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Lancet Public Health ; 7(6): e515-e528, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660213


BACKGROUND: Lower incomes are associated with poorer mental health and wellbeing, but the extent to which income has a causal effect is debated. We aimed to synthesise evidence from studies measuring the impact of changes in individual and household income on mental health and wellbeing outcomes in working-age adults (aged 16-64 years). METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO, ASSIA, EconLit, and RePEc on Feb 5, 2020, for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quantitative non-randomised studies. We had no date limits for our search. We included English-language studies measuring effects of individual or household income change on any mental health or wellbeing outcome. We used Cochrane risk of bias (RoB) tools. We conducted three-level random-effects meta-analyses, and explored heterogeneity using meta-regression and stratified analyses. Synthesis without meta-analysis was based on effect direction. Critical RoB studies were excluded from primary analyses. Certainty of evidence was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020168379. FINDINGS: Of 16 521 citations screened, 136 were narratively synthesised (12·5% RCTs) and 86 meta-analysed. RoB was high: 30·1% were rated critical and 47·1% serious or high. A binary income increase lifting individuals out of poverty was associated with 0·13 SD improvement in mental health measures (95% CI 0·07 to 0·20; n=42 128; 18 studies), considerably larger than other income increases (0·01 SD improvement, 0·002 to 0·019; n=216 509, 14 studies). For wellbeing, increases out of poverty were associated with 0·38 SD improvement (0·09 to 0·66; n=101 350, 8 studies) versus 0·16 for other income increases (0·07 to 0·25; n=62 619, 11 studies). Income decreases from any source were associated with 0·21 SD worsening of mental health measures (-0·30 to -0·13; n=227 804, 11 studies). Effect sizes were larger in low-income and middle-income settings and in higher RoB studies. Heterogeneity was high (I2=79-87%). GRADE certainty was low or very low. INTERPRETATION: Income changes probably impact mental health, particularly where they move individuals out of poverty, although effect sizes are modest and certainty low. Effects are larger for wellbeing outcomes, and potentially for income losses. To best support population mental health, welfare policies need to reach the most socioeconomically disadvantaged. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, Medical Research Council, Chief Scientist Office, and European Research Council.

Renda , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Humanos , Pobreza , Seguridade Social/psicologia
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257469, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543292


The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have adverse effects on the economy through damage to migration and remittances. We use a unique monthly household panel dataset that covers the period both before and after the outbreak to examine the impacts of COVID-19 on a variety of household welfare outcomes in Tajikistan, where remittance inflows in recent years have exceeded a quarter of annual GDP. We provide several findings. First, after April 2020, the adverse effects of the pandemic on household welfare were significantly observed and were particularly pronounced in the second quarter of 2020. Second, in contrast to expectation, the pandemic had a sharp but only transitory effect on the stock of migrants working abroad in the spring. Some expected migrants were forced to remain in their home country during the border closures, while some incumbent migrants expecting to return were unable to do so and remained employed in their destination countries. Both departures and returns started to increase again from summer. Employment and remittances of the migrants quickly recovered to levels seen in previous years after a sharp decline in April and May. Third, regression analyses reveal that both migration and remittances have helped to mitigate the adverse economic outcomes at home during the "with-COVID-19" period, suggesting that they served as a form of insurance. Overall, the unfavorable effects of the COVID-19 pandemic were severe and temporary right after the outbreak, but households with migrants were more resilient against the pandemic.

COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Características da Família , Migração Humana , Pandemias , Resiliência Psicológica , Seguridade Social/psicologia , COVID-19/virologia , Emprego , Humanos , Análise de Regressão , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Tadjiquistão/epidemiologia
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252268, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081712


