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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17034, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046828

RESUMO

Documenting post-bleaching trajectories of coral reef communities is crucial to understand their resilience to climate change. We investigated reef community changes following the 2015/16 bleaching event at Aldabra Atoll, where direct human impact is minimal. We combined benthic data collected pre- (2014) and post-bleaching (2016-2019) at 12 sites across three locations (lagoon, 2 m depth; seaward west and east, 5 and 15 m depth) with water temperature measurements. While seaward reefs experienced relative hard coral reductions of 51-62%, lagoonal coral loss was lower (- 34%), probably due to three-fold higher daily water temperature variability there. Between 2016 and 2019, hard coral cover did not change on deep reefs which remained dominated by turf algae and Halimeda, but absolute cover on shallow reefs increased annually by 1.3% (east), 2.3% (west) and 3.0% (lagoon), reaching, respectively, 54%, 68% and 93% of the pre-bleaching cover in 2019. Full recovery at the shallow seaward locations may take at least five more years, but remains uncertain for the deeper reefs. The expected increase in frequency and severity of coral bleaching events is likely to make even rapid recovery as observed in Aldabra's lagoon too slow to prevent long-term reef degradation, even at remote sites.


Assuntos
Antozoários/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mudança Climática , Recifes de Corais , Animais , Temperatura Alta , Seicheles
2.
Zootaxa ; 4851(2): zootaxa.4851.2.1, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056725

RESUMO

A survey of myxomycete diversity on five islands of the Seychelles yielded 105 species and 10 infra-specific taxa, which included 89 species on La Digue, 66 on Praslin, 63 on Mahé, 31 on Curieuse and 4 on Félicité. Among these records, 64 species are new for the Seychelles and together with data from the literature, 143 species of myxomycetes are now known for all of the Seychelles. Most collecting on all five islands was carried out in low elevation areas. Forty-four species (73% of all specimens of myxomycetes) were found in low-elevation localities, and among these were Arcyria helvetica, Dictydiaethalium dictyosporum, Echinostelium paucifilum, Physarum aeneum, Ph. echinosporum, Reticularia olivacea, and Stemonaria longa. From 54 species of plants used by myxomycetes as substrates, eight species provided 63% of the specimens of myxomycetes, with most samples recorded from Calophyllum inophyllum. On the basis of substrate type, myxomycetes were distributed as follows: 37% of specimens were collected on dead wood and decaying palm stems, 16% on the bark and stems of living plants, 25% on ground litter, and 22% on aerial litter. A comparison of the assemblages of myxomycetes found in zones with different levels of human impact indicated that 84 species were found in forests, 74 in anthropogenic areas, and 62 in recreational coastal areas. The Seychelles provide a good background for a high level of myxomycete diversity, as a consequence of favorable climatic conditions and their location between Asia and Africa.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mixomicetos , Animais , Humanos , Ilhas , Seicheles
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111436, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753219

