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1.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227871, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978070

RESUMO

Shanghai has experienced rapid urbanization and has a serious housing aging problem. The situation of urban housing safety management needs to be strengthened. However, in China, housing safety management (HSM) is just in its beginning stage and it lacks thorough research. Housing safety awareness is one of the most significant aspects of housing safety management. Therefore, in order to investigate the housing safety awareness of Shanghai residents, this paper investigates the safety attitudes of residents living in housing of different ages using consulting questionnaires and Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. The results show that in Shanghai, the residents lack an understanding of housing management law, policy, and awareness of safety use and have low willingness to buy commercial insurance. Based on these results, the factors that affect the safety awareness of Shanghai residents are summarized as follows: (1) asymmetric information; (2) assessment of the safety status of the premises; and (3) differences in house users.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Conscientização , Habitação , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
2.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105326, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675667

RESUMO

Numerous studies have previously used a variety of count-data models to investigate factors that affect the number of crashes over a certain period of time on roadway segments. Unlike past studies which deal with crash frequency, this study views the crash rates directly as a continuous variable left-censored at zero and explores the application of an alternate approach based on tobit regression. To thoroughly investigate the factors affecting freeway crash rates and the potentially temporal instability in the effects of crash factors involving traffic volume, freeway geometries and pavement conditions, a classic uncorrelated random parameters tobit (URPT) model and a correlated random parameters tobit (CRPT) model were estimated, along with a conventional fixed parameters tobit (FPT) model. The analysis revealed a large number of safety factors, including several appealing and interesting factors rarely studied in the past, such as the safety effects of climbing lanes and distance along composite descending grade. The results also showed that the CRPT model was not only able to reflect the heterogeneous effects of various factors, but also able to estimate the underlying interactions among unobserved characteristics, and therefore provide better statistical fit and offer more insights into factors contributing to freeway crashes than its model counterparts. Additionally, the results showed significant temporal instability in CRPT models across the studied time periods indicating that crash factors (including unobserved characteristics and the underlying interactions among them) and their effects on crash rates varied over time, and more attentions should be paid when interpreting crash data-analysis findings and making safety policies. The modeling technique in this study demonstrates the potential of CRPT model as an effective approach to gain new insights into safety factors, particularly when the heterogeneous effects of factors on safety are interactive. Additionally, findings from this study are also expected to assist in developing more effective countermeasures by better understanding the safety effects of factors associated with freeway design characteristics and pavement conditions.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambiente Construído/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Medição de Risco , Segurança/normas
3.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 19(1): 123, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The autoverification system for coagulation consists of a series of rules that allow normal data to be released without manual verification. With new advances in medical informatics, the laboratory information system (LIS) has growing potential for the autoverification, allowing rapid and accurate verification of clinical laboratory tests. The purpose of the study is to develop and evaluate a LIS-based autoverification system for validation and efficiency. METHODS: Autoverification decision rules, including quality control, analytical error flag, critical value, limited range check, delta check and logical check, as well as patient's historical information, were integrated into the LIS. Autoverification limited range was constructed based on 5 and 95% percentiles. The four most commonly used coagulation assays, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), and fibrinogen (FBG), were followed by the autoverification protocols. The validation was assessed by the autoverification passing rate, the true-positive cases, the true-negative cases, the false-positive cases, the false-negative cases, the sensitivity and the specificity; the efficiency was evaluated in the turnaround time (TAT). RESULTS: A total of 157,079 historical test results of coagulation profiles from January 2016 to December 2016 were collected to determine the distribution intervals. The autoverification passing rate was 77.11% (29,165/37,821) based on historical patient data. In the initial test of the autoverification version in June 2017, the overall autoverification passing rate for the whole sample was 78.75% (11,257/14,295), with 892 true-positive cases, 11,257 true-negative cases, 2146 false-positive cases, no false-negative cases, sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 83.99%. After formal implementation of the autoverification system for 6 months, 83,699 samples were assessed. The average overall autoverification passing rate for the whole sample was 78.86% and the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the passing rate was [78.25, 79.59%]. TAT was reduced from 126 min to 101 min, which was statistically significant (P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). CONCLUSIONS: The autoverification system for coagulation assays based on LIS can halt the samples with abnormal values for manual verification, guarantee medical safety, minimize the requirements for manual work, shorten TAT and raise working efficiency.


