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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2024398, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156347

RESUMO

Importance: Reducing out-of-pocket costs is associated with improved patterns of contraception use. It is unknown whether reducing out-of-pocket costs is associated with fewer births. Objective: To evaluate changes in birth rates by income level among commercially insured women before (2008-2013) and after (2014-2018) the elimination of cost sharing for contraception under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from Clinformatics Data Mart database from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2018, for women aged 15 to 45 years who were enrolled in an employer-based health plan and had pregnancy benefits for at least 1 year. Women without household income information and women with evidence of having undergone a hysterectomy were excluded. Exposure: Section 2713 of the ACA. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the proportion of reproductive-aged women with a live birth by year (measured yearly from 2008 to 2018 [11 time points]) within 3 income categories. The secondary outcome was the distribution of contraceptive method fills in 3 categories by year: (1) most effective methods (long-acting reversible contraception or sterilization), (2) moderately effective methods (pill, patch, ring, and injectable), and (3) no prescription or surgical method. Results: The analytic sample included 4 590 989 women (mean [SD] age; 30.8 [9.1] years in 2013; 3 069 053 White [66.9%]) enrolled in 47 721 health plans. A total of 500 898 participants (40.8%) resided in households with incomes less than 400% of the federal poverty level in 2013. In all 3 years (2008, 2013, and 2018), women in the lowest income category were younger than women in the other income groups (median range, 21-22 years vs 30-34 years) and in households with a higher median number of dependents (9-10 vs 2-4). There was an associated decrease in births in all income groups in the period after the elimination of out-of-pocket costs. The estimated probability of birth decreased most precipitously among women in the lowest income group from 8.0% (95% CI, 7.4%-8.5%) in 2014 to 6.2% (95% CI, 5.7%-6.7%) in 2018, representing a 22.2% decrease (P < .001). The estimated probability decreased in the middle income group by 9.4%, from 6.4% (95% CI, 6.3%-6.4%) to 5.8% (95% CI, 5.7%-5.8%) (P < .001), and in the highest income group by 1.8%, from 5.6% (95% CI, 5.6%-5.7%) to 5.5% (95% CI, 5.4%-5.5%) (P < .001) in the period after the elimination of cost sharing. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, the elimination of cost sharing for contraception under the ACA was associated with improvements in contraceptive method prescription fills and a decrease in births among commercially insured women. Women with low income had more precipitous decreases than women with higher income, suggesting that enhanced access to contraception may address well-documented income-related disparities in unintended birth rates.