RESUMO

Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) is a major marine resource of high economic value to industrial and artisanal fisheries. As a top predator with a long lifespan, it is prone to accumulate high levels of contaminants. The bioaccumulation of a wide range of both legacy and emerging persistent organic contaminants was investigated in the muscle, liver and gonads of swordfish collected from the Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. The detection of all target contaminants, some at frequencies above 80%, highlights their widespread occurrence, albeit at low levels. Mean concentrations in muscle were 5637, 491 and 331 pg g-1 ww for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), respectively. ∑BFR mean concentrations were far below, i.e. 47 pg g-1 ww. The data are among the first obtained for such a high diversity of contaminants in an oceanic top predator worldwide and constitute a benchmark of the contamination of Indian Ocean ecosystems.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Bioacumulação , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oceano Índico , Seicheles
4.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 110, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Island systems offer excellent opportunities for studying the evolutionary histories of species by virtue of their restricted size and easily identifiable barriers to gene flow. However, most studies investigating evolutionary patterns and processes shaping biotic diversification have focused on more recent (emergent) rather than ancient oceanic archipelagos. Here, we focus on the granitic islands of the Seychelles, which are unusual among island systems because they have been isolated for a long time and are home to a monophyletic radiation of caecilian amphibians that has been separated from its extant sister lineage for ca. 65-62 Ma. We selected the most widespread Seychelles caecilian species, Hypogeophis rostratus, to investigate intraspecific morphological and genetic (mitochondrial and nuclear) variation across the archipelago (782 samples from nine islands) to identify patterns and test processes that shaped their evolutionary history within the Seychelles. RESULTS: Overall a signal of strong geographic structuring with distinct northern- and southern-island clusters were identified across all datasets. We suggest that these distinct groups have been isolated for ca. 1.26 Ma years without subsequent migration between them. Populations from the somewhat geographically isolated island of Frégate showed contrasting relationships to other islands based on genetic and morphological data, clustering alternatively with northern-island (genetic) and southern-island (morphological) populations. CONCLUSIONS: Although variation in H. rostratus across the Seychelles is explained more by isolation-by-distance than by adaptation, the genetic-morphological incongruence for affinities of Frégate H. rostratus might be caused by local adaptation over-riding the signal from their vicariant history. Our findings highlight the need of integrative approaches to investigate fine-scale geographic structuring to uncover underlying diversity and to better understand evolutionary processes on ancient, continental islands.


Assuntos
Anfíbios , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Anfíbios/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Ilhas , Filogenia , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Seicheles
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(15): 8226-8231, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore whether the climate has played a role in the COVID-19 outbreak, we compared virus lethality in countries closer to the Equator with others. Lethality in European territories and in territories of some nations with a non-temperate climate was also compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lethality was calculated as the rate of deaths in a determinate moment from the outbreak of the pandemic out of the total of identified positives for COVID-19 in a given area/nation, based on the COVID-John Hopkins University website. Lethality of countries located within the 5th parallels North/South on 6 April and 6 May 2020, was compared with that of all the other countries. Lethality in the European areas of The Netherlands, France and the United Kingdom was also compared to the territories of the same nations in areas with a non-temperate climate. RESULTS: A lower lethality rate of COVID-19 was found in Equatorial countries both on April 6 (OR=0.72 CI 95% 0.66-0.80) and on May 6 (OR=0.48, CI 95% 0.47-0.51), with a strengthening over time of the protective effect. A trend of higher risk in European vs. non-temperate areas was found on April 6, but a clear difference was evident one month later: France (OR=0.13, CI 95% 0.10-0.18), The Netherlands (OR=0.5, CI 95% 0.3-0.9) and the UK (OR=0.2, CI 95% 0.01-0.51). This result does not seem to be totally related to the differences in age distribution of different sites. CONCLUSIONS: The study does not seem to exclude that the lethality of COVID-19 may be climate sensitive. Future studies will have to confirm these clues, due to potential confounding factors, such as pollution, population age, and exposure to malaria.


Assuntos
Clima , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Betacoronavirus , Brunei/epidemiologia , Burundi/epidemiologia , Congo/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Equador/epidemiologia , Guiné Equatorial/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , França/epidemiologia , Gabão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ilhas do Oceano Índico/epidemiologia , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Malásia/epidemiologia , Melanesia/epidemiologia , Micronésia/epidemiologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Papua Nova Guiné/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Samoa/epidemiologia , São Tomé e Príncipe/epidemiologia , Seicheles/epidemiologia , Singapura/epidemiologia , Somália/epidemiologia , Timor-Leste/epidemiologia , Clima Tropical , Uganda/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 999-1008, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700658