Assuntos
Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Sistemas de Informação em Laboratório Clínico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Aplicações da Informática Médica , Segurança , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea/normas , Sistemas de Informação em Laboratório Clínico/normas , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Humanos , Segurança/normas , Design de Software
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 2471418, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236403

RESUMO

Although the safety production level at small scale enterprises is important for business success, critical safety interactions among the enterprises, its employees, the public, and the government have not been explained well in the literature. To address this gap, a bottom-up method of agent-based modeling is applied here that includes these key stakeholders. The study illustrates how employee protection-oriented safety proactivity behaviors, including whistleblowing and public exposure, can impact the safety production level at small scale enterprises, which are also watched by the public and regulated by the government. The results confirm that protection-oriented safety proactivity behaviors have a significant impact on the safety production levels at small enterprises through the interactions among multiple agents. The model results are validated using an employee questionnaire. The recommendation is for employees to encourage protection-oriented safety proactivity behaviors to improve safety production levels and for the public and the government to provide additional safety support.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Segurança/normas , Análise de Sistemas , Comércio/normas , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot ; 26(3): 260-270, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185793

RESUMO

Road safety has emerged as a global concern, and bus stops are the major points of concern as they act as interfaces where pedestrians interact with transit vehicles. In order to achieve a safe and sustainable infrastructure at bus stops, it is necessary to assess safety level of bus stops and suggest safety improvement measures. The present work aims to investigate whether design and management deficiencies of bus stops have any effect on safety of passengers and pedestrians. It is also aimed to develop a pro-active approach for evaluating safety level of bus stops by identifying design and management deficiencies. The methodology includes (i) identification of unsafe acts and causal factors at bus stops, (ii) classification of causal factors under design and management deficiencies, (iii) estimation of weightage of causal factors, (iv) fuzzy evaluation of bus stops, (v) calculation of safety levels of bus stops, and (vi) validation of the methodology using crash data. While a combination of Fuzzy AHP and RIDIT analysis was used to estimate the weightage of causal factors, a fuzzy-scoring-based expert field investigation was carried out to assess design and management deficiencies of bus stops. The methodology was applied to evaluate the safety level of bus stops located along a major urban corridor in Kolkata, India.


Assuntos
Veículos Automotores , Segurança , Cidades , Planejamento Ambiental/normas , Humanos , Veículos Automotores/normas , Segurança/normas , Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Pediatrics ; 144(1)2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209160

RESUMO

The American Academy of Pediatrics has created recommendations for health appraisal and preparation of young people before participation in day, resident, or family camps and to guide health and safety practices at camp. These recommendations are intended for parents and families, primary health care providers, and camp administration and health center staff. Although camps have diverse environments, there are general guidelines that apply to all situations and specific recommendations that are appropriate under special conditions. This policy statement has been reviewed and is supported by the American Camp Association and Association of Camp Nursing.


Assuntos
Acampamento , Saúde da Criança , Segurança , Acampamento/psicologia , Acampamento/normas , Criança , Saúde da Criança/normas , Humanos , Poder Familiar , Enfermagem Pediátrica/normas , Pediatria/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Papel Profissional , Segurança/normas
7.
Health Hum Rights ; 21(1): 115-127, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239619

