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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509867

RESUMO

A man in his early 60s with a medical history of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) in remission for two decades without maintenance therapy presented with non-specific complaints of profound fatigue and 40-pound weight loss. He was seronegative for antinuclear antibodies and cytoplasmic antineutrophilic antibodies, but erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein levels were elevated. Endocrinological testing revealed adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, hypothyroidism and diabetes insipidus. An MRI of the head revealed extensive sinonasal inflammation eroding through the floor of the sella turcica and into the pituitary gland and stalk. Biopsy of the sinonasal tissues was inconclusive. On review of his case, a multidisciplinary team diagnosed him with panhypopituitarism secondary to a recurrence of GPA. He responded well to glucocorticoids and methotrexate with marked reduction of pituitary enhancement on imaging and resolution of diabetes insipidus. He will require lifelong testosterone, levothyroxine and glucocorticoids for hormone replacement therapy.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/diagnóstico , Diabetes Insípido/diagnóstico , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipogonadismo/diagnóstico , Hipopituitarismo/diagnóstico , Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Rinite/diagnóstico por imagem , Sinusite/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Adrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Adrenal/etiologia , Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Insípido/etiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/complicações , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/tratamento farmacológico , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/patologia , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hipogonadismo/etiologia , Hipopituitarismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hipopituitarismo/etiologia , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hipotireoidismo/etiologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças da Hipófise , Hipófise/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva , Rinite/patologia , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem , Sinusite/patologia , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Perda de Peso
2.
Clin Imaging ; 69: 145-147, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731106

RESUMO

A sellar spine is a midline bony spur arising from the ventral aspect of the dorsum sellae. Representing a remnant of the anterior notochord, it is often an incidental finding and thought to be of no clinical significance. However, it has recently been suggested that a potential association may exist between sellar spine and pediatric pituitary endocrinopathies, possibly caused by deformation of the developing pituitary gland by the sellar spine. To our knowledge, this is the first case report demonstrating an association between sellar spine and clinical diabetes insipidus.


Assuntos
Diabetes Insípido , Diabetes Mellitus , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Criança , Diabetes Insípido/etiologia , Humanos , Hipófise/diagnóstico por imagem , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem , Coluna Vertebral
3.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 58(6): 1115-1133, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040852

RESUMO

The pituitary gland is a small endocrine organ located within the sella turcica. Various pathologic conditions affect the pituitary gland and produce endocrinologic and neurologic abnormalities. The most common lesion of the pituitary gland is the adenoma, a benign neoplasm. Dedicated MR imaging of the pituitary is radiologic study of choice for evaluating pituitary gland and central skull region. Computed tomography is complimentary and allows for identification of calcification and adjacent abnormalities of the osseous skull base. This review emphasizes basic anatomy, current imaging techniques, and highlights the spectrum of pathologic conditions that affect the pituitary gland and sellar region.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Hipófise/anatomia & histologia , Hipófise/diagnóstico por imagem , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças da Hipófise/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Hipófise/patologia , Hipófise/patologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/patologia , Sela Túrcica/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22619, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019483

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Xanthogranuloma of the sellar region is exceedingly rare, and described in only a handful of case reports. Herein, we present a case of xanthogranuloma of the sellar region to improve our knowledge for the diagnosis and management of this unusual disease. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 50-year-old female presented with the symptoms of intermittent vomiting, occasional head discomfort, and diabetes insipidus of 1 month duration. DIAGNOSES: Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large well-defined, vase-like, heterogeneous mass in the sellar region. The lesion showed mixed signal with hierarchical signal presentation. Fluid-fluid level sign can be found within the lesion. The upper part of the lesion was hyperintense, and the lower part was hypointense on both T1-weighted images and T2-weighted images. The lesion showed no enhancement following the intravenous administration of gadolinium. The normal pituitary tissue was not clearly visible. Optic chiasm was compressed and displaced by the lesion. Initial diagnosis of pituitary macroadenoma with hemorrhage in the sellar region was made before surgery. Final diagnosis of sellar xanthogranuloma was confirmed by histopathological examination after surgical resection. INTERVENTIONS: Gross total resection of the lesion was achieved using the microscope through endonasal transsphenoidal approach. OUTCOMES: The patient recovered well with improved binocular vision and no symptom of diabetes insipidus, and was discharged 5 days after operation. LESSONS: Sellar xanthogranuloma should receive diagnostic consideration for the lesion that is a heterogeneously mixed mass with a degree of T1-weighted images hyperintense in the sellar region.


