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1.
Zootaxa ; 4568(2): zootaxa.4568.2.10, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715864

RESUMO

All species of the cephenniine genus Cephennomicrus known to occur in the Seychelles were described by Scott (as Neseuthia) nearly a century ago. The descriptions were based on external characters, which does not allow for species identification. All the species are redescribed here: C. cordithorax, C. cornutus, C. minor, C. perexiguus, C. politus and C. typicus. Cephennomicrus crenatus is transferred to another genus, resulting in Pomphopsilla crenata comb. n. Lectotypes are designated for Neseuthia minor, N. perexigua and N. crenata. A new species group within Cephennomicrus is proposed to accommodate all species treated here, which share, among other characters, a long flagellum with a broad proximal portion, very short setae on the pronotum and elytra, five pronotal antebasal pits, a transverse groove connecting three of them, and unique modifications of the head in males.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Seicheles
2.
Zootaxa ; 4585(1): zootaxa.4585.1.12, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716190

RESUMO

Thorell (1897) erected the monotypic genus Palicanus based on a single male specimen from Yangon (formerly Rangoon) in Myanmar (formerly Burma). Initially the genus was placed in Drassidae Sundevall, 1833, which later became a junior synonym of Gnaphosidae Pocock, 1898. The genus was subsequently transferred to Clubionidae Wagner, 1887 (Simon 1897) and finally to Miturgidae Simon, 1886 (Lehtinen 1967). Palicanus caudatus Thorell, 1897 is notable because of its mouse-grey appearance (Deeleman-Reinhold 2001) and is currently known to occur in China, Indonesia, Myanmar, Reunion Island and Seychelles (World Spider Catalog 2019). Gravely (1931) described Systaria barkudensis (Gravely, 1931), originally placed under Syrisca Simon, 1886, on the basis of specimens collected from the Indian state of Odisha. The species was redescribed once (Majumder Tikader 1991) and later it was transferred to Systaria Simon, 1897 (Deeleman-Reinhold 2001). In this paper, we synonymise S. barkudensis with P. caudatus and provide supplementary information on the somatic morphology and male genitalia with detailed illustrations.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China , Indonésia , Masculino , Camundongos , Mianmar , Reunião , Seicheles
3.
Zootaxa ; 4567(1): zootaxa.4567.1.7, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716442

RESUMO

Except for the introduced species, Telostylinus lineolatus Wiedemann, all Neriidae occurring in the Ethiopian Region belong to the genus Chaetonerius Hendel and only one species, C. alluaudi (Giglio-Tos), is known from the East African islands, described from Seychelles and also recorded for Madagascar and Mauritius. Herein, we describe four new species of Chaetonerius from the East African islands, including the first species of Neriidae from the Comoros (C. kotrbae sp. n.) and three new species from Madagascar (C. ebejeri sp. n., C. kirkspriggsi sp. n. and C. madagasikara sp. n.). Additionally, a redescription of C. alluaudi (Giglio-Tos) with new record for Réunion and a key for identification of Chaetonerius from the East African islands are provided.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Comores , Ilhas , Madagáscar , Maurício , Seicheles
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 26, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384341

RESUMO

Introduction: approximately eighty million people around the world are living with hepatitis C, and 700,000 people die every year, due to hepatitis C related complications. In Seychelles, a total of 777 cases of hepatitis C were reported from 2002 to 2016, but up to mid of 2016, the cases were not being treated. Treatment with Harvoni, a combination of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir (SOF/LDV), is now being offered on the condition that the patient does not, or has stopped, injecting drugs. This paper is the first to establish the cost effectiveness of treating all cases of hepatitis C in Seychelles with Harvoni, as compared to no treatment. Methods: data extracted from literature was used to populate an economic model to calculate cost-effectiveness from Seychelles' government perspective. The model structure was also informed by the systematic review and an accompanying grading of economic models using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standard (CHEERS) checklist. A Markov model was developed, employing a lifetime horizon and costs and benefits were analysed from a payer's perspective and combined into incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Results: the direct-acting antiviral (DAA), Harvoni, was found to be cost-saving in Seychelles hepatitis C virus (HCV) cohort, as compared to no treatment, with an ICER of € 753.65/QALY. The treatment was also cost-saving when stratified by gender, with the ICER of male and female being € 783.74/QALY and € 635.20/QALY, respectively. Moreover, the results obtained from acceptability curves showed that treating patients with Harvoni is the most cost-effective option, even for low thresholds. Conclusion: treating hepatitis C cases in Seychelles is cost-saving. It is worth developing a treatment programme to include all cases of hepatitis C, regardless of status of drug injection.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Fluorenos/administração & dosagem , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Uridina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/economia , Benzimidazóis/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Fluorenos/economia , Hepatite C Crônica/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Sexuais , Seicheles , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Uridina Monofosfato/administração & dosagem , Uridina Monofosfato/economia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349537