RESUMO

There is a dearth of research that aims to understand graduate students' lived experience of global health practice. Difficulties, distress, and trauma occur before and after these students' placement abroad, and they often increase when returning home. Moreover, few articles address the increased vulnerabilities faced by women, such as sexual violence and gender-based discrimination. We conducted a phenomenological study to understand the lived experience of Canadian and US women graduate students participating in global public health practice. Eight participants participated in 21 in-depth interviews, while 17 participants created 35 lived experience descriptions through a guided writing exercise. Our findings reveal participants' underlying discomfort with privilege while conducting fieldwork abroad, as well as depressive feelings once they return home. According to participants, while their global health fieldwork challenged previous ways of thinking and being, limited spaces and avenues for openly sharing these processes contributed to mental health challenges. Participants reported that these interviews were their first opportunity to fully share their global health experiences. Based on our analysis of these shared experiences, we argue that academic institutions participating in global health should provide appropriate and accessible resources, adequate financial compensation, safe spaces for authentic conversations, and time for processing experiences throughout the research cycle and especially in the months and years following fieldwork.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Prática de Saúde Pública , Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Canadá , Educação de Pós-Graduação , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Entrevistas como Assunto , Segurança/normas , Estados Unidos
9.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 87(2): 483-490, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electric shocks are common, and victims report difficulty in finding practitioners with knowledge of the injury. Medical Practitioners, especially in private practice, report lack of knowledge of the injury and lack of expertise in assessing and treating the injury. The authors are often requested to suggest investigation protocols, assessment protocols, and treatment protocols, and to provide educational information. METHODS: The international body establishing electrical standards on the effects of current on the body (International Electrotechnical Commission, Maintenance Team 4 (MT4) of Technical Committee 64 (TC64)) have established protocols for the factors which require documentation and reporting of the injury. This article provides a narrative approach to using these protocols in accord with the standards (IEC 60479). The level of evidence is Level III (US/Canada classification). TYPE: This article collects together and collates physical and medical aspects of investigating electric shocks, and summarizes those of importance, and which are potentially forgotten. The thoroughness of initial assessment is emphasized. SUBSTANCE: Summaries are set out to guide first attenders and emergency medical personnel as to findings and observations which must be recorded for later comprehensive medicolegal reporting and which are often overlooked. CONCLUSION: Wider teaching in the nature of electric shocks will enhance assessment of victims and thorough recording of pertinent information and thus will enhance later medicolegal reporting. Many such factors are initially overlooked and lead to inadequate reporting for forensic purposes.


Assuntos
Documentação/normas , Traumatismos por Eletricidade/etiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Segurança/normas , Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Documentação/métodos , Traumatismos por Eletricidade/diagnóstico , Traumatismos por Eletricidade/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos por Eletricidade/terapia , Humanos
10.
Accid Anal Prev ; 129: 55-65, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108237