Stereotypes and stigma associated with living on welfare or a low income can be a psychological threat that hampers performance and undermines aspirations. Our paper explores the potential of a novel self-affirmation intervention to mitigate such adverse impacts. The intervention comprises a verbal self-affirmation exercise for applicants during their first meeting with a caseworker. We conduct a cluster-randomised trial among a sample of 174 applicants for social assistance benefits in a Social Services office in Maastricht, the Netherlands. We measure outcomes on feelings of self-worth, stress, societal belonging, job search behaviour self-efficacy and cognitive performance immediately after the meeting. In our full sample, the intervention has a negative impact on feelings of societal belonging, but no effect on other outcomes. Effects, however, vary by subgroups. Our treatment increases negative feelings of self-worth and negatively affects societal belonging, but also improves cognitive performance among the group that had paid work in the previous two years. By contrast, self-affirmation positively impacts job search behaviour self-efficacy and cognitive performance for individuals who face increased challenges to (re)integrate into the labour market, proxied by lower levels of education or social assistance receipt in the previous two years. Since our intervention gives rise to testing more than one null hypothesis, we control the false discovery rate using the Benjamini-Hochberg approach. Our findings are sobering. Effects only remain significant for negative feelings of self-worth and improved cognitive performance for one particular subgroup: individuals with paid work in the past two years. This suggests self-affirmation may have reminded them of the time they still had a job, hence creating a backlash effect on feelings of self-worth. At the same time, they may have felt a need to distinguish themselves from others on social assistance benefits resulting in better cognitive performance. These interpretations are consistent with theory and empirical evidence on social identity and self-categorisation. We discuss the implications of our results and outline avenues for future work.

Pobreza/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Estigma Social , Seguridade Social/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos
Scand J Occup Ther ; 28(3): 188-200, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774692


BACKGROUND: In a globalised world, with injustices and inequities, occupational therapists have a moral and ethical obligation to use their knowledge and skills to work at a collective level with groups, communities, and populations rather than focus solely on individualistic approaches. OBJECTIVES: To review the literature exploring the question: What do occupational therapists do in their everyday practice that could be characterised as having a collectivist orientation? METHOD: A scoping review with searches on Web of Science, Scopus and CINAHL databases with the keywords 'occupational therapy' AND collectiv*. RESULTS: 161 articles were found and after screening of abstracts and/or full text, 19 were included. Articles were published in English (13) and Portuguese (6), in 12 different journals and one book, from 1988 to 2018. They were categorised as focussing on: social welfare - collectivism (n = 2); collective occupations (n = 11); and collective oriented practices (n = 6). CONCLUSION: A clear definition of collectivist approaches in occupational therapy practice was not found. What was evident, however, was a focus on experiential accounts of working with groups of people and the methods and processes utilised. It is argued that occupational therapy needs to further develop knowledge and practices aimed at injustices grounded in a collectivist epistemology.

Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Direitos Humanos , Terapeutas Ocupacionais/psicologia , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Terapia Ocupacional/organização & administração , Terapia Ocupacional/psicologia , Seguridade Social/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Psychol Rep ; 124(4): 1824-1844, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854592


The current study explored the differences in the public's attitudes and emotions towards welfare recipients based on their race/ethnicity, birthplace, and veteran status. Participants read a mock news story created for the current study about a woman labeled as a "welfare queen" who was receiving assistance, but persuaded the reader to be sympathetic to her case. The mock news story varied based on the race/ethnicity, veteran status, and birthplace of the welfare recipient. Participants assessed the welfare recipient on various evaluative measures. A 4 (race/ethnicity: White/Black/Hispanic/Asian) × 2 (veteran status: veteran/not veteran) × 2 (country of origin: born in the US/not born in the US) between-subjects ANOVA was performed on the attitude and personality evaluations of the welfare recipient. The general pattern of results showed that welfare recipients were evaluated more positively when they were veterans, born in the United States, or were White or Asian. Conversely, the public evaluated the welfare recipient more negatively or held more aversive emotions towards them when they were Hispanic, Black, not born in the United States, or not a veteran. This research adds to the psychological literature and nonprofit sector by testing the persistence of stereotypes on the perception of individual welfare recipients.