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of behavioral non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors among a national sample of school-going adolescents in the Seychelles. Cross-sectional data were analyzed from 2540 school adolescents (median age 14 years, interquartile range = 2), in the Seychelles "Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS)" in 2015. Behavioral NCD risk factors (current tobacco use, current alcohol use, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, soft drink consumption, overweight or obesity, physical inactivity, and leisure-time sedentary behavior) were assessed by self-report. Among the seven individual behavioral risk factors, the highest prevalence was physical inactivity (82.7%), followed by daily soft drink consumption (68.3%), inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption (60.9%), leisure-time sedentary behavior (51.0%), current alcohol use (47.6%), overweight or obesity (28.2%), and current tobacco use (23.4%). The total mean number of behavioral NCD risk factors was 3.6 (Standard Deviation = 1.3), and the proportion of co-occurrence of having three or more behavioral NCD risk factors was 80.7%. In adjusted linear regression analysis, male sex, older age, and psychological distress were positively, and school attendance and peer support were negatively associated with the total number of behavioral NCD risk factors. A high prevalence of multiple behavioral NCD risk factors were found and several associated factors were identified, such as male sex, older age, psychological distress, school truancy, and lack of peer support, which may help in aiding intervention programs in this population.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Seicheles/epidemiologia
6.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(3): 3501-3510, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859451

RESUMO

Holothuria (Microthele) fuscogilva (Cherbonnier, 1980), Holothuria sp. type "Pentard" and Holothuria (Microthele) nobilis (Selenka, 1867) are three tropical sea cucumber taxa that are heavily fished worldwide for the beche-de-mer trade market. In order to investigate the population genetic structure, diversity and connectivity of these taxa, 16, 19 and 25 microsatellite loci were isolated from H. fuscogilva, Holothuria sp. type "Pentard" and H. nobilis DNA libraries, respectively. These loci were tested on 94, 60 and eight individuals of the respective species, collected from the Seychelles. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 30. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.245 to 0.890 for H. fuscogilva and from 0.200 to 0.950 for Holothuria sp. type "Pentard", while the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.231 to 0.952 and from 0.504 to 0.951, respectively. Several loci were at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium was detected in only three pairs of loci. Cross-amplification was also tested and almost all loci (49 over 60) were polymorphic for at least two of the three studied taxa, showing high transferability among them. These loci represent useful tools for assessing genetic diversity and population structure of these three taxa in fishery areas, and therefore providing relevant knowledge for resource management.


Assuntos
Pepinos-do-Mar/genética , Animais , Equinodermos/genética , Frequência do Gene , Genética Populacional/métodos , Holothuria/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Repetições de Microssatélites , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Seicheles
7.
Environ Int ; 124: 278-283, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fish contains methylmercury (MeHg) which can cause oxidative stress and neurodevelopmental toxicity at sufficiently high doses. Fish also contains polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which have both antioxidant (n-3) and oxidant (n-6) properties. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is sensitive to oxidative stress but has not been previously studied in relation to MeHg exposure or PUFA status. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between MeHg exposure and PUFA status during pregnancy with relative mitochondrial DNA copy number (RmtDNAcn) in mothers and their newborns. METHODS: In total, 1488 mother-child pairs from the Seychelles Child Development Study Nutrition Cohort 2 were included in this study. Total Hg was measured in maternal blood collected at 28 weeks' gestation, maternal hair at delivery, and in fetal cord blood. PUFA (n-3 and n-6) were measured only in maternal blood. RmtDNAcn was measured by qPCR in both maternal and cord blood. RESULTS: Increasing maternal blood Hg (ß = 0.001, 95%CI: 0.000, 0.002) and n-3 PUFA concentrations (ß = 0.183, 95%CI: 0.048, 0.317) were associated with higher maternal RmtDNAcn. Increasing maternal n-6 PUFA (ß = -0.103, 95%CI: -0.145, -0.062) and n-6/n-3 ratio (ß = -0.011, 95%CI: -0.017, -0.004) were associated with lower maternal RmtDNAcn. Increasing fetal cord blood Hg was associated with lower fetal RmtDNAcn (ß = -0.002, 95%CI: -0.004, -0.000). Neither maternal blood Hg nor PUFA status was associated with fetal RmtDNAcn. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that MeHg and PUFA may influence mitochondrial homeostasis although the magnitude of these associations are small. Future studies should confirm the findings and explore the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , DNA Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/sangue , Adulto , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Peixes , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Seicheles
8.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 3(2): 183-190, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420743

