19): 11172-11184, 2020 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976599

RESUMO

Kinetochores are large multi-subunit complexes that attach centromeric chromatin to microtubules of the mitotic spindle, enabling sister chromatid segregation in mitosis. The inner kinetochore constitutive centromere associated network (CCAN) complex assembles onto the centromere-specific Cenp-A nucleosome (Cenp-ANuc), thereby coupling the centromere to the microtubule-binding outer kinetochore. CCAN is a conserved 14-16 subunit complex composed of discrete modules. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cenp-HIKHead-TW sub-module, revealing how Cenp-HIK and Cenp-TW interact at the conserved Cenp-HIKHead-Cenp-TW interface. A major interface is formed by the C-terminal anti-parallel α-helices of the histone fold extension (HFE) of the Cenp-T histone fold domain (HFD) combining with α-helix H3 of Cenp-K to create a compact three α-helical bundle. We fitted the Cenp-HIKHead-TW sub-module to the previously determined cryo-EM map of the S. cerevisiae CCAN-Cenp-ANuc complex. This showed that the HEAT repeat domain of Cenp-IHead and C-terminal HFD of Cenp-T of the Cenp-HIKHead-TW sub-module interact with the nucleosome DNA gyre at a site close to the Cenp-ANuc dyad axis. Our structure provides a framework for understanding how Cenp-T links centromeric Cenp-ANuc to the outer kinetochore through its HFD and N-terminal Ndc80-binding motif, respectively.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Cinetocoros , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/química , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/química , Segregação de Cromossomos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Cinetocoros/química , Nucleossomos , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Fuso Acromático
6.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(19): 10848-10866, 2020 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997115

RESUMO

Centromeres are genomic regions essential for faithful chromosome segregation. Transcription of noncoding RNA (ncRNA) at centromeres is important for their formation and functions. Here, we report the molecular mechanism by which the transcriptional regulator ZFAT controls the centromeric ncRNA transcription in human and mouse cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with high-throughput sequencing analysis shows that ZFAT binds to centromere regions at every chromosome. We find a specific 8-bp DNA sequence for the ZFAT-binding motif that is highly conserved and widely distributed at whole centromere regions of every chromosome. Overexpression of ZFAT increases the centromeric ncRNA levels at specific chromosomes, whereas its silencing reduces them, indicating crucial roles of ZFAT in centromeric transcription. Overexpression of ZFAT increases the centromeric levels of both the histone acetyltransferase KAT2B and the acetylation at the lysine 8 in histone H4 (H4K8ac). siRNA-mediated knockdown of KAT2B inhibits the overexpressed ZFAT-induced increase in centromeric H4K8ac levels, suggesting that ZFAT recruits KAT2B to centromeres to induce H4K8ac. Furthermore, overexpressed ZFAT recruits the bromodomain-containing protein BRD4 to centromeres through KAT2B-mediated H4K8ac, leading to RNA polymerase II-dependent ncRNA transcription. Thus, ZFAT binds to centromeres to control ncRNA transcription through the KAT2B-H4K8ac-BRD4 axis.


Assuntos
Centrômero/metabolismo , RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Segregação de Cromossomos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Ligação Proteica , Transcrição Genética , Fatores de Transcrição de p300-CBP/metabolismo
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1267: 45-58, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894476

RESUMO

In this chapter, we will focus on ParABS: an apparently simple, three-component system, required for the segregation of bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. We will specifically describe how biophysical measurements combined with physical modeling advanced our understanding of the mechanism of ParABS-mediated complex assembly, segregation and positioning.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Segregação de Cromossomos , Cromossomos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Posicionamento Cromossômico , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Plasmídeos/metabolismo
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3987, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778678

RESUMO

Aneuploidy, the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes, is a major cause of early pregnancy loss in humans. Yet, the developmental consequences of specific aneuploidies remain unexplored. Here, we determine the extent of post-implantation development of human embryos bearing common aneuploidies using a recently established culture platform. We show that while trisomy 15 and trisomy 21 embryos develop similarly to euploid embryos, monosomy 21 embryos exhibit high rates of developmental arrest, and trisomy 16 embryos display a hypo-proliferation of the trophoblast, the tissue that forms the placenta. Using human trophoblast stem cells, we show that this phenotype can be mechanistically ascribed to increased levels of the cell adhesion protein E-CADHERIN, which lead to premature differentiation and cell cycle arrest. We identify three cases of mosaicism in embryos diagnosed as full aneuploid by pre-implantation genetic testing. Our results present the first detailed analysis of post-implantation development of aneuploid human embryos.