Atitude , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , /estatística & dados numéricos , Seguridade Social/psicologia , Estereotipagem , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
Nurs Forum ; 56(1): 45-51, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964482


OBJECTIVES: A community engagement service-learning experience was planned to provide health services for the homeless during a local 1-day event. The objectives were to (a) determine the feasibility of a service-learning experience, and to (b) examine the effects on students' attitudes toward persons experiencing homelessness. METHODS: A quasi-experimental, institutional review board approved study, including health-related students enrolled in a local university or community college, was planned. The attitudes toward the homeless survey was administered before and after participation in the service-learning experience. Qualitative data were through student reflections of the experience. RESULTS: Participants (n = 106) completed a pre and post questionnaire and a self-reflection. A statistically significant t(26) = -2.2, p = .04 change in attitudes toward the homeless were found. Three themes were revealed from the reflections: inherent bias, individualized care, and the societal context of people experiencing homelessness. CONCLUSION: Both quantitative and qualitative findings may help students reflect on preconceived stereotypes; therefore, affecting their attitudes toward the homelessness.

Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Seguridade Social/psicologia , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Seguridade Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
Int J Aging Hum Dev ; 93(3): 881-903, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242974


Persons with dementia (PWD) benefit from participating in meaningful activities. This study's objective was to learn the characteristics of successful meaningful activities from community-based service providers who work with PWD. Six group interviews were performed with 15 unique professionals from an adult day service or community-based coordinated care program. These were supplemented by 100 hr of researcher immersion through weekly volunteering. Data were analyzed by a team, using qualitative content analysis. Participants reported successful activity content incorporated personalization; continuity and incremental challenges; and social engagement. Successful delivery of activities required managing necessary resources; involving informal (family/friend) caregivers; having a backup plan; monitoring time of day and energy levels; facilitating a domino effect; and ensuring safety. Outcomes of successful activities were experiencing fulfillment and purpose; overcoming challenges; and unexpected triggers. Research and practice recommendations include testing innovative, dynamic, and technology-enabled approaches to providing such activities.

Demência/terapia , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Adulto , Centros-Dia de Assistência à Saúde para Adultos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidadores/psicologia , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Demência/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Participação Social/psicologia , Seguridade Social/psicologia , Seguridade Social/estatística & dados numéricos
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 25(supl.1): e200753, 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286899


São tecidas neste texto algumas reflexões em torno das respostas que têm sido empreendidas pelos setores da saúde, previdência social e assistência social, que compõem a seguridade social no Brasil, tomando-se a sua centralidade, que deveria ser assumida para o enfrentamento da pandemia causada pelo SARS-Cov-2. Com essa leitura de contexto e com o pressuposto de uma ação profissional para a participação social com autonomia, partilham-se experiências de intervenção em Terapia Ocupacional Social com jovens que vivem em periferias urbanas e, certamente, pobres para o mercado/consumo, mas ricos de vida, na pandemia de Covid-19. O intuito foi produzir um cuidado que se coaduna com a proteção social e se direciona, na defesa do valor inegociável de cada vida e do seu pulsar, para a promoção de uma circulação emancipatória, questão agravada, mas anterior à pandemia e sempre presente entre esses jovens. (AU)

En este texto se tejen algunas reflexiones alrededor de las respuestas que han emprendido los sectores de la salud, previsión social y asistencia social que componen la seguridad social en Brasil, tomando su centralidad, que debería ser asumida para el enfrentamiento de la pandemia causada por el SARS-Cov-2. Con esa lectura de contexto y con el presupuesto de una acción profesional para la participación social con autonomía, se comparten las experiencias de intervención en Terapia Ocupacional Social con jóvenes que viven en periferias urbanas, ciertamente pobres para el mercado/consumo, pero ricos en vida, durante la pandemia de Covid-19. El objetivo fue producir un cuidado que se une con la protección social y se dirige, en la defensa del valor innegociable de cada vida y de su pulsación, hacia la promoción de una circulación emancipadora, cuestión agravada por la pandemia, pero anterior a ella, y siempre presente entre esos jóvenes. (AU)

This text elaborates some reflections regarding the responses that have been undertaken by the sectors: health, social security and social assistance, which make up social security in Brazil. It assumes its centrality, to face the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Considering this context and assuming a professional action for social participation with autonomy, we share experiences in Social Occupational Therapy with young people who live in urban peripheries, certainly poor for the market/consumption, but rich in life, in the Covid-19 pandemic. The aim was to produce care that is consistent with social protection and is directed, in defense of the non-negotiable value of each life and of its pulse, towards the promotion of an emancipatory circulation, an issue that existed prior to the pandemic, albeit now aggravated, and always present among this group of young people. (AU)