RESUMO

Tropical coastal communities are highly reliant on coral reefs, which provide nutrition and employment for millions of people. Climate-driven coral bleaching events are fundamentally changing coral reef ecosystems and are predicted to reduce productivity of coral reef fish and fisheries, with significant implications for food security and livelihoods. Yet evidence of long-term bleaching impacts on coral reef fishery productivity is lacking. Here, we analyse over 20 years of fish abundance, catch and habitat data to assess long-term impacts of climate-driven coral mass mortality and regime shifts on nearshore artisanal coral reef fisheries in the Seychelles. Contrary to expectations, total catch and mean catch rates were maintained or increased after coral bleaching, consistent with increasing abundance of herbivorous target species in underwater surveys, particularly on macroalgal-dominated reefs. Catch instability increased as habitats followed divergent post-disturbance trajectories and the distribution of target species became more spatially variable, potentially impacting fisher incomes and local market supply chains. Although coral bleaching increased fishery dependence on herbivore species, our results show that climate-impacted reefs can still provide livelihoods and fish protein for coastal communities.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Recifes de Corais , Pesqueiros , Peixes/fisiologia , Animais , Densidade Demográfica , Seicheles
9.
Mol Neurobiol ; 56(7): 5000-5008, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430410

RESUMO

Findings from observational and experimental studies suggest that maternal inflammation during pregnancy is associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We report the first study in humans to examine this association in a large prospective birth cohort. We studied 788 mother-child pairs from the Seychelles Child Development Study Nutrition Cohort 2. Thirteen inflammatory markers were measured in mothers' serum at 28 weeks' gestation, along with the sum of T-helper 1 (Th1) and 2 (Th2) cytokines. The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) were administered at age 7 years to obtain information on ASD phenotype. We evaluated associations between maternal inflammatory markers and ASD phenotype using multivariable linear regression. For the SCQ, increased MCP-1 (a chemokine that is upregulated in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines) was associated with fewer ASD symptoms (B = - 0.40; 95% CI = - 0.72, - 0.09). Increased IL-4 (a cytokine that is typically associated with an enhanced anti-inflammatory response) was associated with more ASD symptoms (B = 2.10; 95% CI = 0.78, 3.43). For the SRS, higher concentrations of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were associated with fewer ASD symptoms (B = - 0.18; 95% CI = - 0.35, - 0.01), but only after removal of outliers. No associations were observed for other markers. These findings suggest that a shift in the maternal immune balance during pregnancy may be associated with ASD symptomatology. While the use of well-established measures that capture ASD phenotypic variability is a strength of the study, measurement of peripheral immune markers only once during gestation is a limitation. Our results should be confirmed using maternal immune markers measured throughout gestation.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/sangue , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/imunologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Fenótipo , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Seicheles/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 80(5): e13046, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295973