Assuntos
Coeficiente de Natalidade/tendências , Anticoncepção/economia , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro/legislação & jurisprudência , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepção/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Renda/classificação , Renda/tendências , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Seguro Saúde/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(6): 721e-730e, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implementation of payment reform for breast reconstruction following mastectomy demands a comprehensive understanding of costs related to the complex process of reconstruction. Bundled payments for services to women with breast cancer may profoundly impact reimbursement and access to breast reconstruction. The authors' objectives were to determine the contribution of cancer therapies, comorbidities, revisions, and complications to costs following immediate reconstruction and the optimal duration of episodes to incentivize cost containment for bundled payment models. METHODS: The cohort was composed of women who underwent immediate breast reconstruction between 2009 and 2016 from the MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database. Continuous enrollment for 3 months before and 24 months after reconstruction was required. Total costs were calculated within predefined episodes (30 days, 90 days, 1 year, and 2 years). Multivariable models assessed predictors of costs. RESULTS: Among 15,377 women in the analytic cohort, 11,592 (75 percent) underwent tissue expander, 1279 (8 percent) underwent direct-to-implant, and 2506 (16 percent) underwent autologous reconstruction. Adjuvant therapies increased costs at 1 year [tissue expander, $39,978 (p < 0.001); direct-to-implant, $34,365 (p < 0.001); and autologous, $29,226 (p < 0.001)]. At 1 year, most patients had undergone tissue expander exchange (76 percent) and revisions (81 percent), and a majority of complications had occurred (87 percent). Comorbidities, revisions, and complications increased costs for all episode scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: Episode-based bundling should consider separate bundles for medical and surgical care with adjustment for procedure type, cancer therapies, and comorbidities to limit the adverse impact on access to reconstruction. The authors' findings suggest that a 1-year time horizon may optimally capture reconstruction events and complications.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Mamoplastia/economia , Mastectomia/efeitos adversos , Demandas Administrativas em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Demandas Administrativas em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Implantes de Mama/economia , Neoplasias da Mama , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mamoplastia/instrumentação , Mamoplastia/métodos , Mamoplastia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/economia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/transplante , Dispositivos para Expansão de Tecidos/economia , Transplante Autólogo/economia , Transplante Autólogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
3.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(5): 539e-547e, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reduction mammaplasty provides symptomatic relief to patients with macromastia. Insurance companies act as gatekeepers of health care by determining the medical necessity of surgical procedures, including reduction mammaplasty. The authors sought to evaluate insurance coverage and policy criteria for reduction mammaplasty. METHODS: The authors conducted a cross-sectional analysis of U.S. insurance policies on reduction mammaplasty. Insurance providers were selected based on their enrolment data and market share. The authors conducted telephone interviews and Web-based searches to identify the policies. Medical necessity criteria were abstracted from the publicly available policies that offered coverage. RESULTS: The authors reviewed 63 insurers. One in 10 insurers had no established policy for reduction mammaplasty. Of the 48 publicly available policies, shoulder pain and backache were the most common symptoms required for preapproval (98 percent and 98 percent). A minimum resection volume was requested by 88 percent of policies. One-third of policies (31 percent) offered a choice between removal of a minimum weight per breast or a volume based on body surface area. Over half of companies (54 percent) used body surface area calculations to predict minimum resection volume. Medical necessity that extended beyond national recommendations included trial of weight loss (23 percent) and nipple position (10 percent). CONCLUSIONS: Insurance policy criteria for reduction mammaplasty are discordant with current national recommendations and current clinical evidence. Many policies use outdated criteria that do not correlate with symptom relief and consequently limit access to reduction mammaplasty. Here, the authors propose a comprehensive guideline to maximize coverage of reduction mammaplasty.


Assuntos
Mama/anormalidades , Hipertrofia/cirurgia , Cobertura do Seguro/normas , Seguro Saúde/normas , Mamoplastia/economia , Políticas , Mama/cirurgia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Hipertrofia/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Mamoplastia/métodos , Mamoplastia/normas , Estados Unidos
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2018728, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001201

RESUMO

Importance: Medicaid expansion is associated with increased access to health services, increased quality of medical care delivered, and reduced mortality, but little is known about its association with use of long-term care. Objective: To examine the association of Medicaid expansion under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) with long-term care use among newly eligible low-income adults and among older adults whose eligibility did not change. Design, Setting, and Participants: This difference-in-difference cohort study used data from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of persons 50 years or older. Long-term care use from 2008 to 2012 was compared with use from 2014 to 2016 among low-income adults aged 50 to 64 years without Medicare coverage residing in states in which Medicaid coverage expanded in 2014 and those living in states without expansion. Low-income adults who were covered by Medicare and were ineligible for expanded Medicaid were also included in the analysis. Data were analyzed from January 15, 2018, to December 31, 2019. Exposures: Residence in a state with Medicaid expansion in 2014. Main Outcomes and Measures: Any home health care use or any nursing home use in 2014 or 2016. All estimates are weighted to account for the Health and Retirement Study sampling design. Results: Among the 891 individuals likely eligible for expanded Medicaid, the mean (SD) age was 55.2 (3.1) years; 534 (53.4%) were women, 482 (49.5%) were married, and 661 (45.9%) were White non-Hispanic. Before the ACA-funded Medicaid expansion, 0.4% (95% CI, -0.3% to 1.1%) in expansion states and 1.0% (95% CI, -0.1% to 2.2%) in nonexpansion states used nursing homes, and 1.9% (95% CI, 0.4%-3.4%) in expansion states and 7.1% (95% CI, 4.7%-9.5%) in nonexpansion states used any formal home care. The ACA-funded Medicaid expansion was associated with an increase of 4.4 percentage points (95% CI, 2.8-6.1 percentage points) in the probability of any long-term care use among low-income, middle-aged adults, with increases in home health use (3.8 percentage points; 95% CI, 2.0-5.6 percentage points) and in any nursing home use (2.1 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.9-3.3 percentage points). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, ACA-funded Medicaid expansion was associated with an increase in any long-term care use among newly eligible low-income, middle-aged adults, suggesting that the population covered by the Medicaid expansion may have had unmet long-term care needs before expansion.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Assistência de Longa Duração/economia , Medicaid/economia , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/economia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência de Longa Duração/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2015951, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048128