RESUMO

A 1-year population-based prospective study was launched in Seychelles, a country with one of the highest human incidence of leptospirosis worldwide, to describe the characteristic features of the epidemiology of the disease and highlight the most prominent risk factors. Diagnosis was based on the IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, microscopic agglutination test, and real-time PCR. A standardized questionnaire was administered to 219 patients aged ≥ 13 years consulting for acute febrile illness. The high incidence of leptospirosis in Seychelles was confirmed. The disease was particularly severe, as the case fatality rate was 11.8%. Leptospirosis was positively associated in univariate analysis with socio-professional and clinical variables including gardening/farming, oliguria, jaundice, conjunctivitis, history of hepatitis C virus infection, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and/or biological renal failure. Epidemiological analyses of the questionnaires highlighted a link of the disease with living in houses (versus apartment), the presence of animals around and in houses, gardening, and misuse of personal protective equipment. Multivariate analyses indicated that being a farmer/landscaper and having cattle and cats around the home are the most significant drivers of leptospirosis. Biological features most associated with leptospirosis were thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, high values for renal function tests, and elevated total bilirubin. We report changes in behavior and exposure compared with data collected on leptospirosis 25 years ago, with indication that healthcare development has lowered case fatality. Continuous health education campaigns are recommended as well as further studies to clarify the epidemiology of human leptospirosis, especially the role of domestic animals.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Leptospira/patogenicidade , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Testes de Aglutinação , Animais , Gatos , Bovinos , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Leptospirose/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Seicheles/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida
7.
Am J Bot ; 107(7): 957-969, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592166

RESUMO

PREMISE: Opportunistic nectar-feeders may act as effective pollinators; nonetheless, we still lack information on whether these opportunistic species differ in their pollination effectiveness from specialized nectarivorous vertebrates and insects. Many nectar specialists have coevolved with the plants on which they feed; therefore, we would expect higher pollination effectiveness in specialists than in opportunistic feeders. Here, we assessed quantity and quality components of pollination effectiveness in specialist and opportunistic vertebrate nectarivores and insects, focusing on three plants from the Seychelles: Thespesia populnea, Polyscias crassa, and Syzygium wrightii. METHODS: We determined the quantity component (QNC) of pollination effectiveness with pollinator observations, and the quality component (QLC) by measuring fruit and seed set resulting from single visits by each pollinator. To detect potential negative effects of invasive ants on native plant-pollinator interactions, we classified pollinator visits (quantity component) as disturbed (>6 ants/30 min) vs. undisturbed. RESULTS: All focal plants were visited by insects, and vertebrate specialist and opportunist nectarivores, yet their pollination effectiveness differed. Flying insects were the most effective pollinators of T. populnea. The other two plants were most effectively pollinated by vertebrates; i.e., sunbirds (nectar specialists) in S. wrightii and Phelsuma geckos (nectar opportunists) in P. crassa, despite marked variation in QNC and QLC. Ant presence was associated with lower pollinator visitation rate in P. crassa and S. wrightii. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the importance of all pollinator guilds, including opportunist nectarivorous vertebrates as pollinators of island plants, and the vulnerability of such interactions to disruption by nonnative species.


Assuntos
Formigas , Polinização , Animais , Flores , Espécies Introduzidas , Ilhas , Néctar de Plantas , Seicheles , Especialização
8.
J Nutr ; 150(7): 1749-1756, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal status of long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) may be related to fetal growth. Maternal fish consumption exposes the mother to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg), which, in contrast, may restrict fetal growth. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine relations between maternal LC-PUFA status at 28 wk and birth outcomes (birth weight, length, and head circumference), controlling for MeHg exposure throughout pregnancy, in the Seychelles Child Development Study Nutrition Cohort 2. Our secondary aim was to examine the influence of maternal variation in genes regulating the desaturation of LC-PUFAs [fatty acid desaturase (FADS)] on birth outcomes. METHODS: From nonfasting blood samples collected at 28 wk of gestation, we measured serum total LC-PUFA concentrations and FADS1 (rs174537, rs174561), FADS1-FADS2rs3834458, and FADS2rs174575 genotypes, with hair total mercury concentrations assessed at delivery. Data were available for n = 1236 mother-child pairs. Associations of maternal LC-PUFAs, MeHg, and FADS genotype with birth outcomes were assessed by multiple linear regression models, adjusting for child sex, gestational age, maternal age, BMI, alcohol use, socioeconomic status, and parity. RESULTS: In our cohort of healthy mothers, neither maternal LC-PUFA status nor MeHg exposure were significant determinants of birth outcomes. However, when compared with major allele homozygotes, mothers who were heterozygous for the minor allele of FADS1 (rs174537 and rs174561, GT compared with TT, ß = 0.205, P = 0.03; TC compared with CC, ß = 0.203, P = 0.04) and FADS1-FADS2 (rs3834458, Tdel compared with DelDel, ß = 0.197, P = 0.04) had infants with a greater head circumference (all P < 0.05). Homozygosity for the minor allele of FADS2 (rs174575) was associated with a greater birth weight (GG compared with CC, ß = 0.109, P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: In our mother-child cohort, neither maternal LC-PUFA status nor MeHg exposure was associated with birth outcomes. The observed associations of variation in maternal FADS genotype with birth outcomes should be confirmed in other populations.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/sangue , Peixes , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/sangue , Animais , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Mães , Seicheles , Poluentes Químicos da Água/sangue , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2000, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332721

