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1.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-05-18. (OPS/FPL/HL/20-0006).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52156

RESUMO

Estas herramientas fueron concebidas por jóvenes y para jóvenes, con objeto de que sean utilizadas para cambiar el mundo por las redes de organizaciones dirigidas por jóvenes y organizaciones al servicio de los jóvenes. También son de utilidad para otros, incluidos los grupos de la sociedad civil, los departamentos del gobierno y todos los interesados en la salud y el bienestar de los adolescentes. La finalidad de este conjunto de herramientas es orientar el diseño, la ejecución y el seguimiento de una hoja de ruta de acción eficaz para la promoción, a fin de lograr cambios positivos referentes a políticas concretas, a efectos de mejorar la salud y el bienestar de los adolescentes. En los cinco capítulos se incluyen ejemplos y ejercicios que te ayudarán a ti y a las redes a las que perteneces a influir en los procesos nacionales de planificación de la salud. Una vez que leas los capítulos y hagas los ejercicios, dispondrás de toda la información y las herramientas necesarias para abogar eficazmente por la salud y el bienestar de los adolescentes de tu país y pedir al gobierno que rinda cuentas al respecto. El capítulo 1 prepara para emprender actividades que mejoren la salud y el bienestar de los adolescentes. El capítulo 2 explica cómo recopilar información sobre las políticas, las estrategias y los planes nacionales. El capítulo 3 indica cómo utilizar los compromisos mundiales a favor de la salud y el bienestar de los adolescentes. El capítulo 4 explica cómo elaborar una hoja de ruta de acción eficaz para la promoción. El capítulo 5 describe cómo examinar, modificar las estrategias y dar seguimiento a las medidas para lograr mejores resultados. A medida que avances en la lectura, es posible que ya tengas un buen conocimiento de muchos de los conceptos que figuran en los distintos capítulos. No dudes en consultar los recursos adicionales que se incluyen al final de cada capítulo para ampliar aún más tus conocimientos y tu comprensión. Al hacer los ejercicios, recuerda que han sido pensados para ayudarte a organizar tus pensamientos. No dudes en ser creativo, aprovecha tu entusiasmo por las cuestiones de salud y bienestar de los adolescentes. Las actividades de promoción pueden ir mucho más lejos cuando se piensa de forma innovadora.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Seguridade Social
2.
N Z Med J ; 133(1512): 76-84, 2020 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242181

RESUMO

Since the 1970s, neoliberalism has been the dominant economic and political philosophy among global institutions and some Western governments. Its three main strategies are: privatisation and competitive markets; reduced public expenditure on social services and infrastructure; and deregulation to enhance economic activity and ensure freedom of 'choice'. Generally, these measures have negatively affected the health and wellbeing of communities. In New Zealand, privatisation and competition led to income inequality and an unequal distribution of the 'determinants of health', a burden borne disproportionately by children, the poor, and by Maori and Pacific people. Limiting health expenditure led to inequalities in access to services with restructuring in the 1990s, subverting the service culture of the health system. Failure to regulate for the protection of citizens has undermined health and safety systems, the security of work and collective approaches to health improvement. There has been some retreat from neoliberalism in New Zealand, but we can do more to focus on 'upstream' health initiatives, to recognise that social investment, including adequate funding of services, returns benefits far in excess of any costs, and to make sure that social and cultural equity goals are achieved.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Política , Seguridade Social , Competição Econômica , Objetivos , Equidade em Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Privatização , Responsabilidade Social
4.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0226046, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045414

RESUMO

There is an increasingly growth of China's social security expenditure(SSE) during the past decade. Regarding to the great responsibility and impact on citizens' welfare and economic development, the efficiency of social security expenditure has inevitably become the focus of growing attention. Based on Chinese provincial panel data over the period 2007-2016, a three-stage DEA model was conducted and found that the efficiency level of 29 provinces/municipalities did not reach the efficiency frontier. Environmental factors and statistical noises have a significant impact on the efficiency of SSE, if environmental factors and statistical noises are not considered, the efficiency of SSE in China is likely to be underestimated. The regional differences in the efficiency of SSE were significant and ranked by descending order as follows: central region, eastern region and western region.