Assuntos
Diabetes Insípido/etiologia , Granuloma/cirurgia , Sela Túrcica/patologia , Xantomatose/patologia , Xantomatose/cirurgia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Gadolínio/administração & dosagem , Granuloma/patologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Vômito/etiologia
5.
World Neurosurg ; 139: e677-e685, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339742

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, the sellar floor morphology of patients with pituitary adenoma is analyzed and a simple yet reliable method is identified to determine the location of bone window opening. METHODS: Clinical information of 144 consecutively admitted patients was retrospectively analyzed. Enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the midsagittal plane was selected as the reference for classifying the sellar floor. Intraoperative tumor location, extent of tumor resection, and follow-up results were analyzed for different types of sellar floor. The tuberculum sellae, lowest point of the sphenoid sinus, and the lowest point of the sellar floor and 3 lines related to them were used to classify the sellar floor. This is referred to as the "three points and three lines" method. RESULTS: Based on its location in the sphenoid sinus, the sellar floor can be classified into 4 types: 12 patients (8.3%) with high sellar, 70 (48.6%) with medium sellar, 30 (20.8%) with low sellar, and 32 (22.8%) with steep sellar. The maximum tumor diameter, maximum sellar floor diameter, and the intercarotid distance were all significantly different among patients with different types of sellar floor (P < 0.001). For all patients, quick intraoperative location of the sellar floor opening was achieved. A total of 104 patients (72.2%) had total tumor resection, 28 (19.40%) had subtotal tumor resection, and 4 (2.8%) had partial tumor resection. Twenty patients (13.9%) experienced cerebrospinal fluid leak, and there was no significant difference in cerebrospinal fluid leak rate among groups. CONCLUSIONS: Presurgical classification and location of the sellar floor are critical for understanding and assessing the transsphenoidal approach. Different types of sellar floor appeared in the surgery with different morphologic features. The three points and three lines method helps the surgeon to predetermine the location of the sellar floor opening and to shorten surgical time.


Assuntos
Adenoma/cirurgia , Microcirurgia/métodos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem , Sela Túrcica/cirurgia , Seio Esfenoidal/cirurgia , Adenoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/epidemiologia , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 23(4): 398-403, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To use morphometric methods to investigate the size and shape of the sella turcica in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: Fifty-six healthy children with non-syndromic UCLP, from a major paediatric teaching hospital, with lateral cephalograms taken prior to alveolar bone grafting, were compared with an age- and sex-matched control group of healthy children without orofacial clefts, with lateral cephalograms taken prior to orthodontic treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, conventional measurements were performed on the sella turcica to measure width, height and area on lateral cephalograms. Sella shape was also analysed using 11 points defining the sella turcica contours, using geometric morphometrics. Procrustes superimposition was used to register all sella contour tracings to calculate average sella shape. Principal component analysis was applied to the residuals of the point coordinates, and principal components (PCs) of shape were extracted. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences between the UCLP and control groups were found for sella posterior height, midpoint height, maximum height and area, where all of these were smaller in children with UCLP. Principal component analysis revealed that the first two PCs accounted for 84.7% of total shape variance. There was a statistically significant difference in sella shape between children with UCLP and control children. CONCLUSIONS: In children with UCLP, the sella turcica is shorter and with a smaller surface area when compared to matched non-cleft children. Moreover, sella turcica shape, when disregarding size, seems to differ to that of non-cleft children.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Cefalometria , Criança , Fenda Labial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fissura Palatina/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem
7.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(4): 369-371, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a case of an isolated pituitary fossa metastasis on a background of a previously treated tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma. CASE REPORT: A 64-year-old male, diagnosed with a primary p16-negative squamous cell carcinoma in the right tonsil, was treated with a course of chemoradiotherapy with curative intent. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography, performed at six months post-treatment, revealed a good local response and no distant metastases. The patient was placed on routine follow up at two-monthly intervals. Two months into follow up, he presented with a right-sided oculomotor nerve palsy and partial Horner's syndrome. Imaging and biopsy revealed a pituitary fossa metastasis (p16-negative squamous cell carcinoma), and a further positron emission tomography/computed tomography visualised this lesion. He was deemed unsuitable for further intervention and underwent palliative radiotherapy for symptom control. CONCLUSION: This case represents the first reported isolated pituitary fossa metastasis from a tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma. A high degree of clinical suspicion is recommended, along with a low threshold for biopsy and a cautioned use of positron emission tomography/computed tomography, when investigating such patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/secundário , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Sela Túrcica/patologia , Neoplasias Tonsilares/patologia , Biópsia/métodos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Síndrome de Horner/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Horner/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Doenças do Nervo Oculomotor/diagnóstico , Doenças do Nervo Oculomotor/etiologia , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Radioterapia/métodos , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem , Sela Túrcica/efeitos da radiação , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(8): e18572, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080071