Assuntos
Aneuploidia , Implantação do Embrião/genética , Embrião de Mamíferos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Antígenos CD/genética , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Adesão Celular , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Segregação de Cromossomos , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 21 , Feminino , Genes erbB-1/genética , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Monossomia , Mosaicismo , Gravidez , Células-Tronco , Trissomia
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4149, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811832

RESUMO

Many bacteria can form wall-deficient variants, or L-forms, that divide by a simple mechanism that does not require the FtsZ-based cell division machinery. Here, we use microfluidic systems to probe the growth, chromosome cycle and division mechanism of Bacillus subtilis L-forms. We find that forcing cells into a narrow linear configuration greatly improves the efficiency of cell growth and chromosome segregation. This reinforces the view that L-form division is driven by an excess accumulation of surface area over volume. Cell geometry also plays a dominant role in controlling the relative positions and movement of segregating chromosomes. Furthermore, the presence of the nucleoid appears to influence division both via a cell volume effect and by nucleoid occlusion, even in the absence of FtsZ. Our results emphasise the importance of geometric effects for a range of crucial cell functions, and are of relevance for efforts to develop artificial or minimal cell systems.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Divisão Celular/fisiologia , Segregação de Cromossomos/fisiologia , Formas L/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip/microbiologia , Bacillus subtilis/citologia , Bacillus subtilis/fisiologia , Parede Celular/fisiologia , Cromossomos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Cromossomos Bacterianos/fisiologia , Formas L/citologia , Formas L/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos
10.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000817, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813728

RESUMO

During meiosis, chromosomes adopt a specialized organization involving assembly of a cohesin-based axis along their lengths, with DNA loops emanating from this axis. We applied novel, quantitative, and widely applicable cytogenetic strategies to elucidate the molecular bases of this organization using Caenorhabditis elegans. Analyses of wild-type (WT) chromosomes and de novo circular minichromosomes revealed that meiosis-specific HORMA-domain proteins assemble into cohorts in defined numbers and co-organize the axis together with 2 functionally distinct cohesin complexes (REC-8 and COH-3/4) in defined stoichiometry. We further found that REC-8 cohesins, which load during S phase and mediate sister-chromatid cohesion, usually occur as individual complexes, supporting a model wherein sister cohesion is mediated locally by a single cohesin ring. REC-8 complexes are interspersed in an alternating pattern with cohorts of axis-organizing COH-3/4 complexes (averaging 3 per cohort), which are insufficient to confer cohesion but can bind to individual chromatids, suggesting a mechanism to enable formation of asymmetric sister-chromatid loops. Indeed, immunofluorescence/fluorescence in situ hybridization (immuno-FISH) assays demonstrate frequent asymmetry in genomic content between the loops formed on sister chromatids. We discuss how features of chromosome axis/loop architecture inferred from our data can help to explain enigmatic, yet essential, aspects of the meiotic program.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Cromátides/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Cromossomos/ultraestrutura , Meiose , Complexo Sinaptonêmico/ultraestrutura , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Cromátides/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Segregação de Cromossomos , Cromossomos/metabolismo , Análise Citogenética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Fase S/genética , Complexo Sinaptonêmico/metabolismo
11.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008962, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750047

RESUMO

Haspin, a highly conserved kinase in eukaryotes, has been shown to be responsible for phosphorylation of histone H3 at threonine 3 (H3T3ph) during mitosis, in mammals and yeast. Here we report that haspin is the kinase that phosphorylates H3T3 in Drosophila melanogaster and it is involved in sister chromatid cohesion during mitosis. Our data reveal that haspin also phosphorylates H3T3 in interphase. H3T3ph localizes in broad silenced domains at heterochromatin and lamin-enriched euchromatic regions. Loss of haspin compromises insulator activity in enhancer-blocking assays and triggers a decrease in nuclear size that is accompanied by changes in nuclear envelope morphology. We show that haspin is a suppressor of position-effect variegation involved in heterochromatin organization. Our results also demonstrate that haspin is necessary for pairing-sensitive silencing and it is required for robust Polycomb-dependent homeotic gene silencing. Haspin associates with the cohesin complex in interphase, mediates Pds5 binding to chromatin and cooperates with Pds5-cohesin to modify Polycomb-dependent homeotic transformations. Therefore, this study uncovers an unanticipated role for haspin kinase in genome organization of interphase cells and demonstrates that haspin is required for homeotic gene regulation.