Assuntos
Eficiência Organizacional , Modelos Teóricos , Previdência Social/economia , Orçamentos , China , Cidades , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Marketing Social , Seguridade Social , Urbanização
5.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(3): 255-264, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959926

RESUMO

Health and social scientists have documented the hospital revolving-door problem, the concentration of crime, and long-term welfare dependence. Have these distinct fields identified the same citizens? Using administrative databases linked to 1.7 million New Zealanders, we quantified and monetized inequality in distributions of health and social problems and tested whether they aggregate within individuals. Marked inequality was observed: Gini coefficients equalled 0.96 for criminal convictions, 0.91 for public-hospital nights, 0.86 for welfare benefits, 0.74 for prescription-drug fills and 0.54 for injury-insurance claims. Marked aggregation was uncovered: a small population segment accounted for a disproportionate share of use-events and costs across multiple sectors. These findings were replicated in 2.3 million Danes. We then integrated the New Zealand databases with the four-decade-long Dunedin Study. The high-need/high-cost population segment experienced early-life factors that reduce workforce readiness, including low education and poor mental health. In midlife they reported low life satisfaction. Investing in young people's education and training potential could reduce health and social inequalities and enhance population wellbeing.


Assuntos
Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguridade Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Crime/economia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Prescrições de Medicamentos/economia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitais Públicos/economia , Humanos , Lactente , Seguro Saúde/economia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Seguridade Social/economia , Ferimentos e Lesões/economia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(1): e197, 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1094982

RESUMO

La inmunización, es un mecanismo de defensa que asegura la inmunidad humoral para prevenir enfermedades infantiles graves, y es responsabilidad de los padres. Objetivo: Se plantea indagar el conocimiento vaccinal, en madres con hijos menores de 5 años. Métodos: el estudio se orienta bajo el paradigma cualitativo, enfoque fenomenológico; Los participantes del estudio fueron madres que vacunaron a sus hijos en el centro de salud 20 de febrero, distrito 12D03 Quevedo-Mocache, Ecuador. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó el soware Atlas ti, vinculando 18 preguntas de reflexión. Resultados: Las categorías emergentes fueron: 1) Las vacunas son muy importantes y necesarias. 2. Vacunaron porque sus hijos crecen sanos y fuertes. 3. para algunas el vacunatorio es agradable y para otras no. 4. Algunas reciben buen trato y atención, otras no. 5. Es insuficiente la información sobre las vacunas. 6. Piden cambios de enfermeras y horarios. Conclusión: el conocimiento vaccinal de las madres, esdeterminante para la protección y la no propagación de enfermedades en sus hijos(AU)


Immunization is a defense mechanism that ensures humoral immunity to prevent serious childhood diseases, and is the responsibility of the parents. Objective: to investigate the vaccine knowledge in mothers with children under 5 years. Methods: the study is oriented under the qualitative paradigm, hermeneutic approach; e study participants were mothers who vaccinated their children in the health center February 20, district 12D03 Quevedo-Mocache, Ecuador. The Atlas ti soware was used to analyze the data, linking 18 reflection questions. Results: The emerging categories were: 1) Vaccines are very important and necessary. 2. They vaccinated because their children grow up healthy and strong. 3. For some the vaccine is nice and for others it is not. 4. Some receive good treatment and attention, others do not. 5. Insufficient information about vaccines. 6. Ask for changes of nurses and schedules. Conclusion: the vaccinal knowledge of the mothers, is decisive for the protection and non-propagation of diseases in their children(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Rotavirus/classificação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Vacinação/classificação , Vacinação/métodos , Programas de Imunização , Rotavirus/classificação , Seguridade Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Pré-Escolar , Fatores Sociológicos
7.
Recurso educacional aberto em Espanhol | CVSP - Argentina | ID: oer-3877

RESUMO

1º Jornada «Derecho a la Salud», organizada por el CVSP Nodo Argentina, la Sala de Derecho a la Salud del Colegio de Abogados de Córdoba y la Escuela de Salud Pública y Ambiente de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas–UNC. La misma se llevó a cabo el día 4 de diciembre del corriente año en el Salón Rojo de la Secretaría de Graduados en Ciencias de la Salud FCM-UNC. La jornada contó con la presencia de Profesionales de la Salud, Profesionales del Derecho, alumnos de postgrado de las Carreras de Ciencias Médicas, Derecho y Ciencias Sociales y público en general. Conferencia dictada por la Prof. Dra. Viviana Perracini. Directora de la Sala de Derecho a la Salud del Colegio de Abogados de Córdoba. Profesora Especialista en Salud UNC y US21


Assuntos
Sistemas de Saúde/economia , Seguridade Social/legislação & jurisprudência , Políticas Públicas de Saúde , Direito Sanitário
8.
Pap. psicol ; 40(3): 167-173, sept.-dic. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186990