RESUMO

Coral reef ecosystems are among the first to fundamentally change in structure due to climate change, which leads to questioning of whether decades of knowledge regarding reef management is still applicable. Here we assess ecological responses to no-take marine reserves over two decades, spanning a major climate-driven coral bleaching event. Pre-bleaching reserve responses were consistent with a large literature, with higher coral cover, more species of fish, and greater fish biomass, particularly of upper trophic levels. However, in the 16 years following coral mortality, reserve effects were absent for the reef benthos, and greatly diminished for fish species richness. Positive fish biomass effects persisted, but the groups of fish benefiting from marine reserves profoundly changed, with low trophic level herbivores dominating the responses. These findings highlight that while marine reserves still have important roles on coral reefs in the face of climate change, the species and functional groups they benefit will be substantially altered.


Assuntos
Antozoários/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Recifes de Corais , Peixes/fisiologia , Animais , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências , Seicheles
10.
Sleep Health ; 6(4): 469-477, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations between self-reported sleep duration and cardiometabolic (CM) risk factors in African-origin adults residing in five countries spanning the epidemiologic transition. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Ghanaian (n = 491), South African (n = 503), Jamaican (n = 508), Seychellois (n = 501) and American (n = 480) men and women. MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported sleep duration was obtained using questionnaires. Sex- and site-stratified logistic regression analyses investigated relationships between sleep duration, individual CM risk factors and a binary CM risk variable (presence of ≥3 CM risk factors), adjusting for age, physical activity and education. RESULTS: Sleep duration distributions varied by cohort: 44.5%, 41.4%, 35.9%, 16.8% and 2.5% of American, Jamaican, Seychellois, Ghanaian and South African men reported <7 h sleep per night respectively (p < 0.001). Similarly, 42.6%, 28.6%, 25.2%, 12.8% and 1.5% of American, Jamaican, Seychellois, Ghanaian and South African women reported <7 h sleep respectively (p < 0.001). American men reporting ≤6 h sleep were more likely to be in the elevated CM risk group (OR: 2.52, 95%CI: 1.02, 6.22, p = 0.045) and to have a high waist circumference (OR: 2.44, 95%CI: 1.07, 5.57, p = 0.034) compared to those reporting 8 h sleep. Jamaican women reporting ≤6 h sleep (OR: 2.53, 95%CI: 1.19, 5.36, p = 0.016) and American women reporting 7 h sleep (OR: 2.71, 95%CI: 1.17, 6.26, p = 0.002) were more likely to be obese than those reporting 8 h sleep. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between short sleep and CM risk factors were only evident in the American men and women and Jamaican women. Future interventions to address CM risk and sleep health may need to be country-specific when targeting high-risk populations.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Metabólica/etnologia , Sono , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Seicheles/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 154: 111037, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174490