Assuntos
Cromatina/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Mitose/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Centrômero/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Inativação Gênica , Heterocromatina/genética , Histonas/genética , Interfase/genética , Fosforilação , Proteínas do Grupo Polycomb/genética , Troca de Cromátide Irmã/genética , Treonina/genética
12.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008990, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810142

RESUMO

The kinetochore, a multi-protein complex assembled on centromeres, is essential to segregate chromosomes during cell division. Deficiencies in kinetochore function can lead to chromosomal instability and aneuploidy-a hallmark of cancer cells. Kinetochore function is controlled by recruitment of regulatory proteins, many of which have been documented, however their function often remains uncharacterized and many are yet to be identified. To identify candidates of kinetochore regulation we used a proteome-wide protein association strategy in budding yeast and detected many proteins that are involved in post-translational modifications such as kinases, phosphatases and histone modifiers. We focused on the Polo-like kinase, Cdc5, and interrogated which cellular components were sensitive to constitutive Cdc5 localization. The kinetochore is particularly sensitive to constitutive Cdc5 kinase activity. Targeting Cdc5 to different kinetochore subcomplexes produced diverse phenotypes, consistent with multiple distinct functions at the kinetochore. We show that targeting Cdc5 to the inner kinetochore, the constitutive centromere-associated network (CCAN), increases the levels of centromeric RNA via an SPT4 dependent mechanism.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Centrômero/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/genética , Anáfase/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Cinetocoros/metabolismo , Mitose/genética , Fenótipo , Fosforilação/genética , RNA/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236293, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760074

RESUMO

To divide replicated chromosomes equally between daughter cells, kinetochores must attach to microtubules emanating from opposite poles of the mitotic spindle (biorientation). An error correction mechanism facilitates this process by destabilizing erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Here we present a stochastic model of kinetochore-microtubule attachments, via an essential protein Ndc80 in budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using the model, we calculate the stochastic dynamics of a pair of sister kinetochores as they transition among different attachment states. First of all, we determine the kinase-to-phosphatase balance point that maximizes the probability of biorientation, while starting from an erroneous attachment state. We find that the balance point is sensitive to the rates of microtubule-Ndc80 dissociation and derive an approximate analytical formula that defines the balance point. Secondly, we determine the probability of transition from low-tension amphitelic to monotelic attachment and find that, despite this probability being approximately 33%, biorientation can be achieved with high probability. Thirdly, we calculate the contribution of the geometrical orientation of sister kinetochores to the probability of biorientation and show that, in the absence of geometrical orientation, the biorientation error rate is much larger than that observed in experiments. Finally, we study the coupling of the error correction mechanism to the spindle assembly checkpoint by calculating the average binding of checkpoint-related proteins to the kinetochore during the error correction process.


Assuntos
Segregação de Cromossomos , Cinetocoros/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Modelos Genéticos , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Pontos de Checagem da Fase M do Ciclo Celular/genética , Processos Estocásticos
14.
Mutat Res ; 785: 108320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800274

RESUMO

It is well established that maternal age is associated with a rapid decline in the production of healthy and high-quality oocytes resulting in reduced fertility in women older than 35 years of age. In particular, chromosome segregation errors during meiotic divisions are increasingly common and lead to the production of oocytes with an incorrect number of chromosomes, a condition known as aneuploidy. When an aneuploid oocyte is fertilized by a sperm it gives rise to an aneuploid embryo that, except in rare situations, will result in a spontaneous abortion. As females advance in age, they are at higher risk of infertility, miscarriage, or having a pregnancy affected by congenital birth defects such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21), Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18), and Turner syndrome (monosomy X). Here, we review the potential molecular mechanisms associated with increased chromosome segregation errors during meiosis as a function of maternal age. Our review shows that multiple exogenous and endogenous factors contribute to the age-related increase in oocyte aneuploidy. Specifically, the weight of evidence indicates that recombination failure, cohesin deterioration, spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) disregulation, abnormalities in post-translational modification of histones and tubulin, and mitochondrial dysfunction are the leading causes of oocyte aneuploidy associated with maternal aging. There is also growing evidence that dietary and other bioactive interventions may mitigate the effect of maternal aging on oocyte quality and oocyte aneuploidy, thereby improving fertility outcomes. Maternal age is a major concern for aneuploidy and genetic disorders in the offspring in the context of an increasing proportion of mothers having children at increasingly older ages. A better understanding of the mechanisms associated with maternal aging leading to aneuploidy and of intervention strategies that may mitigate these detrimental effects and reduce its occurrence are essential for preventing abnormal reproductive outcomes in the human population.