RESUMO

La Psicología tiene un papel importante que desempeñar para ayudar a la sociedad a entender y a adaptarse al crecimiento de las amenazas del cambio climático. Las investigaciones psicológicas han explorado las percepciones de las personas y sus creencias sobre el cambio climático, desvelando algunos de los importantes factores que inhiben o promueven la consciencia. Igualmente, los investigadores han comenzado a explorar las repercusiones actuales y potenciales del cambio climático en el bienestar social, incluyendo tanto los impactos a corto plazo de los desastres naturales como los graduales, impactos del peligro a largo plazo y del clima menos predecibles. Adicionalmente a la amenaza de la salud mental, la evidencia pone de manifiesto que el cambio climático conllevará un incremento del suicidio y del conflicto social. La distribución de los impactos seguramente aumentará la injusticia social y la falta de equidad. Investigaciones sobre el cambio en el comportamiento sugieren formas de afrontar adaptaciones positivas y un comportamiento más sustentable. Para maximizar la efectividad de esos estudios, los psicólogos necesitan trabajar colaborativamente con otras personas de otras profesiones


Psychology has an important part to play in helping society understand and adapt to the growing threat of climate change. Psychological research has explored people's perceptions and beliefs about climate change, uncovering some of the important factors that inhibit or promote awareness. Researchers have also begun to explore the current and potential impacts of climate change on psychosocial wellbeing, including short-term impacts of natural disasters as well as more gradual, long-term impacts of a warming and less predictable climate. In addition to threatening mental health, evidence is accumulating that climate change may lead to increase suicide and social conflict. The distribution of impacts is certain to heighten social injustice and inequity. Research on behavioral change suggests ways of encouraging positive adaptations and more sustainable behavior. To maximize the effectiveness of their research, psychologists need to work collaboratively with people from other professions


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicologia Ambiental/métodos , Mudança Climática , Adaptação Psicológica , Mudança Social , Seguridade Social , Saúde Mental
9.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 66(12): 767-777, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875627

RESUMO

Objectives The aim of this study is to report on the health status of residents in supportive housing in urban areas of Japan, and to explore the differences in health conditions across different age groups within this population.Methods The participants were 341 residents who had newly been admitted to supportive housing managed by a nonprofit organization. We examined their admission records and documented their health conditions. Differences in health conditions across age groups were also explored.Results More than 90 percent of the participants were single men, aged 40 or older, and living on welfare. The main reasons for their utilization of supportive housing were the lack of accommodation after leaving a hospital or facility, decrease in physical function, and progression of dementia. A high proportion of participants under 40 years had an addiction problem, schizophrenia, intellectual disorders, or developmental disorders. Participants aged 40-59 years had high rates of lifestyle-related diseases in addition to mental illnesses. Furthermore, for those aged 60 years and older, the prevalence of geriatric syndromes such as dementia, hearing impairment, and visual impairment was high. Additionally, there was a high proportion of elderly participants whose health status was unknown when they were admitted to supportive housing.Conclusion Most residents who had been admitted to supportive housing in the urban areas of Japan had physical or mental illnesses, and their life and support needs varied by age group. These findings suggest that it may be necessary for residents living in urban supportive housing in Japan to receive not only increased medical and psychological care but also age group-specific care.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Pobreza , Habitação Popular , Seguridade Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
10.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 75(4): 265-269, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887732
11.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 923-934, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047679

RESUMO

Este artigo apresenta um trabalho que consistiu no levantamento quantitativo das publicações sobre a Agenda 2030 de Desenvolvimento Sustentável na América Latina, ou que foram escritas por autores afiliados às instituições da região, focando no tema saúde. Foram realizadas buscas em bancos de dados, para o período entre janeiro de 2009 e maio de 2017, e encontradas 127 publicações voltadas para o Objetivo de Desenvolvimento Sustentável 3 ­ Boa Saúde e Bem-Estar. A maior parcela dos resultados (92%) é constituída de artigos científicos que foram descritos segundo o ano e veículo de publicação, instituições de filiação dos autores e sua localização. Quase a metade das publicações (47%) foi feita sem a participação de organizações latino-americanas e em apenas 30% dos casos o primeiro autor pertence a uma organização latino-americana. Esse quadro se torna mais nítido quando se observa a concentração da produção latinoamericana em torno de organizações brasileiras: a produção científica sobre as resoluções da Agenda 2030 em relação à saúde ainda está ausente em grande parte do território latino-americano.