RESUMO

Stereotactic biopsy (STB) is commonly used in the pathological diagnosis of intracranial lesions. The associated complication and mortality rates are low, but few reports with large sample sizes have assessed the complications of STB for lesions in the brain midline.To evaluate the complications of STB of lesions in the sellar region, pineal region, and brainstem.This was a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent STB of lesions in the sellar region, pineal region, and brainstem at the Neurosurgery Department, Sixth Medical Center, PLA General Hospital, China, between January 2015 and December 2017. The rates of and possible reasons for surgical complications (including bleeding) and mortality were analyzed.A total of 145 patients underwent STB of midline brain lesions, including 16 (11.0%) in the sellar region, 18 (12.4%) in the pineal region, and 111 (76.6%) in the brainstem. Successful biopsy of the sellar region, pineal region, and brainstem was achieved in 16/16 (100%), 18/18 (100%), and 107/111 (96.4%) patients, respectively. There were no complications following STB of lesion in the sellar or pineal regions. Complications occurred in 17/111 patients (15.3%) during/after brainstem biopsy, three of whom died (2.7%). The main clinical manifestations were facioplegia, facial pain, changes in blood pressure and heart rate, and difficulty breathing.STB of lesions in the sellar region, pineal region, and brainstem had a high success rate, but mortality was 2.7%. The occurrence of complications (15.3%) was closely related to the anatomical and functional characteristics of the region biopsied.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Glândula Pineal/patologia , Sela Túrcica/patologia , Técnicas Estereotáxicas/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Biópsia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Tronco Encefálico/patologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glândula Pineal/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas Estereotáxicas/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Clin Neurosci ; 73: 48-50, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070673

RESUMO

Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) leak is a significant complication in pituitary surgery, increasing both patient morbidity and mortality. In a recent publication, Campero et al. observed worse postoperative prognosis and increased risk of intraoperative CSF leak in patients with reduced sellar barrier thickness. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between sellar barrier thickness and intraoperative CSF leak in older individuals. A retrospective review was conducted of 44 transsphenoidal surgery resections for pituitary adenomas, 24 microscopic and 20 purely endoscopic procedures. Presence of intraoperative CSF fistula was significantly greater in patients with weak sellar barrier (thickness under 1 mm), compared to strong sellar barrier (52.94% vs 3.70% p < 0.0001, respectively). Application of this novel concept may help improve surgical technique selection as well as predict risk of intraoperative CSF leak and need for eventual use of flaps for reconstruction.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Intraoperatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Masculino , Neuroendoscopia/efeitos adversos , Hipófise/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipófise/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(2): 78-88, feb. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-187432

RESUMO

Introduction: Protocol for prescribing hormone replacement therapy in isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency includes magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. There is controversy on the frequency of structural pituitary abnormalities and on the importance of abnormal MRI findings on prognosis and response to GH replacement. Methods: A descriptive, retrospective study of children of both sexes aged 0-14 years, who had undergone brain MRI, diagnosed with isolated GH deficiency at a tertiary hospital in the past 14 years, aimed at reporting the frequency of abnormal MRI findings in isolated GH deficiency, and to establish whether differences exist in height diagnosis and evolution according to MRI findings. MRI findings were also compared with the findings reported in healthy children in order to establish incidence. Results: 96 patients were studied, of whom 74/96 (77%) reached adult age. Abnormal MRI findings were seen in 11.5% of them (8/11 of pituitary origin). No brain or pituitary tumor was seen in any case. Patients with abnormal images had a mean age at treatment start of 8 years, a target height of -0.8SD, and a final height of 1.04SD, while patients with normal MRI findings had an age at treatment start of 10 years old, a target height of -1.44SD, and a final height of -1.75SD, with statistically significant differences. Conclusions: Patients with abnormal MRI findings show a more favorable response to GH replacement therapy