Humanos , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Seguridade Social/psicologia , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Proteção Social em Saúde , COVID-19 , Áreas de Pobreza , Vulnerabilidade Social
Psicol. soc. (Online) ; 33: e229301, 2021. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1346846


Resumo Este artigo buscou identificar as condições de trabalho de psicólogas(os) decorrentes da terceirização do trabalho na Política de Assistência Social. Participaram da pesquisa 12 profissionais que atuaram nos serviços socioassistenciais entre os anos de 2013 a 2017, em um município do interior do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de entrevistas e analisados a partir da Análise de Conteúdo. Entre os resultados identificou-se que a precarização do trabalho no Sistema Único da Assistência Social (SUAS) perpassa o processo de seleção, as formas diversas de contratos, seus decorrentes itens (carga horária, função, remuneração, Educação Permanente e encerramento) e o estabelecimento de relações baseadas no medo e intimidação. Tais informações refletem um processo de despotenciliazação das trabalhadoras, uma vez que elas são as principais ferramentas de trabalho desta política.

Resumen Este artículo buscó identificar las condiciones laborales de las psicólogas(os) derivadas de la subcontratación del trabajo en la Política de Asistencia Social. Doce profesionales que actuaron en servicios socio-asistenciales entre los años 2013 a 2017 participaron de la investigación, en una ciudad del interior de Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Los datos se obtuvieron a través de entrevistas y se analizaron mediante análisis de contenido. Entre los resultados, se identificó que el trabajo precario en el Sistema Único de Asistencia Social (SUAS) pasa por el proceso de selección; las diferentes modalidades de contratación, sus elementos resultantes (carga horaria, función, remuneración, Educación Permanente y cierre); el establecimiento de relaciones basadas en el miedo y la intimidación. Dicha información refleja un proceso de despotencialización de los trabajadores, ya que son las principales herramientas de trabajo de esta política.

Abstract This article sought to identify the working conditions of psychologists resulting from the Outsourcing in the Social Assistance Policy. The research was carried out with 12 professionals who worked on social assistance services between the years of 2013 and 2017 in a municipality in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The data were obtained through interviews and analyzed from Content Analysis. Among the results we identified: that the precariousness of the work in the Brazilian Unified Social Assistance System (SUAS) goes through the selection process, the various forms of contracts, their resulting items (workload, function, remuneration, Permanent Education and closing), and through the establishment of relationships based on fear and intimidation. Such information reflects a process of deprivation of the workers, since they are the main working tools of this policy.

Seguridade Social/psicologia , Serviço Social , Trabalho , Condições de Trabalho , Serviços Terceirizados , Psicologia , Carga de Trabalho , Medo
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255718


Service-learning (SL) is a pedagogical model focused on achieving curricular goals while providing a community service. Previous research suggests that SL might promote qualities such as self-esteem, motivation, problem-focused coping, decision-making, empathy, and communication, which are associated with a psychological construct known as students' Effective Personality (EP). These studies, however, did not specifically analyse the direct effects of SL on this construct. The aim of this study is to explicitly analyse the effect of SL on Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) students' EP using a mixed methods approach. The quantitative part of the approach followed a quasi-experimental design using the validated "Effective Personality Questionnaire for University Students", which includes four dimensions: "Academic self-efficacy", "Social self-realisation", "Self-esteem", and "Resolutive self-efficacy". A non-probabilistic sampling on a total of 181 PETE students was then carried out, with 98 participating in the experimental group (42 male, 56 female), and 83 in the control group (34 male, 49 female). The comparisons revealed significant improvements in the experimental group, especially in the social self-realisation and resolutive self-efficacy dimensions. These findings were complemented by a qualitative analysis of 12 students' semi-structured interviews. In conclusion, the study reported a positive influence of SL on the PETE students' EP, providing valuable design patterns for future SL implementations.