This article presents a work that consisted of a quantitative research about publications on Agenda 2030 on Sustainable Development in Latin America, or written by authors affiliated with institutions in the region, focusing on health. A search using databases on the subject for the period between January 2009 and May 2017 was made, and 127 publications focusing on Sustainable Development Goal 3 ­ Good Health and Well-Being. The majority (92%) of the publications were scientific articles and were described in relation to the year and vehicle of publication, authors' affiliation institutions and their location. Almost half of the publications (47%) were made without the participation of Latin American organizations and only 30% of cases have the first author who belongs to a Latin American organization. This picture becomes clearer when we see the concentration of Latin American production at Brazilian organizations: scientific production onAgenda 2030 regarding health is still absent in much of the Latin American territory.


Este artículo presenta un trabajo que ha consistido en el levantamiento cuantitativo de las publicaciones sobre la Agenda 2030 en América Latina o que fueron escritas por autores afiliados a instituciones de la región con el foco en salud. Se realizaron búsquedas en bancos de datos para el período entre 2009 y mayo de 2017. Se encontraron 127 publicaciones sobre el Objetivos de desarrollo sostenible 3 ­ Salud y Bienestar. Constituyen la mayoría (92%) artículos científicos que fueron descritos según el año y el vehículo de publicación, las instituciones de filiación de los autores y su ubicación. En casi la mitad de las publicaciones (47%) no hubo participación de organizaciones latinoamericanas y solamente en 30% de los casos el primer autor pertenece a una organización latinoamericana. Este cuadro es más nítido cuando observada la concentración de la producción latinoamericana en organizaciones brasileñas: La producción científica sobrela Agenda 2030 en el área de la salud todavía está ausente en gran parte de la América Latina.


Assuntos
Seguridade Social , Nível de Saúde , Comunicação Acadêmica , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Academias e Institutos , Atividades Científicas e Tecnológicas , Política de Saúde , América Latina
12.
J Law Med ; 26(4): 800-814, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682358

RESUMO

In 2017 and 2018 Australia almost implemented laws to require unemployed people to undertake mandatory drug testing and treatment. Debate about linking welfare with mandatory drug treatment suffers from the complexity and paucity of research specifically about the efficacy of mandatory welfare drug treatment. This allows the possibility for mandatory welfare drug treatment to remain on the political horizon. This article situates the Australian proposal to introduce mandatory drug treatment for the unemployed within the relevant research literature. It concludes that the literature shows there is little chance of efficacy if welfare is linked with mandatory drug treatment. Instead, cost ineffectiveness and perverse outcomes are more probable than treatment efficacy.


Assuntos
Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Austrália , Seguridade Social/legislação & jurisprudência
13.
J Law Med ; 26(4): 874-895, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682365

RESUMO

Internationally, profoundly disabled children have received growth attenuation treatment to allow their parents to continue to care for them as they mature into adulthood. This article considers how the Family Court of Australia might approach this topic. It assumes that parents wishing to attenuate the linear growth of their child require an order from the Family Court under its welfare jurisdiction. This assumption is made because of the parents' conflict of interests; the treatment's irreversible nature; and the fact that it is sought for non-Gillick competent children. This article highlights the view that there are concerns about how the Court, given its adversarial nature and current approach to medical decisions, will determine whether this treatment is in a child's best interests. It concludes that a federally funded interdisciplinary administrative panel is better positioned to assess and decide each application on a case-by-case basis.


Assuntos
Crianças com Deficiência , Seguridade Social/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Austrália , Criança , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Pais
14.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 17(1): 167, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze the collaboration and reporting quality of the systematic reviews of social welfare in the Campbell collaboration online library. METHODS: The Campbell collaboration online library was searched for systematic reviews of social welfare and the basic information extracted in order to assess the reporting quality of systematic reviews using a MOOSE checklist. BICOMS-2 and UCINET software were used to produce the social network, and Comprehensive Meta Analysis (Version 2) and STATA 13.0 were used to analyze the related data. RESULTS: Fifty-seven systematic reviews of social welfare were included. Twenty-eight items of the included social welfare systematic reviews were rated as complete (≥70%). There were significant differences between ≤2013 and ≥ 2014 in five items. These differences were as follows: research published by one organization or more than one organization in one item, more than three authors or less than four authors in two items, and one country or more than one country in six items. It's completed about researches with more than one organization, three authors or more than one country. Some items were found to have a low reporting rate of studies published before 2014, by one organization, with less than four authors or one country, respectively. The social network of authors and organizations showed good collaboration. CONCLUSIONS: Some items could be further improved with regard to the rate of reporting systematic reviews of social welfare in the Campbell collaboration online library. This could improve the overall quality of social welfare systematic reviews.