RESUMO

Importance: Surgical procedures can be performed in different settings, but the association between the operative setting and patient safety and cost to the patient and payer is unknown. Objective: To examine differences in complications, total payments, and out-of-pocket (OOP) spending for minor hand surgical procedures performed in office, ambulatory surgery center (ASC), and hospital outpatient department (HOPD) operative settings. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective, population-based cohort study was conducted using deidentified claims data from private employer-sponsored health insurance from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2017. Patients aged 18 years or older undergoing carpal tunnel release, trigger finger release, excision of wrist ganglion, and excision of small hand masses (N = 468 365) were included. Exposures: Operative setting, defined as procedures performed in the clinic setting, ASC, and HOPD. Main Outcomes and Measures: Complications during the 90-day postoperative period, total payments (total facility and payer reimbursement), and OOP spending. Results: Of the 468 365 patients, 296 378 women (63.3%) and 171 987 men (36.7%) underwent minor hand surgical procedures from 2009 to 2017, with 284 889 procedures (60.8%) performed in HOPDs, 158 659 procedures (33.9%) performed in ASCs, and 24 817 procedures (5.3%) performed in the office setting. Ninety-day complications occurred in 3.4% of procedures performed in HOPDs, 3.3% in ASCs, and 2.9% in office settings (P < .001). After controlling for patient characteristics, procedures performed outside of the office had higher odds of complications (HOPDs: odds ratio [OR], 1.32; 95% CI, 1.22-1.43; ASCs: OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.14-1.34). Compared with the office setting, procedures performed in HOPDs incurred an extra $1216 in total payments (95% CI, $1184-$1248) and $115 in OOP expenses (95% CI, $109-$121). Procedures performed in ASCs cost an additional $709 (95% CI, $676-$741) and $140 in OOP expenses (95% CI, $134-$146). Transitioning ASC and HOPD procedures to the office setting could have saved an estimated $6 million annually in OOP expenses during the study period. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that minor hand surgery performed in the office setting is safe and less costly compared with ambulatory and hospital-based operations. Shifting minor surgical procedures to the office setting may lead to substantial cost savings for payers and patients without compromising care quality.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/economia , Mãos/cirurgia , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Segurança do Paciente/economia , Centro Cirúrgico Hospitalar/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centro Cirúrgico Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240603, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119642