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Maternal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure may be associated with immune response during pregnancy. METHOD OF STUDY: In the high fish-eating Seychelles Child Development Study Nutrition Cohort 2, we examined the association between maternal MeHg, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and immune markers (Th1:Th2; TNF-α, IL-1ß, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, MCP-1, TARC, sFlt-1, VEGF-D, CRP and IL-6) at 28 weeks' gestation. Linear regression examined associations between MeHg exposure and immune markers with and without adjustment for PUFA. RESULTS: In all models, as MeHg concentrations increased, the Th1:Th2 ratio, total Th1 and individual Th1 (IL-1ß, IL-2, TNF-α) concentrations decreased. MeHg was not associated with total Th2 cytokines but was associated with a decrease in IL-4 and IL-10. MeHg was positively associated with TARC and VEGF-D and negatively associated with CRP. There was a significant interaction between MeHg and the n-6:n-3 ratio, with MeHg associated with a larger decrease in Th1:Th2 at higher n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios. The n-3 PUFA were associated with lower CRP, IL-4 and higher IFN-γ. The n-6 PUFA were associated with higher IL-1ß, IL-2, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10, CRP and IL-6. CONCLUSION: Maternal MeHg was associated with markers of immune function at 28 weeks' gestation. A significant interaction between MeHg and the n-6:n-3 ratio on the Th1:Th2 ratio suggests that the n-3 PUFA may mitigate any immunosuppressive associations of MeHg. The n-3 and n-6 PUFA were associated with suppressive and stimulatory immune responses, respectively. Overall, the associations were of small magnitude, and further research is required to determine the clinical significance.


Assuntos
Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/efeitos adversos , Gravidez/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Adulto , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Estudos de Coortes , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Imunidade , Masculino , Seicheles , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348869

RESUMO

Replacing recently extinct endemic giant tortoises with extant, functional analogues provide the perhaps best examples of island rewilding to date. Yet, an efficient future application of this conservation action is challenging in an era of climate change. We here present and discuss a conceptual framework that can serve as a roadmap for the study and application of tortoise rewilding in an uncertain future. We focus on three main ecological functions mediated by giant tortoises, namely herbivory, seed dispersal and nutrient cycling, and discuss how climate change is likely to impact these. We then propose and discuss mitigation strategies such as artificial constructed shade sites and water holes that can help drive and maintain the ecosystem functions provided by the tortoises on a landscape scale. The application of the framework and the mitigation strategies are illustrated with examples from both wild and rewilded populations of the Aldabra giant tortoise, Aldabrachelys gigantea, in the Western Indian Ocean.This article is part of the theme issue 'Trophic rewilding: consequences for ecosystems under global change'.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Animais , Ecossistema , Ilhas , Seicheles , Tartarugas
12.
Zootaxa ; 4450(3): 359-375, 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313840

RESUMO

A new species of indotyphlid caecilian amphibian, Hypogeophis montanus sp. nov., is described based on a series of specimens from the Seychelles island of Mahé, collected from two localities in 2013 and 2015. The new species most closely resembles the Seychelles (Mahé) endemic H. brevis in being short (maximum known total length in life ca. 110 mm) and long snouted, but differs by having more vertebrae, a relatively smaller head, and substantially distinct mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences. Hypogeophis montanus sp. nov. is known from higher elevations (718-731 m) than H. brevis (ca. 350-650 m), and its elevationally restricted distribution on a single small island likely renders it threatened under IUCN Red List criteria. Hypogeophis montanus sp. nov. is the third species of small and long-snouted caecilian reported from the Seychelles. Along with H. brevis and H. pti, H. montanus sp. nov. is among the smallest known species of caecilian and possibly has the smallest global distribution.


Assuntos
Anfíbios , Animais , Ilhas , Seicheles
13.
Zootaxa ; 4450(2): 293-296, 2018 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313852

RESUMO

Seychellister mornicus, gen. and sp. nov. is described based on three specimens collected by sifting of leaf-litter in Mahé, Seychelles. The genus is tentatively placed in the subtribe Clavigerodina (Pselaphinae: Clavigeritae: Clavigerini).


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Folhas de Planta , Seicheles
14.
Zootaxa ; 4455(2): 201-257, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314209