Assuntos
Seguridade Social , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Lista de Checagem , Humanos , Relações Interinstitucionais
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590288

RESUMO

The Philippine government is facing a burden of improving health and social services for both the growing elderly and young population. The extent of discussion on aging issues and concerns, however, is minimal at best. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the perceptions of unmet needs and to explore the coping mechanisms of senior citizens across local stakeholders in an urban area in the Philippines. In this qualitative study, we collected data using focus group discussions among senior citizens (n = 4) and health providers (n = 4) as well as in-depth interviews among local administrators (n = 7). We analyzed the data through thematic analysis using the social determinants of health as the theoretical framework. We used qualitative research software NVivo10® to track the coding and manage the data. Four major themes related to unmet needs emerged in the analyses: (1) financial security, (2) health care services, (3) age-friendly environment, and (4) family support. Senior citizens responded either positively or negatively to cope with the challenges associated with aging. The government must then revisit existing national policies to address their unmet needs. Actions should be taken to strengthen positive coping and modifying the negative coping mechanisms, with a particular focus on community and family interventions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Vida Independente , Idoso , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Filipinas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Seguridade Social
17.
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569400

RESUMO

Often enough, social welfare and private benefit do not align for quasi-public goods/services. The inter-basin water transfer (IBWT) project provides a vivid example of this. In this paper, following the game-theoretical approach, we derive an optimal Ramsey pricing scheme to resolve these conflicts. We try to compare traditional supply chain management models with an optimal Ramsey pricing scheme, with an enforcement of coordination among firms. Using simulation techniques, we compute numerical estimates under three regimes: a standard equilibrium decision framework, a coordination decision model and a coordinated Ramsey pricing scheme. Our results show the relative welfare impact of different settings, revealing that the optimal pricing scheme based on the two-part tariff structure cannot only improve social welfare, but also ensure a target profit for participating firms. Lastly, our findings have strong policy implications for the government with profit regulation and the control of water resources.


Assuntos
Custos e Análise de Custo , Tomada de Decisões , Recursos Hídricos , Abastecimento de Água , Teoria do Jogo , Seguridade Social
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4733, 2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628302

RESUMO

It has been argued that, when they are acutely hungry, people act in self-protective ways by keeping resources to themselves rather than sharing them. In four studies, using experimental, quasi-experimental, and correlational designs (total N = 795), we examine the effects of acute hunger on prosociality in a wide variety of non-interdependent tasks (e.g. dictator game) and interdependent tasks (e.g. public goods games). While our procedures successfully increase subjective hunger and decrease blood glucose, we do not find significant effects of hunger on prosociality. This is true for both decisions incentivized with money and with food. Meta-analysis across all tasks reveals a very small effect of hunger on prosociality in non-interdependent tasks (d = 0.108), and a non-significant effect in interdependent tasks (d = -0.076). In study five (N = 197), we show that, in stark contrast to our empirical findings, people hold strong lay theories that hunger undermines prosociality.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/métodos , Fome/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Seguridade Social/psicologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1334, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands as well as in other countries citizens take initiatives to provide or maintain services in the area of care and welfare. Citizens' initiatives (CI's) are organisations some of which have a formal structure while others are informally connected groups of citizens, that are established by a group of citizens with the aim to increase the health and welfare within their local community and that are not focused on making a profit. Although CI's have been around since at least the 1970's little research has been done on the phenomenon, with most of it consisting of case studies or qualitative exploratory research. To fill part of this gap in knowledge, we have studied the geographical variation in the presence of CI's in the Netherlands and tried to explain this variation. METHODS: Data on the presence of CI's were obtained by combining two existing inventories. We did an ecological regression analysis to test hypotheses about the relationship between the presence of CI's and the existence of a care vacuum, the capacity for self-organisation and models of action in local communities. RESULTS: We counted 452 CI's in care and welfare in the Netherlands in January 2016. Our results show a spatial concentration of care initiatives in urban areas in the Randstad cities in the west of the country and in rural areas in the south-east. The presence of CI's is only weakly associated with a care vacuum, but is related to indicators for the capacity of concerted action and models of action. CONCLUSION: There are by now a considerable number of CI's in the area of care and welfare in the Netherlands. Apparently, citizens take collective initiatives to provide services that are not, or no longer, available to the local community. The initiatives are concentrated in certain parts of the country. However, our theoretical model to explain this geographical pattern is only partially confirmed.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguridade Social , Cidades , Geografia , Humanos , Países Baixos
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