RESUMO

This study explores methods to estimate minimum drift times of ghost nets found in the Maldives with the aim of identifying a putative origin. We highlight that percentage cover of biofouling organisms and capitulum length of Lepas anatifera are two methods that provide these estimates. Eight ghost nets were collected in the Maldives and estimated drift times ranged between 7.5 and 101 days. Additionally, Lagrangian simulations identified drift trajectories of 326 historical ghost nets records. Purse seine fisheries (associated with Korea, Mauritius, the Philippines, Spain, France and Seychelles) and gill nets from Sri Lanka were identified as 'high risk' fisheries with regard to likley origins of ghost nets drifting into the Maldives. These fisheries are active in areas where dense particle clusters occured (drift trajectories between 30 and 120 days). Interestingly, ghost nets drifting less than 30 days however, remained inside the exclusive economic zone of the Maldivian archipelago highlighting potential illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing activity is occuring in this area. This study therefore points to the urgent need for gear loss reporting to be undertaken, especially by purse seine and gill net fisheries in order to ascertain the source of this major threat to marine life. This should also be coupled with an improvment in the data focused on spatial distribution of the abandoned, lost or discarded fishing gear originating from both large- and small-scale fisheries.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , França , Ilhas do Oceano Índico , Filipinas , República da Coreia , Seicheles , Espanha , Sri Lanka
12.
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 151: 110803, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056598

RESUMO

The daily accumulation rates, composition, sizes and potential sources of marine litter collected on a remote island within the Western Indian Ocean were investigated. In total, 9119 items of marine litter were collected during 40 surveys, which equated to 0.0082 items·m-1·d-1. Between 2003 and 2019 there was a significant increase in the amount of litter deposited, with the highest daily accumulation rate recorded in 2019 (0.0255 items·m-1·year-1). All specific litter types increased over time and also differed significantly in their accumulation rates, with polystyrene fragments/pieces (0.00249 items·m-1·d-1), plastic items (0.00135 items·m-1·d-1) and plastic bottles (0.0011 items·m-1·d-1) being the most commonly encountered during this study. The majority of the litter found was ≤5 cm in size. Nearly all (>80%) litter collected was made of or contained some form of plastic. Recommendations for improved management of litter and the importance of establishing regular beach clean-ups within the Seychelles are briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Praias , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Resíduos , Poluentes da Água/análise , Oceano Índico , Ilhas , Seicheles
14.
Environ Res ; 183: 109072, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to the environmental toxicant mercury (Hg) has been associated with immune dysregulation, including autoimmune disease, but few human studies have examined methylmercury (MeHg) exposure from fish consumption. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between MeHg exposure and biological markers of autoimmunity and inflammation while adjusting for long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). METHOD: At age 19 years, hair total Hg (Y19Hg), LCPUFA status, a panel of 13 antinuclear antibodies (ANA), total serum immunoglobulins (Ig) IgG, IgA, and IgM and serum markers of inflammation (IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, C-reactive protein (CRP), IFN-γ, TNF-α) were measured in the Seychelles Child Development Study (SCDS) Main Cohort (n = 497). Multivariable regression models investigated the association between Y19Hg and biomarkers, adjusting for prenatal total hair Hg (MatHg) and other relevant covariates, and with and without adjustment for LCPUFA. RESULTS: With each 1 ppm increase in Y19Hg (mean 10.23 (SD 6.02) ppm) we observed a 4% increased odds in a positive Combined ANA following adjustment for the n6:n3 LCPUFA ratio (ß = 0.036, 95%; CI: 0.001, 0.073). IgM was negatively associated with Y19Hg (ß = -0.016, 95%CI: 0.016, -0.002) in models adjusted for n-3, n-6 LCPUFA and when separately adjusted for the n-6:n-3 LCPUFA ratio. No associations were observed with MatHg. Total n-3 LCPUFA status was associated with reduced odds of a positive anti-ribonuclear protein (RNP) A. The n-3 LCPUFA were negatively associated with IL-6, IL-10, CRP, IFN-γ, TNF-α and positively with TNF-α:IL-10. There were positive associations between the n-6:n-3 ratio and IL-6, IL-10, CRP, IFN-γ, TNF-α and a negative association with TNF-α:IL-10. DISCUSSION: The Y19Hg exposure was associated with higher ANA and lower IgM albeit only following adjustment for the n-3 LCPUFA or the n-6:n-3 LCPUFA ratio. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear, but warrant follow up at an older age to determine any relationship to the onset of autoimmune disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia , Criança , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Gravidez , Seicheles , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Fish Biol ; 96(4): 1034-1044, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077095