RESUMO

Three new species of Minous (Synanceiidae: Minoinae) are described. Minous roseus sp. nov., based on 13 specimens from northwestern Australia and the Maldives, is characterized by the following combination of characters: usually XI, 11 dorsal-fin rays; usually II, 9 anal-fin rays; head depth 18.8-21.6% (mean 20.0%) of SL; basal portion of pectoral fin inner surface with black stripes radiating along rays on yellow membranes; and largely pinkish or yellowish body. Although Minous groeneveldi sp. nov., based on a single specimen from Bali, Indonesia, resembles M. roseus, the former differs in having blunt anterior and posterior lacrimal spines with both tips canted ventrally, the eye positioned relatively low on the head and relatively dark body coloration. Minous roseus and M. groeneveldi have also been photographed underwater in North Sulawesi. Minous radiatus sp. nov., based on 54 specimens from the northwestern Pacific Ocean, from the South China Sea and Philippines north to Taiwan, has previously been confused with Minous pictus Günther 1880 (now restricted to Australia and New Guinea). However, M. radiatus differs from M. pictus in having a narrower space between the interorbital ridges, shorter pelvic-fin base, and the pectoral fin inner surface largely yellow, with narrow dark stripes along the rays (relatively large, elongate blotches along the rays in M. pictus). Minous pictus was redescribed from 10 specimens, including a newly-designated lectotype. Minous trachycephalus (Bleeker 1855), related to M. roseus and M. groeneveldi, was also redescribed (with a revised diagnosis), based on the holotype and many specimens from the Indo-West Pacific region. In addition, two examples of Minous andriashevi Mandrytsa 1990, collected off Somalia, are recognized as a new record of the species, previously known only from the holotype collected off the Seychelles. A revised key to species of Minous is also provided.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Austrália , China , Ilhas do Oceano Índico , Indonésia , Nova Guiné , Oceano Pacífico , Filipinas , Seicheles , Somália , Taiwan
15.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 85(1): e1-e3, 2018 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198282

RESUMO

Ozobranchus spp. are leeches that feed solely on turtle blood. They are common ectoparasites found on a range of marine turtle species, with some species of the leech being implicated as vectors of fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus (FPTHV). Green (Chelonia mydas) and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) turtles are the two commonly occurring species in the inner granitic islands of the Seychelles. Routine monitoring of nesting turtles on Cousine Island, Seychelles, allowed for opportunistic sightings of leeches on two hawksbill females. In both cases infestation was low, with three leeches collected off one female turtle and five off the other. No obvious signs of papillomas secondary to infection of FPTHV were seen. All of the turtle leeches collected were determined to be Ozobranchus margoi as they had five pairs of lateral digiform branchiae. The specimens were deposited in the Seychelles Natural History Museum on Mahé. To the best of our knowledge this is the first record of Ozobranchus margoi recorded in the inner granitic Seychelles on hawksbill turtles.


Assuntos
Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Sanguessugas/fisiologia , Tartarugas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Sanguessugas/classificação , Seicheles/epidemiologia
16.
Arch Virol ; 163(12): 3451-3453, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178119

RESUMO

This is the first description of the complete genome sequence of a new monopartite begomovirus isolated from tomato with symptoms of tomato (yellow) leaf curl disease collected in the Seychelles. The DNA-A-like nucleotide sequences share the highest nucleotide sequence identity (84%) with tomato leaf curl Anjouan virus (ToLCAnjV) from the Comoros islands. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed its recombinant nature and its relationship to Old World monopartite and bipartite begomoviruses. This discovery of a new member of a species confirms the high genetic diversity of begomoviruses in the south-western Indian Ocean islands.


Assuntos
Begomovirus/isolamento & purificação , Lycopersicon esculentum/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Begomovirus/classificação , Begomovirus/genética , Genoma Viral , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Seicheles
17.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 101(4): 451-457, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143829

RESUMO

Pesticide residues in honey and pollen from Seychelles against a target of 108 pesticides using LC-MS/MS were analyzed. Fifteen pesticides were detected, at trace levels (< 15 ppb) and below the acceptable maximum residue limits (MRLs) as per EU regulations. In honey, six insecticide and three fungicide residues were detected. Eight insecticide and four fungicide residues were detected in the pollen matrix. The least contaminated honey and pollen samples had three and nine chemical residues respectively while the most contaminated honey and pollen samples had eight and eleven chemical residues respectively. Contact and oral LD50 values were used to calculate Pollen Hazard Quotients (PHQ) = concentration in ppb ÷ LD50 as µg/bee. The pollen hazard quotients (PHQ) obtained are way below those reported in literature. Residues were detected in low quantities, however, their high frequency and diversity and possible synergistic interactions may lead to negative impact on honeybees' health in Seychelles.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Mel/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Pólen/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Monitoramento Ambiental , Seicheles , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Nutrients ; 10(7)2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30036954