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the United States the percentage of Medicaid enrollees in some form of Medicaid managed care has increased more than seven-fold since 1990, e.g., up from 11% in 1991 to 82% in 2017. Yet little is known about whether and how this major change in Medicaid insurance affects how recipients use hospital emergency rooms. This study compares the performance of Medicaid health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and fee-for-service (FFS) Medicaid regarding the occurrence of potentially preventable emergency department (ED) use. METHODS: Using data from the 2003-2015 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), a nationally representative survey of the non-institutionalized US population, we estimated multivariable logistic regression models to examine the relationship between Medicaid HMO status and potentially preventable ED use. To accommodate the composition of the Medicaid population, we conducted separate repeated cross-sectional analyses for recipients insured through both Medicaid and Medicare (dual eligibles) and for those insured through Medicaid only (non-duals). We explicitly addressed the possibility of selection bias into HMOs in our models using propensity score weighting. RESULTS: We found that the type of Medicaid held by a recipient, i.e., whether an HMO or FFS coverage, was unrelated to the probability that an ED visit was potentially preventable. This finding emerged both among dual eligibles and among non-duals, and it occurred irrespective of the adopted analytical strategy. CONCLUSIONS: Within the U.S. Medicaid program, Medicaid HMO and FFS enrollees are indistinguishable in terms of the occurrence of potentially preventable ED use. Policymakers should consider this finding when evaluating the pros and cons of adopting Medicaid managed care.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Sistemas Pré-Pagos de Saúde/economia , Medicaid/economia , Medicare/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Masculino , Programas de Assistência Gerenciada/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1315, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In countries with health insurance systems, the number and size of insurance funds along with the amount of risk distribution among them are a major concern. One possible solution to overcome problems resulting from fragmentation is to combine risk pools to create a single pool. This study aimed to investigate the potential advantages and disadvantages of merging health insurance funds in Iran. METHODS: In this qualitative study, a purposeful sampling with maximum variation was used to obtain representativeness and rich data. To this end, sixty-seven face-to-face interviews were conducted. Moreover, a documentary review was used as a supplementary source of data collection. Content analysis using the 'framework method' was used to analyze the data. Four trustworthiness criteria, including credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability, were used to assure the quality of results. RESULTS: The potential consequences were grouped into seven categories, including stewardship, financing, population, benefit package, structure, operational procedures, and interaction with providers. According to the interviewees, controlling total health care expenditures; improving strategic purchasing; removing duplication in population coverage; centralizing the profile of providers in a single database; controlling the volume of provided health care services; making hospitals interact with single insurance with a single set of instructions for contracting, claiming review, and reimbursement; and reducing administrative costs were among the main benefits of merging health insurance funds. The interviewees enumerated the following drawbacks as well: the social security organization's unwillingness to collect insurance premiums from private workers actively as before; increased dissatisfaction among population groups enjoying a generous basic benefits package; risk of financial fraud and corruption due to gathering all premiums in a single bank; and risk of putting more financial pressure on providers in case of delay in reimbursement with a single-payer system. CONCLUSION: Merging health insurance schemes in Iran is influenced by a wide range of potential merits and drawbacks. Thus, to facilitate the process and lessen opponents' objection, policy makers should act as brokers by taking into account contextual factors and adopting tailored policies to respectively maximize and minimize the potential benefits and drawbacks of consolidation in Iran.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Seguro Saúde/organização & administração , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Previdência Social/organização & administração , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Formulação de Políticas , Previdência Social/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878066

RESUMO

On-the-spot settlements of medical bills for internal migrants enrolled with a social health insurance program outside of their residential location have been encouraged by the Chinese government, with the intention to improve equality in healthcare services. This study compared the use of health services between the internal migrants who had local health insurance coverage and those who did not. Data (n = 144,956) were obtained from the 2017 China Migrants Dynamic Survey. Use of health services was assessed by two indicators: visits to physicians when needed and registration (shown as health records) for essential public health services. Multi-level logistic regression models were established to estimate the effect size of fund location on the use of health services after controlling for variations in other variables. The respondents who enrolled with a social health insurance scheme locally were more likely to visit physicians when needed (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.06-1.30) and to have a health record (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.30-1.65) compared with those who enrolled outside of their residential location: a gap of 3.5 percentage points (95% CI: 1.3%-5.8%) and 6.1 percentage point (95% CI: 4.3%-7.8%), respectively. The gaps were larger in the rural-to-urban migrants than those in the urban-to-urban migrants (AOR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.93-1.48 for visiting physicians when needed; AOR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.54-0.93 for having a health record). The on-the-spot medical bill settlement system has yet to fully achieve its proposed potential as inequalities in both medical and public health services remain between the internal migrants with and without local health insurance coverage. Further studies are needed to investigate how on-the-spot settlements of medical bills are implemented through coordination across multiple insurance funds.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Seguro Saúde , Migrantes , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Administração Financeira , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239461, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970740