RESUMO

Spatial management of fish populations can potentially be optimized by determining the area of influence of a particular species. We performed an acoustic tagging study implemented on Denis Island in the Seychelles to assess the area of influence of the heavily targeted shoemaker spinefoot, Siganus sutor. We investigated whether this species acts as a mobile link between coral patches and seagrass meadows, and whether their movements differed between day and night. The study incorporated an array of 22 acoustic stations deployed within dense coral patches, seagrass meadows and mixed habitats of both seagrass and coral. Fifteen S. sutor carrying internal acoustic tags were monitored from November 2016 until May 2017. Detection patterns revealed them to be diurnal herbivores, with only rare nocturnal movements. Home-range estimates showed that individuals differed in their spatial range extents and habitats used, covering ~15% of the total shallow subtidal coastline of the island. However, they displayed very small daily movements (<200 m), concentrated mainly around sites within mixed coral and seagrass habitats. An optimal number of detections was recorded when the coral to seagrass area ratio was approximately 1.6:1. This ratio was confirmed through statistical prediction modelling. Identification of such links of commercially important species between networked habitats may help authorities consider incorporating seagrass meadows of the Seychelles into management discussions, which are currently lacking.


Assuntos
Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Peixes/fisiologia , Animais , Herbivoria , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Poaceae/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Seicheles
16.
Zootaxa ; 4568(2): zootaxa.4568.2.10, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715864

RESUMO

All species of the cephenniine genus Cephennomicrus known to occur in the Seychelles were described by Scott (as Neseuthia) nearly a century ago. The descriptions were based on external characters, which does not allow for species identification. All the species are redescribed here: C. cordithorax, C. cornutus, C. minor, C. perexiguus, C. politus and C. typicus. Cephennomicrus crenatus is transferred to another genus, resulting in Pomphopsilla crenata comb. n. Lectotypes are designated for Neseuthia minor, N. perexigua and N. crenata. A new species group within Cephennomicrus is proposed to accommodate all species treated here, which share, among other characters, a long flagellum with a broad proximal portion, very short setae on the pronotum and elytra, five pronotal antebasal pits, a transverse groove connecting three of them, and unique modifications of the head in males.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Seicheles
17.
Zootaxa ; 4585(1): zootaxa.4585.1.12, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716190

RESUMO

Thorell (1897) erected the monotypic genus Palicanus based on a single male specimen from Yangon (formerly Rangoon) in Myanmar (formerly Burma). Initially the genus was placed in Drassidae Sundevall, 1833, which later became a junior synonym of Gnaphosidae Pocock, 1898. The genus was subsequently transferred to Clubionidae Wagner, 1887 (Simon 1897) and finally to Miturgidae Simon, 1886 (Lehtinen 1967). Palicanus caudatus Thorell, 1897 is notable because of its mouse-grey appearance (Deeleman-Reinhold 2001) and is currently known to occur in China, Indonesia, Myanmar, Reunion Island and Seychelles (World Spider Catalog 2019). Gravely (1931) described Systaria barkudensis (Gravely, 1931), originally placed under Syrisca Simon, 1886, on the basis of specimens collected from the Indian state of Odisha. The species was redescribed once (Majumder Tikader 1991) and later it was transferred to Systaria Simon, 1897 (Deeleman-Reinhold 2001). In this paper, we synonymise S. barkudensis with P. caudatus and provide supplementary information on the somatic morphology and male genitalia with detailed illustrations.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China , Indonésia , Masculino , Camundongos , Mianmar , Reunião , Seicheles
18.
Zootaxa ; 4567(1): zootaxa.4567.1.7, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716442