Assuntos
Aneuploidia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Idade Materna , Anormalidades Congênitas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Pontos de Checagem da Fase M do Ciclo Celular/genética , Meiose/genética , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Oócitos/fisiologia
15.
Mol Cell ; 79(6): 917-933.e9, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755595

RESUMO

Despite key roles in sister chromatid cohesion and chromosome organization, the mechanism by which cohesin rings are loaded onto DNA is still unknown. Here we combine biochemical approaches and cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) to visualize a cohesin loading intermediate in which DNA is locked between two gates that lead into the cohesin ring. Building on this structural framework, we design experiments to establish the order of events during cohesin loading. In an initial step, DNA traverses an N-terminal kleisin gate that is first opened upon ATP binding and then closed as the cohesin loader locks the DNA against the ATPase gate. ATP hydrolysis will lead to ATPase gate opening to complete DNA entry. Whether DNA loading is successful or results in loop extrusion might be dictated by a conserved kleisin N-terminal tail that guides the DNA through the kleisin gate. Our results establish the molecular basis for cohesin loading onto DNA.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/ultraestrutura , Cromátides/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/ultraestrutura , DNA/ultraestrutura , Troca de Cromátide Irmã/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Cromátides/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , DNA/genética , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Conformação Proteica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/ultraestrutura
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3393, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636388

RESUMO

Meiotic divisions in oocytes are extremely asymmetric and require pre- and post-anaphase-onset phases of spindle migration. The latter induces membrane protrusion that is moulded around the spindle thereby reducing cytoplasmic loss. Here, we find that depleting the NAD biosynthetic enzyme, nicotinamide phosphoribosyl-transferase (Nampt), in mouse oocytes results in markedly longer spindles and compromises asymmetry. By analysing spindle speed in live oocytes, we identify a striking and transient acceleration after anaphase-onset that is severely blunted following Nampt-depletion. Slow-moving midzones of elongated spindles induce cortical furrowing deep within the oocyte before protrusions can form, altogether resulting in larger oocyte fragments being cleaved off. Additionally, we find that Nampt-depletion lowers NAD and ATP levels and that reducing NAD using small molecule Nampt inhibitors also compromises asymmetry. These data show that rapid midzone displacement is critical for extreme asymmetry by delaying furrowing to enable protrusions to form and link metabolic status to asymmetric division.


Assuntos
Anáfase , Citocinas/metabolismo , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/metabolismo , Oócitos/citologia , Fuso Acromático , Actinas/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Ciclo Celular , Segregação de Cromossomos , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Feminino , Meiose , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal , NAD/química
17.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008900, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667955

RESUMO

In this study we performed a genotype-phenotype association analysis of meiotic stability in 10 autotetraploid Arabidopsis lyrata and A. lyrata/A. arenosa hybrid populations collected from the Wachau region and East Austrian Forealps. The aim was to determine the effect of eight meiosis genes under extreme selection upon adaptation to whole genome duplication. Individual plants were genotyped by high-throughput sequencing of the eight meiosis genes (ASY1, ASY3, PDS5b, PRD3, REC8, SMC3, ZYP1a/b) implicated in synaptonemal complex formation and phenotyped by assessing meiotic metaphase I chromosome configurations. Our results reveal that meiotic stability varied greatly (20-100%) between individual tetraploid plants and associated with segregation of a novel ASYNAPSIS3 (ASY3) allele derived from A. lyrata. The ASY3 allele that associates with meiotic stability possesses a putative in-frame tandem duplication (TD) of a serine-rich region upstream of the coiled-coil domain that appears to have arisen at sites of DNA microhomology. The frequency of multivalents observed in plants homozygous for the ASY3 TD haplotype was significantly lower than in plants heterozygous for ASY3 TD/ND (non-duplicated) haplotypes. The chiasma distribution was significantly altered in the stable plants compared to the unstable plants with a shift from proximal and interstitial to predominantly distal locations. The number of HEI10 foci at pachytene that mark class I crossovers was significantly reduced in a plant homozygous for ASY3 TD compared to a plant heterozygous for ASY3 ND/TD. Fifty-eight alleles of the 8 meiosis genes were identified from the 10 populations analysed, demonstrating dynamic population variability at these loci. Widespread chimerism between alleles originating from A. lyrata/A. arenosa and diploid/tetraploids indicates that this group of rapidly evolving genes may provide precise adaptive control over meiotic recombination in the tetraploids, the very process that gave rise to them.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Meiose/genética , Alelos , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pareamento Cromossômico/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Diploide , Tetraploidia
18.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008918, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730246