Introducción: El protocolo de prescripción de hormona sustitutiva en el déficit aislado de hormona del crecimiento (GH) incluye la realización de una resonancia cerebral. Hay controversia sobre la frecuencia de anomalías hipofisarias y la importancia de los hallazgos anormales de resonancia magnética en el pronóstico y la respuesta al tratamiento de GH. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de niños de 0 a 14 años, de ambos sexos, con imágenes de resonancia magnética cerebral, que fueron diagnosticados de deficiencia aislada de GH en un hospital terciario en los últimos 14 años, para describir la frecuencia de las anomalías en la resonancia magnética y establecer si existen diferencias en el diagnóstico de talla y evolución de acuerdo con los hallazgos de la resonancia magnética. Además, comparamos los hallazgos en la resonancia con los hallazgos publicados en niños sanos, con el fin de establecer la incidencia. Resultados: Se estudiaron 96 pacientes, alcanzando 74/96 (77%) la edad adulta. El 11,5% tenía imágenes de resonancia magnética anormales (8/11 de origen hipofisario). En ningún caso se observó tumor cerebral o hipofisario. Los pacientes con imágenes anormales mostraron una edad media al inicio de tratamiento de 8 años, talla diana de -0,8 DE y una talla final de 1,04 DE; mientras que los pacientes con imágenes de resonancia magnética normal muestran una edad de inicio de tratamiento de 10 años, una talla diana de -1,44 DE y una talla final de -1,75 DE, con diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Conclusiones: Los pacientes con alteraciones en la resonancia magnética muestran una respuesta más favorable al tratamiento sustitutivo de GH


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/deficiência , Cérebro/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estatura , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
World Neurosurg ; 133: e241-e251, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic sellar masses (CSMs) pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges associated with subtotal cyst wall resection, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak repair, and disease recurrence. Current magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) interpretation often cannot reliably differentiate CSMs, mandating adaptable intraoperative strategies. We reviewed our diagnostic and therapeutic experience after endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEAs) for CSMs. METHODS: A retrospective record review of patients with CSM managed via EEA at the University of Southern California from 2011 to 2018 was conducted. Patient demographics, preoperative characteristics, surgical details, pathologic findings, and postoperative outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Analysis included 47 patients (mean age, 43.2 years); of these, 78.7% were women. Preoperative symptoms included headache (76.6%) and vision loss (42.6%). Histologically verified sellar pathology included 27 Rathke cleft cysts (RCCs) (57.4%), 17 cystic pituitary adenomas (CPAs) (36.2%), 2 arachnoid cysts (4.3%), and 1 xanthogranuloma (2.1%). Twelve patients (70.6%) with CPAs underwent complete resection and 5 (29.4%) underwent subtotal resection. All 27 patients with RCC and 2 patients with arachnoid cyst underwent complete fenestration and drainage. One xanthogranuloma was completely resected. There were 14 intraoperative (29.8%) and 4 postoperative CSF leaks (8.5%). Headaches, vision, and endocrinopathy improved in 69.2%, 80.0%, and 33.3% of patients with CPA and 73.9%, 71.4%, and 40.9% of patients with RCC, respectively. There were 2 RCC recurrences and 1 CPA recurrence over the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: Surgeons must prepare for versatile management strategies of CSMs based on pretest probability associated with MRI and intraoperative findings. Outcomes after EEA for CSMs show low complication profiles and excellent rates of headache and visual improvement, albeit lower rates of endocrine normalization.


Assuntos
Cistos do Sistema Nervoso Central/cirurgia , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Sela Túrcica , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenoma/cirurgia , Adulto , Cistos do Sistema Nervoso Central/complicações , Cistos do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Cistos do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/etiologia , Drenagem , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Hipopituitarismo/etiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cavidade Nasal , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/complicações , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem , Sela Túrcica/cirurgia , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Xantomatose/complicações , Xantomatose/diagnóstico , Xantomatose/diagnóstico por imagem , Xantomatose/cirurgia
12.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 42(2): 207-210, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535194

RESUMO

Agenesis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare congenital vascular disorder of the cerebral circulation. CT scan of the skull base disclosing complete absence of the bony carotid canal helps to differentiate an agenesis from aplasia or hypoplasia. Although most of the patients remain asymptomatic (thanks to the sufficient collateral circulation provided by the circle of Willis) cerebral infarcts, transient ischemic attacks or intracranial aneurysms have been rarely described in association with agenesis of the ICA. Most often, the vascular territory of the involved ICA is supplied by the contralateral carotid artery and from the vertebrobasilar circulation through the anterior and posterior communicating arteries, respectively. However, collateral supply can also be provided thanks to a transcavernous anastomosis, an aberrant vascular communication between the cavernous portions of the ICAs coursing through the sella turcica. We report here the case of a 55-year-old man with right carotid agenesis and associated transcavernous anastomosis revealed by transient ischemic attack. Embryogenesis, imaging findings, possibilities of collateral circulation and potential complications have also been discussed.