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of health insurances on catastrophic health expenditure (CHE), and compares that among different health insurances in the last two decades in China. METHODS: The systematic review was conducted according to the Cochrane Handbook and reported according to PRISMA. We searched English and Chinese literature databases including PubMed, EM base, web of science, CNKI, Wan fang, VIP and CBM (Sino Med) for empirical studies on the association between health insurance and CHE from January 2000 to June 2020. Study selection, data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted by two reviewers. The secular trend of CHE rate and comparisons between population with different health insurances were conducted using meta-analysis, subgroup analysis and meta-regression. RESULTS: A total of 4874 citations were obtained, and finally 30 eligible studies with 633917 participants were included. The overall CHE rate was 13.6% (95% CI: 13.1% - 14.0%) from Jan 2000 to June 2020, 12.8% (95% CI: 12.2% - 13.3%) for people with health insurance compared with 16.2% (95% CI:15.4% - 16.9%) for people without health insurance. For types of insurance, the CHE rate was 13.0% (95% CI: 12.4% - 13.6%) for people with new rural cooperative medical scheme (NCMS), 11.9% (95% CI: 9.3% - 14.5%) for urban employees health insurance (UEBMI), 12.0% (95% CI: 8.3% - 15.6%) for urban residents health insurance (URBMI), and 18.0% (95% CI: - 4.5% - 31.5%) for commercial insurance. However, the CHE rate in China has increased in the past 20 years, even adjusted for other factors. The CHE rate of people with NCMS has increased significantly more than people with UEBMI and URBMI. CONCLUSION: In the past 20 years, the basic health insurance plan has reduce the rate of CHE to a certain extent, but due to the rapid increase in medical costs and the release of health needs in recent years, it masks the role of health insurance. More efforts are needed to control unreasonable medical demand and rising costs.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/tendências , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Seguro Saúde/tendências , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Renda , Seguro Saúde/economia , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Rural/economia , População Rural , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde/economia , População Urbana
17.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 81(6)2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965804

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study used commercial claims data to examine the effects of ADHD and sex on the prevalence of depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts in a sample of young adult men and women (aged 18-25 years) with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Patterns of treatment use for these conditions was also explored. METHODS: Young adults with ADHD (162,263 women and 225,705 men) having at least 2 claims with the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), code for ADHD and a sex- and age-matched group of young adults without an ICD-9 code for ADHD (162,263 women and 225,705 men) were identified. The prevalence of ICD-9 depression and suicidal behavior along with the use and cost of related treatment were compared between young adults with and without ADHD using 2014 claims data. RESULTS: Compared to young adults without ADHD, young adults with ADHD were more frequently identified with depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. Depression and suicidal ideation were identified more frequently among women with ADHD compared to all other groups. Young adults with ADHD were more frequently engaged in outpatient and inpatient mental health care compared to young adults without ADHD (P < .0001 in each instance). Furthermore, overall costs of outpatient and inpatient care were greater among young adults with ADHD compared to young adults without ADHD (P < .0001 in each instance). CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the substantial burden of depression and suicidal behavior among young adults with ADHD, particularly women, and underlie the need for more research focused on mitigating risk for depression and suicidal behavior among both men and women with ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno Depressivo , Seguro Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/economia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Comorbidade , Transtorno Depressivo/economia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Mental/economia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Tentativa de Suicídio/economia , Tentativa de Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Public Health Rep ; 135(1_suppl): 75S-81S, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735184