RESUMO

The precision and bias of Safety Performance Functions (SPFs) heavily rely on the data upon which they are estimated. When local (spatially and temporally representative) data are not sufficiently available, the estimated parameters in SPFs are likely to be biased and inefficient. Estimating SPFs using Bayesian inference may moderate the effects of local data insufficiency in that local data can be combined with prior information obtained from other parts of the world to incorporate additional evidence into the SPFs. In past applications of Bayesian models, non-informative priors have routinely been used because incorporating prior information in SPFs is not straightforward. The previous few attempts to employ informative priors in estimating SPFs are mostly based on local prior knowledge and assuming normally distributed priors. Moreover, the unobserved heterogeneity in local data has not been taken into account. As such, the effects of globally derived informative priors on the precision and bias of locally developed SPFs are essentially unknown. This study aims to examine the effects of globally informative priors and their distribution types on the precision and bias of SPFs developed for Australian crash data. To formulate and develop global informative priors, the means and variances of parameter estimates from previous research were critically reviewed. Informative priors were generated using three methods: 1) distribution fitting, 2) endogenous specification of dispersion parameters, and 3) hypothetically increasing the strength of priors obtained from distribution fitting. In so doing, the mean effects of crash contributing factors across the world are significantly different than those same effects in Australia. A total of 25 Bayesian Random Parameters Negative Binomial SPFs were estimated for different types of informative priors across five sample sizes. The means and standard deviations of posterior parameter estimates as well as SPFs goodness of fit were compared between the models across different sample sizes. Globally informative prior for the dispersion parameter substantially increases the precision of a local estimate, even when the variance of local data likelihood is small. In comparison with the conventional use of Normal distribution, Logistic, Weibull and Lognormal distributions yield more accurate parameter estimates for average annual daily traffic, segment length and number of lanes, particularly when sample size is relatively small.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália , Teorema de Bayes , Viés , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos Estatísticos , Distribuição Normal , Segurança/normas , Tamanho da Amostra
11.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 20(2): 220-225, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety effectiveness of cable barrier systems installation on rural highway sections in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: Data on police-attended serious collisions (injury + fatality) on a number of rural highway sections in British Columbia, Canada, were used in the analysis. An empirical Bayes (EB) approach was employed to ensure that the evaluation results were reliable and to account for the regression to the mean artifact. Safety performance functions (SPFs) were developed using data collected at similar sites. For both median cable barrier (MCB) and roadside cable barrier (RCB) sections, the evaluation was undertaken using all serious collisions, truck serious collisions, and off-road serious collisions. RESULTS: For MCB sections, the evaluation results showed statistically significant reductions of 21.7, 53.8, and 34.8% in all serious collisions, truck serious collisions, and off-road left (ORL) combined with head-on (HO) serious collisions. For RCB sections, statistically significant reductions of 74.7, 100, and 100% were found in all serious collisions, truck serious collisions, and off-road right (ORR) serious collisions, respectively. The impact of the after period on the evaluation results was explored. It was found that the changes in safety become more stable using an after period of 2-5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Cable barriers were successful in reducing the frequency of serious collisions on provincial highways in British Columbia.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Planejamento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança/normas , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Teorema de Bayes , Colúmbia Britânica , Humanos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215152, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973920

RESUMO

Direct road mortality and the barrier effect of roads are typically identified as one of the greatest threats to wildlife. In addition, collisions with large mammals are also a threat to human safety and represent an economic cost to society. We documented and explored the effects of animal-vehicle crashes on human safety in São Paulo State, Brazil. We estimated the costs of these crashes to society, and we summarized the legal perspectives. On average, the Military Highway Police of São Paulo reported 2,611 animal-vehicle crashes per year (3.3% of total crashes), and 18.5% of these resulted in human injuries or fatalities. The total annual cost to society was estimated at R$ 56,550,642 (US $ 25,144,794). The average cost for an animal-vehicle crash, regardless of whether human injuries and fatalities occurred, was R$ 21,656 (US $ 9,629). The Brazilian legal system overwhelmingly (91.7% of the cases) holds the road administrator liable for animal-vehicle collisions, both with wild and domestic species. On average, road administrators spent R$ 2,463,380 (US $ 1,005,051) per year compensating victims. The logical conclusion is that the Brazilian legal system expects road administrators to keep animals, both wild and domestic species, off the road. We suggest an improved coordination between the laws that relate to animal-vehicle collisions and human safety, and the process for environmental licenses that focusses on reducing collisions with wildlife and providing habitat connectivity. In addition, we suggest better management practices, raising awareness and social change with regard to abandoned domesticated animals including horses, cattle, and dogs. This should ultimately result in a road system with improved human safety, reduced unnatural mortality for both domestic and wild animal species, safe crossing opportunities for wildlife, and reduced monetary costs to society.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/economia , Acidentes de Trânsito/legislação & jurisprudência , Animais Selvagens/lesões , Automóveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/economia , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Automóveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Ambiente Construído , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(3): 221-227, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess homeowners' intentions to make voluntary improvements to their homes following a warrant-of-fitness (WOF) assessment to highlight health and safety issues. METHODS: We recruited 83 homeowners, including nine landlords, in Taranaki, New Zealand, who agreed to have a WOF assessment carried out on their homes. We interviewed 40 of the homeowners to ascertain what improvements they planned to make, and barriers to improving their homes. RESULTS: Of the 83 properties, 76 (92%) failed the WOF. Of the 40 interview participants, 31 (76%) had addressed or planned to address at least one of the identified issues with the home. Participants were least likely to address identified issues with security stays on windows, and absence of ground vapour barrier. Reasons for not addressing identified issues included cost, and a belief that making the improvement would not benefit health and safety. CONCLUSIONS: Information about housing defects appears insufficient to encourage people to make improvements to their homes to meet a specified health and safety standard. Implications for public health: Better understanding of how particular housing defects pose a risk for health and safety, and provision of funding support in some cases, may encourage people to invest in safer, healthier homes.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental , Habitação/normas , Segurança/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Accid Anal Prev ; 128: 40-45, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959380