Aprendizagem , Personalidade , Seguridade Social , Estudantes , Capacitação de Professores , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Seguridade Social/psicologia , Seguridade Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Capacitação de Professores/estatística & dados numéricos
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242764, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259531


With the spread of COVID-19, more countries now recommend their citizens to wear facemasks in public. The uptake of facemasks, however, remains far from universal in countries where this practice lacks cultural roots. In this paper, we aim to identify the barriers to mask-wearing in Spain, a country with no mask-wearing culture. We conduct one of the first nationally representative surveys (n = 4,000) about this unprecedented public health emergency and identify the profile of citizens who are more resistant to face-masking: young, educated, unconcerned with being infected, and with an introverted personality. Our results further indicate a positive correlation between a social norm of mask-wearing and mask uptake and demonstrate that uptake of facemasks is especially high among the elderly living in localities where mask-wearing behavior is popular. These results are robust when controlling for respondents' demographics, time spent at home, and occupation fixed effects. Our findings can be useful for policymakers to devise effective programs for improving public compliance.

COVID-19/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Máscaras , Seguridade Social/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Medição de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
Nature ; 586(7828): 257-261, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968274


Psychological research shows that social comparison of individuals with peers or others shapes attitude formation1,2. Opportunities for such comparisons have increased with global inequality3,4; everyday experiences can make economic disparities more salient through signals of social class5,6. Here we show that, among individuals with a lower socioeconomic status, such local exposure to inequality drives support for the redistribution of wealth. We designed a placebo-controlled field experiment conducted in South African neighbourhoods in which individuals with a low socioeconomic status encountered real-world reminders of inequality through the randomized presence of a high-status car. Pedestrians were asked to sign a petition to increase taxes on wealthy individuals to help with the redistribution of wealth. We found an increase of eleven percentage points in the probability of signing the petition in the presence of inequality, when taking into account the experimental placebo effect. The placebo effect suppresses the probability that an individual signs the petition in general, which is consistent with evidence that upward social comparison reduces political efficacy4. Measures of economic inequality were constructed at the neighbourhood level and connected to a survey of individuals with a low socioeconomic status. We found that local exposure to inequality was positively associated with support for a tax on wealthy individuals to address economic disparities. Inequality seems to affect preferences for the redistribution of wealth through local exposure. However, our results indicate that inequality may also suppress participation; the political implications of our findings at regional or country-wide scales therefore remain uncertain.

Política , Classe Social , Seguridade Social/psicologia , Impostos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , África do Sul , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 20(2): 151-162, mayo-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-199095


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to adapt the Personal Meaning Profile-Brief (PMP-B) to the Spanish-speaking population and investigate its psychometric properties. The PMP-B is a 21-item instrument that assesses meaning in life through seven sources: relationship, intimacy, achievement, self-acceptance, self-transcendence, fair treatment, and religion. METHOD: Participants were 546 Spanish adults comprised of a community sample (n = 171) and university students (n = 375). The PMP-B, the Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale were administrated. RESULTS: The PMP-B showed a bifactor structure with one general factor and seven subfactors. Measurement invariance was found across age, gender, and samples. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were generally good. Older people showed higher PMP-B scores than younger people. The PMP-B scores, especially relational sources of meaning, were positively associated with psychological well-being and negatively related to psychological distress, mainly to depression. CONCLUSIONS: The validity evidence gathered in this study supports the reliable use of the PMP-B to measure meaning in life. The PMP-B can be a noteworthy contribution to the meaning-centered research