RESUMO

Policies facilitating integration of public health programs can improve the public health response, but the literature on approaches to integration across multiple system levels is limited. We describe the efforts of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health to integrate its HIV, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted infection (STI), and tuberculosis response through policies that mandated contracted organizations to submit specimens for testing to the Massachusetts State Public Health Laboratory; co-test blood specimens for HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis; integrate HIV, viral hepatitis, and STI disease surveillance and case management in a single data system; and implement an integrated infectious disease drug assistance program. From 2014 through 2018, the number of tests performed by the Massachusetts State Public Health Laboratory increased from 16 321 to 33 674 for HIV, from 11 054 to 33 670 for HCV, and from 19 169 to 30 830 for syphilis. Service contracts enabled rapid response to outbreaks of HIV, hepatitis A, and hepatitis B. Key challenges included lack of a billing infrastructure at the Massachusetts State Public Health Laboratory; the need to complete negotiations with insurers and to establish a retained revenue account to receive health insurance reimbursements for testing services; and time to train testing providers in phlebotomy for required testing. Investing in laboratory infrastructure; creating billing mechanisms to maximize health insurance reimbursement; proactively engaging providers, community members, and other stakeholders; and building capacity to transform practices are needed. Using multilevel policy approaches to integrate the public health response to HIV, STI, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis is feasible and adaptable to other public health programs.


Assuntos
Serviços Contratados/organização & administração , Seguro Saúde/organização & administração , Administração em Saúde Pública/métodos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Serviços Contratados/economia , Serviços Contratados/normas , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hepatite/diagnóstico , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Seguro Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Seguro Saúde/normas , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde/economia , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde/normas , Relações Interinstitucionais , Massachusetts , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Administração em Saúde Pública/economia , Administração em Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Administração em Saúde Pública/normas , Sífilis/diagnóstico
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 809, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2003, China established a New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCMS) for rural residents to alleviate the burden of medical expenses among rural residents. However, its reimbursement for high medical costs was insufficient. Therefore, China gradually established the Serious Illness Insurance System (SIMIS) based on NRCMS. After receiving payment through NRCMS, patients in rural areas who met the requirements of SIMIS policy would receive a second payment for their high medical expenses. This study aimed to analyze the effect of the implementation of SIMIS on alleviating the economic burden of rural residents in Jinzhai County. METHODS: The study used the inpatient reimbursement data of NRCMS in Jinzhai County, Anhui Province, from 2013 to 2016. We adopted descriptive and regression discontinuity (RD) methods to analyze the payment effect of SIMIS. The RD analysis targeted patients (n = 7353) whose annual serious illness expenses were between CNY 10,000 (1414 USD) and CNY 30,000 (4242 USD), whereas the descriptive analysis was used for data of the patients compensated by SIMIS (n = 2720). RESULTS: The results of RD showed that the actual medical insurance payment proportion increased by about 2.5% (lwald = 0.025, P < 0.01), inside medical insurance self-payment proportion increased by about 2% (lwald = 0.020, P < 0.10), and outside medical insurance self-payment proportion decreased by about 1.6% (lwald = - 0.016, P < 0.05). The descriptive results showed that patients with serious illnesses mostly chose to go to a hospital outside the county. The annual average number of hospitalizations was 3.64. The reimbursement mainly came from the NRCMS. The payment amount of SIMIS was relatively small, and the out-of-pocket medical expenses were still high. CONCLUSION: The medical technology level of Jinzhai County could not meet the needs of patients with seriously illnesses, the number of beneficiaries of SIMIS was small, and the ability to relieve the burden of medical expenses of the rural residents was insufficient. The high out-of-pocket expenses increased the possibility that only people with good economic conditions could benefit from the reimbursement of SIMIS, resulting in inequity.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Seguro Saúde/economia , Saúde da População Rural/economia , China , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde , Custos Hospitalares , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , População Rural
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