RESUMO

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential for neurodevelopment and the developing foetus depends on an optimal maternal status. Fish is a rich source of PUFA. The current study investigated dietary patterns, and associations with PUFA status in a high-fish consuming cohort of pregnant women in the Seychelles. At 28 weeks' gestation, pregnant women provided a blood sample, from which serum total PUFA concentrations were measured, A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and Fish Use Questionnaire (FUQ) were also completed. Principal component analysis (PCA) of dietary information identified four patterns. Regression analyses found dietary pattern 2, containing foods traditionally eaten in the Seychelles e.g., fish, fruit and vegetables was positively associated with serum docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (ß = 0.134; CI = 0.001, 0.022), and serum total n-3 PUFA (ß = 0.139; CI = 0.001, 0.023) concentrations. Dietary pattern 1, high in processed foods, snacks, white meat and eggs, was not significantly associated with any of the serum PUFA concentrations. The FUQ indicated that fatty fish was associated with EPA status (ß = 0.180; CI = 0.001, 0.005) in high consumers. The second dietary pattern, consisting of higher consumption of fish and fruit, was positively associated with n-3 PUFA status during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Comportamento Alimentar , Peixes , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Estado Nutricional , Alimentos Marinhos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Seicheles , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(36): 35791-35804, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29766430

RESUMO

Solid waste management (SWM) is a significant challenge for the Seychelles. Waste generation, fueled by economic development and tourism, increases steadily, while landfilling continues to be the main disposal path, thus exacerbating the island nation's specific weaknesses. Due to the small scale of the Seychelles economy, there is little capital available to stimulate innovations in SWM and generate the knowledge for setting priorities and guiding SWM action. Students from ETH Zurich and UniSey conducted a transdisciplinary case study (tdCS) to fill this knowledge gap and gain insights into the obstacles and opportunities related to sustainable SWM. The tdCS approach allowed students to gain comprehensive and in-depth knowledge about the SWM system required to set priorities for action and next steps. The government should streamline the different financial frameworks according to a clear principle (e.g., polluter pays principle). Specific biogenic waste streams represent a potential source of energy and fertilizers. Expanding the scope and densifying the network of collection points could help raise recycling rates of other waste fractions. Diverting biogenic waste and recycling more glass, metals, paper, and plastics would also significantly reduce landfilling rates. Regardless of future amounts of waste ending up on landfills, the latter must be reengineered before the surrounding environment suffers major adverse impacts. All these actions imply a government-driven approach which integrates the views of stakeholders and consumers alike.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Política Pública , Reciclagem , Seicheles , Resíduos Sólidos , Estudantes , Suíça
20.
Nutrients ; 10(5)2018 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29772682

RESUMO

The greatest burden of cardiovascular disease is now carried by developing countries with cardiometabolic conditions such as metabolic syndrome, obesity and inflammation believed to be the driving force behind this epidemic. Dietary fiber is known to have protective effects against obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. Considering the emerging prevalence of these cardiometabolic disease states across the epidemiologic transition, the objective of this study is to explore these associations of dietary fiber with cardiometabolic risk factors in four countries across the epidemiologic transition. We examined population-based samples of men and women, aged 25⁻45 of African origin from Ghana, Jamaica, the Seychelles and the USA. Ghanaians had the lowest prevalence of obesity (10%), while Jamaicans had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (5%) across all the sites. Participants from the US presented with the highest prevalence of obesity (52%), and metabolic syndrome (22%). Overall, the Ghanaians consumed the highest dietary fiber (24.9 ± 9.7 g), followed by Jamaica (16.0 ± 8.3 g), the Seychelles (13.6 ± 7.2 g) and the lowest in the USA (14.2 ± 7.1 g). Consequently, 43% of Ghanaians met the fiber dietary guidelines (14 g/1000 kcal/day), 9% of Jamaicans, 6% of Seychellois, and only 3% of US adults. Across all sites, cardiometabolic risk (metabolic syndrome, inflammation and obesity) was inversely associated with dietary fiber intake, such that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 13% for those in the lowest quartile of fiber intake, compared to 9% those in the highest quartile of fiber intake. Notably, twice as many of participants (38%) in the lowest quartile were obese compared to those in the highest quartile of fiber intake (18%). These findings further support the need to incorporate strategies and policies to promote increased dietary fiber intake as one component for the prevention of cardiometabolic risk in all countries spanning the epidemiologic transition.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Exercício , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Seicheles/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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