ANTECEDENTES/OBJETIVO: El objetivo de este estudio fue adaptar el Personal Meaning Profile-Brief (PMP-B) a la población hispanohablante e investigar sus propiedades psicométricas. El PMP-B es un instrumento de 21 ítems que mide el sentido en la vida a través de siete fuentes: relaciones, intimidad, logro, auto-aceptación, auto-transcendencia, trato justo y religión. MÉTODO: Los participantes fueron 546 adultos españoles: una muestra comunitaria (n = 171) y estudiantes universitarios (n = 375). El PMP-B, las Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being y la Depression Anxiety Stress Scale fueron administradas. RESULTADOS: El PMP-B mostró una estructura bifactorial con un factor general y siete subfactores. Se encontró invarianza de medida entre edades, género y muestras. La consistencia interna y la fiabilidad test-retest fueron buenas. Las personas de mayor edad mostraron puntuaciones más altas en el PMP-B que los más jóvenes. Las puntuaciones del PMP-B, especialmente las fuentes de sentido relacionales, se asociaron positivamente con el bienestar psicológico y negativamente con el malestar psicológico, principalmente con depresión. CONCLUSIONES: La evidencia de validez recogida en este estudio apoya el uso fiable del PMP-B para medir el sentido en la vida. El PMP-B puede suponer una valiosa contribución en la investigación sobre el sentido en la vida

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Seguridade Social/psicologia , Valor da Vida , Características Culturais , Psicometria , Tradução , Espanha
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 32(3): 352-358, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-199775


BACKGROUND: Previous literature has shown that personality is one of the most important predictors of Subjective Wellbeing. However, the mechanisms through which basic personality dispositions contribute to wellbeing have scarcely been explored. Therefore, in this study we examined the mediating role of Optimism in the relationship between the Big Five personality model (both factors and facets) and Subjective Wellbeing. Additionally, we assessed whether the results varied by sex. METHOD: A sample of 611 Spanish adolescents completed self-report measures of BFQ, LOT-R, and SHS. We conducted structural equation modeling to test the proposed mediating models. RESULTS: Optimism completely mediated the relationship between Extraversion and Emotional Stability factors and Subjective Wellbeing. Likewise, Optimism mediated the relationship between the personality facets Politeness, Perseverance, Emotion control, Impulse control, and Dynamism and Subjective Wellbeing. The findings were invariant by sex. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide help in identifying the possible mechanisms through which basic dispositions of personality contribute to wellbeing. These findings can be used to develop interventions that target the promotion of greater Subjective Wellbeing through Optimism, and thereby improve adolescents' adjustment

ANTECEDENTES: los resultados de la investigación previa han mostrado que uno de los principales predictores del bienestar subjetivo es la personalidad. Sin embargo, los mecanismos a través de los cuales ésta contribuye al bienestar subjetivo permanecen prácticamente inexplorados. Por ello, el presente estudio examinó el papel mediador de optimismo en la relación entre el modelo de los Cinco Grandes (factores y facetas) y el bienestar subjetivo. Además, exploró la invarianza por sexo de los resultados. MÉTODO: seiscientos once adolescentes españoles completaron los auto-informes BFQ, LOT-R y SHS. Se realizaron modelos de ecuaciones estructurales para explorar los modelos de mediación propuestos. RESULTADOS: optimismo medió totalmente la relación entre estabilidad emocional y extraversión y bienestar subjetivo. Además, también medió la relación entre las facetas de cordialidad, perseverancia, control de emociones, control de impulsos y dinamismo y bienestar subjetivo. Estos resultados fueron invariantes a través del sexo. CONCLUSIONES: estos resultados permiten identificar mecanismos a través de los cuales la personalidad contribuye al bienestar y pueden ser utilizados para el diseño y desarrollo de intervenciones dirigidas a promover un mayor bienestar a través del optimismo, mejorando así el ajuste del adolescente

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Seguridade Social/psicologia , Otimismo/psicologia , Personalidade , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
Soc Work ; 65(3): 225-234, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676667


Neoliberal political reasoning is remaking the state's democratic character and its governing rules to reflect those of the market. The most prominent legislative example, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, dictates work requirements, time limits, and monitoring and sanctioning of clients. Through such policies, the primary aims of government assistance changed from aiding needy citizens to transforming individuals into paid workers, regardless of continued poverty or care obligations. Although scholarship of related policy and governance tools has grown, less study has centered on understanding the historic events and ways in which race-based, gendered, and poverty narratives facilitated adoption of such austere policies. This article compares circumstances of African American and White mothers in the United States from the Revolutionary War to the postwelfare era. It describes what neoliberalism is, discusses the role of ideological discourses in policy and governance, presents the history and historical racialized portrayals of White and African American motherhood during this period, and analyzes the differential impact of ideological discourses using a lens of intersectionality. The conclusion discusses how discriminatory discourses subvert a democratic ethos for all and suggests ways for social workers to contest the impacts of neoliberalism.

Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Política , Seguridade Social/psicologia , /psicologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/história , Feminino , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Mães/história , Pobreza/psicologia , Pobreza/tendências , Assistência Pública/tendências , Racismo/psicologia , Racismo/tendências , Sexismo/psicologia , Sexismo/tendências , Seguridade Social/tendências , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1052, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669103


BACKGROUND: The pressing demands of work over the years have had a significant constraint on the family and social life of working adults. Moreover, failure to achieve a 'balance' between these domains of life may have an adverse effect on their health. This study investigated the relationship between work-life conflict and self-reported health among working adults in contemporary welfare countries in Europe. METHODS: Data from the 6th European Working Conditions Survey 2015 on 32,275 working adults from 30 countries in Europe were analysed. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between work-life balance and self-reported health among men and women. We further used a 2 stage multi-level logistic regression to assess variations in self-reported health among welfare state regimes by gender. RESULTS: The results showed a strong association between work-life conflict and poor self-reported health among working adults in Europe (aOR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.93-2.23). However, the magnitude of the effect differed slightly by gender (men: aOR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.78-2.18 vs women: aOR = 2.23; 95% CI: 2.01-2.47). Furthermore, we found variations in the relationship between work-life conflict and poor self-reported health between welfare states regimes. The association was found to be weaker in the Nordic and Southern welfare states than the Liberal, Conservative, and Central Eastern European welfare states. Although the associations were more consistent among men than women in the Conservative welfare states regime, we found higher associations for women than men in the Southern, Nordic, Liberal, and Central Eastern European welfare states. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of some variations in the association between work-life conflict and poor self-reported health among men and women across welfare states regimes in Europe. The results demonstrate the need for governments, organizations and policymakers to provide conducive working conditions and social policies for working adults to deal with competing demands from work and family activities.

Nível de Saúde , Política , Fatores Sexuais , Seguridade Social/psicologia , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida , Adulto , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
Child Abuse Negl ; 107: 104625, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682143


BACKGROUND: Homelessness is a risk factor for family involvement with child welfare services (CWS). Housing interventions are promising-but reasons for this are not well understood, and housing resources could be better targeted to families at risk of increased CWS involvement. OBJECTIVE: We sought to better understand the relationship between homelessness and CWS involvement and examine whether homeless shelter data could combine with CWS data to enhance intervention targeting. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: For 4 years, we followed 2063 families investigated by the San Francisco Human Services Agency in 2011. METHODS: Matching CWS data to homeless shelter data, we fit Cox models to examine the relationship between shelter use and subsequent CWS outcomes and produced ROC curves to judge model accuracy with and without shelter information. RESULTS: Absent CWS covariates (family demographics, CWS history, and family safety and risk), past shelter entry predicted repeat maltreatment referral (HR = 1.92, p < .001), in-home case opening (HR = 1.51, p < .05), and child removal (HR = 1.95, p < .01), but not child reunification. With CWS covariates, past shelter use no longer predicted case opening and child removal, but still predicted referral (HR = 1.58, p < .01). Shelter data did not contribute to models' predictive accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: We find mixed evidence that shelter use independently leads to CWS involvement. Housing interventions might help by addressing present housing problems and family experiences correlated with past shelter use. However, we find no evidence that data matches with shelter systems could enhance targeting.