RESUMO

Except for the introduced species, Telostylinus lineolatus Wiedemann, all Neriidae occurring in the Ethiopian Region belong to the genus Chaetonerius Hendel and only one species, C. alluaudi (Giglio-Tos), is known from the East African islands, described from Seychelles and also recorded for Madagascar and Mauritius. Herein, we describe four new species of Chaetonerius from the East African islands, including the first species of Neriidae from the Comoros (C. kotrbae sp. n.) and three new species from Madagascar (C. ebejeri sp. n., C. kirkspriggsi sp. n. and C. madagasikara sp. n.). Additionally, a redescription of C. alluaudi (Giglio-Tos) with new record for Réunion and a key for identification of Chaetonerius from the East African islands are provided.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Comores , Ilhas , Madagáscar , Maurício , Seicheles
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 26, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384341

RESUMO

Introduction: approximately eighty million people around the world are living with hepatitis C, and 700,000 people die every year, due to hepatitis C related complications. In Seychelles, a total of 777 cases of hepatitis C were reported from 2002 to 2016, but up to mid of 2016, the cases were not being treated. Treatment with Harvoni, a combination of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir (SOF/LDV), is now being offered on the condition that the patient does not, or has stopped, injecting drugs. This paper is the first to establish the cost effectiveness of treating all cases of hepatitis C in Seychelles with Harvoni, as compared to no treatment. Methods: data extracted from literature was used to populate an economic model to calculate cost-effectiveness from Seychelles' government perspective. The model structure was also informed by the systematic review and an accompanying grading of economic models using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standard (CHEERS) checklist. A Markov model was developed, employing a lifetime horizon and costs and benefits were analysed from a payer's perspective and combined into incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Results: the direct-acting antiviral (DAA), Harvoni, was found to be cost-saving in Seychelles hepatitis C virus (HCV) cohort, as compared to no treatment, with an ICER of € 753.65/QALY. The treatment was also cost-saving when stratified by gender, with the ICER of male and female being € 783.74/QALY and € 635.20/QALY, respectively. Moreover, the results obtained from acceptability curves showed that treating patients with Harvoni is the most cost-effective option, even for low thresholds. Conclusion: treating hepatitis C cases in Seychelles is cost-saving. It is worth developing a treatment programme to include all cases of hepatitis C, regardless of status of drug injection.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Fluorenos/administração & dosagem , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Uridina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/economia , Benzimidazóis/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Fluorenos/economia , Hepatite C Crônica/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Sexuais , Seicheles , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Uridina Monofosfato/administração & dosagem , Uridina Monofosfato/economia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349537

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of behavioral non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors among a national sample of school-going adolescents in the Seychelles. Cross-sectional data were analyzed from 2540 school adolescents (median age 14 years, interquartile range = 2), in the Seychelles "Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS)" in 2015. Behavioral NCD risk factors (current tobacco use, current alcohol use, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, soft drink consumption, overweight or obesity, physical inactivity, and leisure-time sedentary behavior) were assessed by self-report. Among the seven individual behavioral risk factors, the highest prevalence was physical inactivity (82.7%), followed by daily soft drink consumption (68.3%), inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption (60.9%), leisure-time sedentary behavior (51.0%), current alcohol use (47.6%), overweight or obesity (28.2%), and current tobacco use (23.4%). The total mean number of behavioral NCD risk factors was 3.6 (Standard Deviation = 1.3), and the proportion of co-occurrence of having three or more behavioral NCD risk factors was 80.7%. In adjusted linear regression analysis, male sex, older age, and psychological distress were positively, and school attendance and peer support were negatively associated with the total number of behavioral NCD risk factors. A high prevalence of multiple behavioral NCD risk factors were found and several associated factors were identified, such as male sex, older age, psychological distress, school truancy, and lack of peer support, which may help in aiding intervention programs in this population.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Seicheles/epidemiologia
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