RESUMO

Holocentric chromosomes possess multiple kinetochores along their length rather than the single centromere typical of other chromosomes [1]. They have been described for the first time in cytogenetic experiments dating from 1935 and, since this first observation, the term holocentric chromosome has referred to chromosomes that: i. lack the primary constriction corresponding to centromere observed in monocentric chromosomes [2]; ii. possess multiple kinetochores dispersed along the chromosomal axis so that microtubules bind to chromosomes along their entire length and move broadside to the pole from the metaphase plate [3]. These chromosomes are also termed holokinetic, because, during cell division, chromatids move apart in parallel and do not form the classical V-shaped figures typical of monocentric chromosomes [4-6]. Holocentric chromosomes evolved several times during both animal and plant evolution and are currently reported in about eight hundred diverse species, including plants, insects, arachnids and nematodes [7,8]. As a consequence of their diffuse kinetochores, holocentric chromosomes may stabilize chromosomal fragments favouring karyotype rearrangements [9,10]. However, holocentric chromosome may also present limitations to crossing over causing a restriction of the number of chiasma in bivalents [11] and may cause a restructuring of meiotic divisions resulting in an inverted meiosis [12].


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Cinetocoros/ultraestrutura , Meiose/genética , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/citologia , Centrômero/genética , Centrômero/ultraestrutura , Cromátides/genética , Cromátides/ultraestrutura , Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , Cromossomos/ultraestrutura , Cariótipo , Plantas/genética
19.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008904, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730253

RESUMO

The conserved ATPase, PCH-2/TRIP13, is required during both the spindle checkpoint and meiotic prophase. However, its specific role in regulating meiotic homolog pairing, synapsis and recombination has been enigmatic. Here, we report that this enzyme is required to proofread meiotic homolog interactions. We generated a mutant version of PCH-2 in C. elegans that binds ATP but cannot hydrolyze it: pch-2E253Q. In vitro, this mutant can bind a known substrate but is unable to remodel it. This mutation results in some non-homologous synapsis and impaired crossover assurance. Surprisingly, worms with a null mutation in PCH-2's adapter protein, CMT-1, the ortholog of p31comet, localize PCH-2 to meiotic chromosomes, exhibit non-homologous synapsis and lose crossover assurance. The similarity in phenotypes between cmt-1 and pch-2E253Q mutants suggest that PCH-2 can bind its meiotic substrates in the absence of CMT-1, in contrast to its role during the spindle checkpoint, but requires its adapter to hydrolyze ATP and remodel them.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Meiose/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Trifosfato de Adenosina/genética , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Pareamento Cromossômico/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Fuso Acromático/genética
20.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 77(23): 4765-4785, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514588

RESUMO

In men with oligozoospermia, Robertsonian translocations (RobTs) are the most common type of autosomal aberrations. The most commonly occurring types are rob(13;14) and rob(14;21), and other types of RobTs are described as 'rare' cases. Based on molecular research, all RobTs can be broadly classified into Class 1 and Class 2. Class 1 translocations produce the same breakpoints within their RobT type, but Class 2 translocations are predicted to form during meiosis or mitosis through a variety of mechanisms, resulting in variation in the breakpoint locations. This review seeks to analyse the available data addressing the question of whether the molecular classification of RobTs into Classes 1 and 2 and/or the type of DD/GG/DG symmetry of the involved chromosomes is reflected in the efficiency of spermatogenesis. The lowest frequency value calculated for the rate of alternate segregants was found for rob(13;15) carriers (Class 2, symmetry DD) and the highest for rob(13;21) carriers (Class 2, DG symmetry). The aneuploidy values for the rare RobT (Class 2) and common rob(14;21) (Class 1) groups together exhibited similarities while differing from those for the common rob(13;14) (Class 1) group. Considering the division of RobT carriers into those with normozoospermia and those with oligoasthenozoospermia, it was found that the number of carriers with elevated levels of aneuploidy was unexpectedly quite similar and high (approx. 70%) in the two subgroups. The reason(s) that the same RobT does not always show a similar destructive effect on fertility was also pointed out.


Assuntos
Cromossomos/genética , Heterozigoto , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Translocação Genética , Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Meiose/genética
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