Serviços de Proteção Infantil/métodos , Serviços de Proteção Infantil/tendências , Família/psicologia , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Habitação/tendências , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Problemas Sociais/psicologia , Problemas Sociais/tendências , Seguridade Social/psicologia , Seguridade Social/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários
Matern Child Health J ; 24(Suppl 2): 214-223, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500292


PURPOSE: Considerable attention has been given to the sustainability of adolescent health programs as federal funds have become limited. This article describes important steps and lessons learned in seeking buy-in from stakeholders to promote sustainability and secure non-federal funds to maintain the Minnesota Student Parent Support Initiative (MSPSI) after federal funding ended. DESCRIPTION: MSPSI was established in 2010 to address the academic and health needs of expectant and parenting postsecondary students. MSPSI provided coordinated case management and referrals to health, education, and social services for expectant and parenting adolescents, as well as for their children, through Student Parent Centers (SPCs). Six important actions sustained the SPCs after the Office of Population Affairs (OPA) grant funds ended in November 2017: (1) preparing and planning for sustainability, (2) creating and engaging a sustainability committee, (3) assessing sustainability needs and creating a sustainability plan, (4) creating a data system to collect relevant data, (5) building capacity to support communication with decision makers, and (6) sharing data and success stories. ASSESSMENT: The implementation of the sustainability plan resulted in ongoing communications and data sharing with key partners that helped secure additional funds for continuing the program after OPA funding ended. CONCLUSION: Implementing the MSPSI sustainability plan developed from OPA's sustainability framework was effective in sustaining the SPCs after federal funding ended. The sustainability planning, the ability to secure funds, the attempt at passing legislation, and the lessons shared in this article provide valuable guidance to organizations seeking strategies to sustain adolescent health programs.

Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Fortalecimento Institucional/métodos , Fortalecimento Institucional/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Minnesota , Poder Familiar/tendências , Apoio Social , Seguridade Social/psicologia , Seguridade Social/tendências , Estudantes/psicologia
Health Soc Care Community ; 28(5): 1535-1543, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166862


Loneliness is a global public health concern linked to a range of negative health outcomes (Cacioppo & Cacioppo, 2018. The Lancet. 391(10119), 426). Internationally, this has led to the development of a number of interventions, but these are rarely implemented or evaluated on a large scale. This paper is one of the first of its kind to describe elements of an evaluation of a large-scale national social prescribing scheme to reduce loneliness, deploying individual link workers to signpost people to community activities. Reporting on findings from interviews with staff (n = 25 of which 6 were repeat interviews) and volunteers (n = 9) between October 2017 and December 2018 in localities across the United Kingdom. We reflect on the complexities of the link worker role, the challenges of service delivery and the importance of community infrastructure. There was evidence that highly skilled link workers who had developed positive relationships with providers and service-users were key to the success of the intervention. As well as providing an effective liaison and signposting function, successful link workers tailored the national programme to local need to proactively address specific gaps in existing service provision. For social prescribing services to be successful and sustainable, commissioners must consider additional funding of community infrastructure.

Solidão/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Apoio Social , Seguridade Social/psicologia , Serviço Social/métodos , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Meio Social , Reino Unido
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 74(3): 211-218, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915239


BACKGROUND: Over the past several decades, governments have enacted far-reaching reforms aimed at reducing the generosity and coverage of welfare benefits. Prior literature suggests that these policy measures may have deleterious effects on the health of populations. In this study, we evaluate the impact of one of the largest welfare reforms in recent history-the 2005 Hartz IV reform in Germany-with a focus on estimating its effect on the health of the unemployed. METHODS: We employed a quasi-experimental difference-in-differences (DID) design using population-based data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study, covering the period between 1994 and 2016. We applied DID linear probability modelling to examine the association between the Hartz IV reform and poor self-rated health, adjusting for a range of demographic and socioeconomic confounders. RESULTS: The Hartz IV reform was associated with a 3.6 (95% CI 0.9 to 6.2) percentage point increase in the prevalence of poor self-rated health among unemployed persons affected by the reform relative to similar but unaffected controls. This negative association appeared immediately following the implementation of the reform and has persisted over time. CONCLUSION: Governments in numerous European and North American jurisdictions have introduced measures to further diminish the generosity and coverage of welfare benefits. In line with growing concerns over the potential consequences of austerity and associated policy measures, our findings suggest that these reform efforts pose a threat to the health of socioeconomically disadvantaged populations.

Nível de Saúde , Seguridade Social , Desemprego , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha , Saúde , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seguridade Social/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Desemprego/psicologia