RESUMO

PROBLEM STATEMENT: In the U.S., a safety rating is assigned to each motor carrier based on data obtained from the Motor Carrier Management Information System (MCMIS) and an on-site investigation. While researchers have identified variables associated with the safety ratings, the specific direction of the relationships are not necessarily clear. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to identify those relationships involved in the safety ratings of interstate motor carriers, the largest users of the U.S. transportation network. METHOD: Bayesian networks are used to learn these relationships from data obtained from MCMIS for a 6-year period (2007-2012). RESULTS: Our study shows that safety rating assignment is a complex process with only a subset of the variables having statistically significant relationship with safety rating. They include driver out-of-service violations, weight violations, traffic violations, fleet size, total employed drivers, and passenger & general carrier indicators. APPLICATION: The findings have both immediate implications and long term benefits. The immediate implications relate to better identification of unsafe motor carriers, and the long term benefits pertain to policies and crash countermeasures that can enhance carrier safety.


Assuntos
Segurança/normas , Transportes/normas , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
15.
Pediatr Rev ; 40(4): 205-206, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936404
16.
Radiol Med ; 124(8): 721-727, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953314

RESUMO

The changes introduced with Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom will require European Member States adapt their regulations, procedures and equipment to the new high standards of radiation safety. These new requirements will have an impact, in particular, on the radiology community (including medical physics experts) and on industry. Relevant changes include new definitions, a new dose limit for the eye lens, non-medical imaging exposures, procedures in asymptomatic individuals, the use and regular review of diagnostic reference levels (including interventional procedures), dosimetric information in imaging systems and its transfer to the examination report, new requirements on responsibilities, the registry and analysis of accidental or unintended exposure and population dose evaluation (based on age and gender distribution). Furthermore, the Directive emphasises the need for justification of medical exposure (including asymptomatic individuals), introduces requirements concerning patient information and strengthens those for recording and reporting doses from radiological procedures, the use of diagnostic reference levels, the availability of dose-indicating devices and the improved role and support of the medical physics experts in imaging.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Exposição à Radiação/legislação & jurisprudência , Proteção Radiológica/legislação & jurisprudência , Doenças Assintomáticas , Emergências , União Europeia , Física Sanitária/legislação & jurisprudência , Física Sanitária/normas , Humanos , Cristalino/efeitos da radiação , Exposição Ocupacional/normas , Doses de Radiação , Exposição à Radiação/classificação , Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Exposição à Radiação/normas , Proteção Radiológica/instrumentação , Proteção Radiológica/normas , Radiologia/educação , Radiologia/instrumentação , Radiologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Radiologia/normas , Padrões de Referência , Segurança/legislação & jurisprudência , Segurança/normas
17.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 9(1): 50-55, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932390