Assuntos
Artéria Carótida Interna/anormalidades , Infarto Cerebral/etiologia , Circulação Colateral , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etiologia , Parestesia/etiologia , Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia Cerebral , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sela Túrcica/irrigação sanguínea , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem
13.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 42(1): 23-29, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501910

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the three-dimensional morphometric features of the sella turcica using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in subjects with unilateral and bilateral maxillary impacted canines and normal controls. METHODS: In this retrospective study, CBCT images captured with ultra-low dose protocol of 73 subjects (21 males, 52 females; mean age 20.01 ± 6.53 years) with unilateral or bilateral maxillary impacted canines (29 unilateral and 29 bilateral) and 15 controls were evaluated. Nineteen different measurements of the pituitary fossa were made on CBCT images. To evaluate the normality, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used. The nonparametric statistical Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were applied to analyze the significant differences among and between the groups. Statistical significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: No measurement differed significantly among the groups (all p > 0.05) other than the right sella length, which differed between the unilateral and bilateral test groups and the unilateral test group and controls (both p < 0.05). The bilateral test group and control group did not differ significantly, but both exhibited greater right sella length than did the unilateral test group (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Other than the right sella length, there were no among-group differences in the mean pituitary fossa measurements of subjects with impacted unilateral and bilateral canines and normally erupted canines. The right sella length was lower in subjects with impacted unilateral canines than in those with bilateral impacted canines and normal controls.


Assuntos
Cefalometria/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Dente Canino/diagnóstico por imagem , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Impactado/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(1): 306-309, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate morphometric analysis of sella turcica using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and healthy controls. METHODS: Cone-beam computed tomography images of 68 patients (36 males, 32 females, age range 7-20 years) with CLP and 68 healthy individuals (36 males, 32 females, age range 8-19 years) were examined retrospectively. Sella turcica shapes were analyzed by 2 different methods in CLP and control groups. Length, depth, and diameter of sella turcica were measured in both groups. The data were statistically assessed by age, gender using Independent t-test and one-way analysis. RESULTS: Diameter of sella turcica was smaller in CLP group compared to healthy individuals (P < .05). Length and depth of sella turcica were lower than in control group, but not statistically significant (P > .05). Sella turcica shape significantly differed between groups (P < .05). The most common sella turcica types were flattened and irregular shapes in CLP group, whereas round and normal shapes were in control group. There was no significant difference between groups in any dimension of sella turcica by gender (P > .05). Sella turcica depth was significantly higher at age of 15 years and above in CLP group. CONCLUSION: This study showed that flattened and irregular shapes of sella turcica were the most common types in CLP group. Smaller sella turcica was detected in CLP group compared to healthy individuals. Cone-beam computed tomography can be useful for evaluation of sella turcica.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fissura Palatina/diagnóstico por imagem , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Biometria , Criança , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Neurosurg Rev ; 43(4): 1109-1116, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227951

RESUMO

Perioperative management of patients with sellar lesion submitted to endoscopic transsphenoidal neurosurgery (TSS) lacks standardization and therefore it is committed to each center clinical practice. Although neurosurgical procedure remains the same for all sellar lesions, perioperative approach can require different measures depending on the underlying disease. With the aim of standardizing our perioperative procedures and sharing our experience with other centers involved in the management of pituitary disease, we developed a clinical care path for patients with sellar lesions candidate to endoscopic TSS. For the drafting of the following protocol, the national and international guidelines published in the last 5 years have been evaluated and integrated with our center experience accumulated in decades of clinical practice. A steering committee including medical doctors involved in management of patients with pituitary masses at the Padua Hospital reviewed current knowledge on this topic. The committee developed a first draft which was shared with a broader group of medical doctors to reach a preliminary consensus; when it was reached, the clinical care assistance pathway was confirmed, validated, and published in the local web-based health service. We want to present and share our experience with colleagues involved in the perioperative management of pituitary diseases in other centers.


Assuntos
Endoscopia/métodos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Sela Túrcica/cirurgia , Osso Esfenoide/cirurgia , Protocolos Clínicos , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Anatômicos , Alta do Paciente , Assistência Perioperatória , Doenças da Hipófise/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Hipófise/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esfenoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19309, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848435

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in sella dimensions and shape between growing patients with Class I, Class II, and Class III skeletal malocclusions, evaluated through morphometric analysis. Seventy-eight subjects aged between 9 and 13 years were selected and assigned to either the Class I, Class II, or Class III groups according to the measured ANB angle (the angle between the Nasion, skeletal A-point and skeletal B-point). Six landmarks were digitised to outline the shape of the sella turcica. Linear measurements of the sella length and depth were also performed. Procrustes superimposition, principal component analysis, and canonical variate analysis were used to evaluate the differences in sella shape between the three groups. A one-way MANOVA and Tukey's or Games-Howell tests were used to evaluate the presence of differences in sella dimensions between the three groups, gender, and age. The canonical variate analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in sella shape between the Class I and the Class II groups, mostly explained by the CV1 axis and related to the posterior clinoidal process and the floor of the sella. No differences were found regarding linear measurements, except between subjects with different age. These differences in sella shape, that are present in the earlier developmental stages, could be used as a predictor of facial growth, but further studies are needed.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão de Angle Classe III/diagnóstico por imagem , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II/diagnóstico por imagem , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe I/diagnóstico por imagem , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Cefalometria/métodos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe I/fisiopatologia , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II/fisiopatologia , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe III/fisiopatologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Sela Túrcica/fisiopatologia
17.
Radiología (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 61(6): 467-476, nov.-dic. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-189393

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: El propósito de este artículo es destacar la utilidad de la resonancia magnética en la caracterización anatómica y patológica de la región selar haciendo hincapié en diagnósticos diferenciales de tumores no adenomatosos y pseudotumores poco frecuentes estudiados en nuestra institución. CONCLUSIÓN: La región selar es un espacio anatómico complejo, con múltiples tipos de tejidos a partir de los cuales puede surgir un amplio espectro de patologías. La resonancia magnética es el mejor método por imágenes para estudiar esta región debido a su alta resolución tisular, la caracterización de los patrones de crecimiento tumoral y el comportamiento biológico


OBJECTIVE: To show the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging in the anatomic and pathologic characterization of the sellar region, emphasizing the differential diagnosis of uncommon non-adenomatous tumors and pseudotumors studied in our institution. CONCLUSION: The sellar region is a complex anatomic space with diverse types of tissues from which a wide spectrum of diseases can arise. Magnetic resonance imaging's high tissue resolution and ability to characterize the patterns of tumor growth and biological behavior make it the best imaging technique to study this region


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
Pituitary ; 22(6): 640-646, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677129

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ectopic salivary glands have been found in both extracranial and intracranial locations, however, intrasellar symptomatic salivary gland is extremely rare and its clinical manifestation, radiological characteristics and outcome have not been systematically studied. Here we present a case series of intrasellar symptomatic salivary gland and perform a literature review to better characterize this disease. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data of three patients with intrasellar symptomatic salivary gland from our institutional and other cases available in literatures. Information for sex, age at diagnosis, clinical symptoms, radiological features, treatment strategy and prognosis were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 11 cases (including our own) were identified. There were three men and eight women, with an average age at diagnosis of 28.3 years. The peak incidence was in the second and the third decade (72.7% of all cases). The most common symptom was headache (81.8% of all patients). About 63.6% patients had one or more abnormal hormone levels, and prolactin was likely the most vulnerable hormone. The radiological appearances of intrasellar salivary gland were various, and four cases mimicked pituitary adenoma radiologically. All patients underwent transsphenoidal surgery with no mortality. CONCLUSION: Although intrasellar symptomatic salivary gland is rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intrasellar lesions. Preoperative diagnosis is challenging since it mimics pituitary neoplasm in clinical and radiological manifestations, and confirmation for this disease could only be conducted through pathological examination. Transsphenoidal surgical resection is the preferred therapy and the patient prognosis is usually good.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Glândulas Salivares/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(3): 386-391, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041333