RESUMO

The cost of playground-related injuries remains significant. Measures adopted to prevent such fractures or reduce their severity would translate into appreciable financial savings. Our study looks at the changes in playground-related extremity fracture epidemiology over the past decade after the implementation of latest playground standards. This is a retrospective case series approved by the local ethics board comparing the results of two descriptive studies; one conducted prior to the implementation of the Singapore Productivity and Standards Board Singapore Standards SS 457: 2007 and the other thereafter. The demographics have remained the same. The proportion of public playground injuries has fallen significantly from 89.6% to 76.3% (p < 0.05), whereas school playground injuries have risen from 5.9% to 18.0% (p < 0.05). Fractures related to monkey bars and the flying fox have shown a significant improvement, decreasing to 38.1% from 47.6% (p < 0.05) and 1% from 6.9% (p < 0.05), respectively. There has been a decrease of 33% in playground-related injuries. The total financial cost of sustaining one playground-related extremity fracture has generally increased by 50%. However, considering the 37.4% drop in surgeries, the actual overall costs to the healthcare system have essentially fallen. Safety standards have had a positive effect on playground safety in Singapore. There are now fewer and less severe playground-related extremity fractures.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Jogos e Brinquedos/lesões , Traumatismos do Braço/economia , Traumatismos do Braço/epidemiologia , Traumatismos do Braço/etiologia , Criança , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/economia , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Parques Recreativos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Segurança/economia , Segurança/normas , Instituições Acadêmicas , Singapura/epidemiologia
19.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(5): 484-487, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023410

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study explores the safety risk due to delayed detection of hazardous health conditions that would result from increasing the duration of U.S. first-class aeromedical certificates from 6 mo to 12 mo for pilots ages 40 yr old through 60 yr old.METHODS: All pilots who submitted a U.S. first-class application in 2014 with no electrocardiogram and with the previous exams 4.5 to 7.5 mo prior were selected from the FAA pilot medical database. Proportions of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) denial pathology codes and Aviation Medical Examiner (AME) deferrals were compared for these exams within and between age groups from 40 yr old through 75 yr old. The absolute incidence rates for delayed detection were calculated and relative incidence of these proportions was compared graphically.RESULTS: The relative risk between age groups for delayed identification of disqualifying medical conditions showed that the 56-60-yr-old group would be at about twice the risk as the 40-45-yr-old group. The absolute incidence for the 56-60-yr-old group was 0.46% for denial conditions and 0.60% for AME deferrals over 6 mo.DISCUSSION: Increasing FAA first-class medical certificate duration from 6 mo to 12 mo would put 56-60-yr-old pilots at double the currently accepted risk for delayed detection of significant medical conditions. The absolute risk for this 6-mo delayed identification for the 56-60-yr-old group would average 0.53%.Mills WD, DeJohn CA. Safety implications of 6-month vs. 1-year first-class aeromedical certificates. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(5):484-487.


Assuntos
Medicina Aeroespacial/organização & administração , Certificação/organização & administração , Pilotos/legislação & jurisprudência , Segurança/normas , Avaliação da Capacidade de Trabalho , Acidentes Aeronáuticos/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Medicina Aeroespacial/normas , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Aviação/legislação & jurisprudência , Aviação/estatística & dados numéricos , Certificação/normas , Diagnóstico Tardio/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exame Físico/normas , Exame Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Pilotos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010171

RESUMO

China's construction industry has experienced a long period of development and reform but compared to developed countries, safety on construction sites in China continues to present serious problems. Safety consciousness and safety citizenship behaviour are influential factors related to safety issues in the construction industry and may play a direct role in improving the safety of personnel on construction sites. However, recently no research has been focused on the relationship between safety consciousness and safety citizenship behaviour. Therefore, this paper aimed to investigate the relationship between safety consciousness and safety citizenship behaviour for personnel working on construction sites in China by using a questionnaire survey and statistical analysis, so that correlation between safety consciousness and safety citizenship can be demonstrated and effective measures suggested to improve the safety of construction workers in China, and perhaps in other countries as well.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Segurança/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/normas , Análise de Variância , China , Estado de Consciência , Pesquisa Empírica , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Modelos Lineares
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