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To present two clinical cases of pediatric Cushing disease caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting pituitary adenomas, which were diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging using 3 Tesla technology. Case description: Two cases of Cushing disease in 9-year-old children are reported. Both children presented pituitary adenomas that were smaller than 5 mm at their largest diameter, and which were not seen by standard 1.5 Tesla resonance. One of the patients was submitted to bilateral and simultaneous catheterization of the inferior petrosal sinus, but the result was undetermined. In both cases, the pituitary adenoma was detected by 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Both patients underwent transsphenoidal surgery and were cured. Comments: Cushing disease presents high morbidity. Therefore, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are essential. It is usually caused by adenomas that are smaller than 5 mm in diameter. Surgery is the first line of treatment, and effective methods of locating the adenoma are necessary for greater therapeutic success. This report suggests that the 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive, and thus able to detect pituitary microadenomas (largest diameter <10 mm). This exam may be indicated as a low-morbidity diagnostic tool for finding pituitary microadenomas in Cushing disease that are not visualized by 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.


RESUMO Objetivo: Apresentar dois casos clínicos de Doença de Cushing infantil decorrentes de adenoma hipofisário secretor de hormônio adrenocorticotrófico, cujo diagnóstico foi realizado por meio da ressonância magnética pela tecnologia 3 Tesla. Descrição do caso: São relatados dois casos de Doença de Cushing em crianças aos nove anos. Ambas apresentavam adenomas menores que 5 mm em seu maior diâmetro que não foram visualizados por meio de ressonância magnética de sela turca utilizando tecnologia 1,5 Tesla. Uma das pacientes foi submetida ao cateterismo bilateral e simultâneo do seio petroso inferior, porém com resultado indeterminado. Nas duas, o adenoma hipofisário foi visualizado mediante ressonância magnética utilizando tecnologia 3 Tesla. Ambas foram submetidas à cirurgia transesfenoidal e evoluíram para cura. Comentários: A Doença de Cushing apresenta alta morbidade, necessitando de diagnóstico e tratamento precoces, e geralmente é causada por adenomas com diâmetro inferior a 5 mm. O tratamento é cirúrgico, sendo preciso utilizar métodos eficazes de localização do adenoma para maior sucesso terapêutico. Esses relatos sugerem que a ressonância magnética 3 Tesla tem mais sensibilidade na detecção de microadenomas hipofisários (maior diâmetro <10 mm), podendo-se indicar esse exame como uma ferramenta diagnóstica de baixa morbidade na localização de microadenomas hipofisários na Doença de Cushing não visualizados pela ressonância magnética 1,5 Tesla.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/diagnóstico por imagem , Sela Túrcica/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/patologia
20.
World Neurosurg ; 132: 1-3, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This report presents a rare presentation of a ganglioglioma in the sellar/suprasellar region. On the basis of the patient's presentation and imaging characteristics, the initial diagnosis was craniopharyngioma. While gangliogliomas are already rare brain tumors that are usually found in the frontal and temporal lobes of young patients, the presentation of this tumor in the sellar region is exceedingly rare. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 25-year-old male presented to the emergency department with headache, agitation, and combativeness. A head computed tomography scan showed a sellar/suprasellar mass with mixed solid and cystic components and peripheral calcifications. The mass compressed the third ventricle and cerebral aqueduct, resulting in obstructive hydrocephalus. The patient was intubated for decline in mental status and combativeness. A ventricular drain was placed emergently. A pituitary function panel did not show endocrine dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 3.6 cm × 4.2 cm solid mass in the sellar/suprasellar region with a cystic component. The mass displaced the adenohypophysis and extended into the prepontine and interpedicular cisterns. The clinical presentation and radiologic characteristics led to an initial diagnosis of craniopharyngioma. The patient underwent a right pterional craniotomy and transsylvian approach for resection of mass without complication, although a subtotal resection was achieved due to adherence of the tumor to optic nerves and carotid arteries. The resected specimen was diagnosed as ganglioglioma. CONCLUSIONS: This case is a reminder of how much the field of neurosurgery relies on imaging modalities but also emphasizes the importance of histopathology in the field of brain tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Ganglioglioma/cirurgia , Sela Túrcica/cirurgia , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Craniofaringioma/diagnóstico , Craniotomia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Ganglioglioma/complicações , Ganglioglioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Ganglioglioma/patologia , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/etiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem , Sela Túrcica/patologia , Ventriculostomia
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