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1.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 29(2): 130-133, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble, prohormone vitamin that is important especially for bone mineralization and skeletal health. In recent years, vitamin D deficiency appeared as a worldwide problem, affecting many people in different ways including the Northern Cypriot population. The deficiency might be caused by the lack of exposure to sunlight, diet low in vitamin D, sedentary lifestyle, and also due to some genetic variations in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. METHODS: In this study, four common VDR polymorphisms and associations with vitamin D deficiency in the Turkish Cypriot population between ages 18-40 and working in office conditions was studied by PCR- RFLP analysis. RESULTS: rs2228570 C>T variant was shown to be significantly associated with low serum vitamin D levels in the studied population. CONCLUSION: Together with the effect of rs2228570 C>T variant in the VDR gene, it is thought that the lifestyle changes in the Turkish Cypriot population might have caused the increased frequency of vitamin D deficiency in the young professionals.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Seleção Genética , Vitamina D , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3357, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099680

RESUMO

Social group structure is highly variable and can be important for nearly every aspect of behavior and its fitness consequences. Group structure can be modeled using social network analysis, but we know little about the evolutionary factors shaping and maintaining variation in how individuals are embedded within their networks (i.e., network position). While network position is a pervasive target of selection, it remains unclear whether network position is heritable and can respond to selection. Furthermore, it is unclear how environmental factors interact with genotypic effects on network positions, or how environmental factors shape selection on heritable network structure. Here we show multiple measures of social network position are heritable, using replicate genotypes and replicate social groups of Drosophila melanogaster flies. Our results indicate genotypic differences in network position are largely robust to changes in the environment flies experience, though some measures of network position do vary across environments. We also show selection on multiple network position metrics depends on the environmental context they are expressed in, laying the groundwork for better understanding how spatio-temporal variation in selection contributes to the evolution of variable social group structure.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Variação Genética , Padrões de Herança/genética , Seleção Genética , Comportamento Social , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Aptidão Genética/genética , Genótipo
4.
Arch Virol ; 166(8): 2235-2247, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104994

RESUMO

Canine circovirus (canineCV) has been found to be associated with vasculitis, hemorrhage, hemorrhagic enteritis, and diarrhea of canines. CanineCV, like other circoviruses, may also be associated with lymphoid depletion and immunosuppression. This circovirus has been detected worldwide in different countries and species. Recombination and mutation events in the canineCV genome have been described, indicating that the virus is continuing to evolve. However, the origin, codon usage patterns, and host adaptation of canineCV remain to be studied. Here, the coding sequences of 93 canineCV sequences available in the GenBank database were used for analysis. The results showed that canineCV sequences could be classified into five genotypes, as confirmed by phylogenetic and principal component analysis (PCA). Maximum clade credibility (MCC) and maximum-likelihood (ML) trees suggested that canineCV originated from bat circovirus. G/T and A/C nucleotide biases were observed in ORF1 and ORF2, respectively, and a low codon usage bias (CUB) was found in canineCV using an effective number of codon (ENC) analysis. Correlation analysis, ENC plot analysis and neutrality plot analysis indicated that the codon usage pattern was mainly shaped by natural selection. Codon adaptation index (CAI) analysis, relative codon deoptimization index (RCDI) analysis, and similarity index (SiD) analysis revealed a better adaption to Vulpes vulpes than to Canis familiaris. Furthermore, a cross-species transmission hypothesis that canineCV may have evolved from bats (origin analysis) and subsequently adapted to wolves, arctic foxes, dogs, and red foxes, was proposed. This study contributes to our understanding of the factors related to canineCV evolution and host adaption.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/classificação , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Animais , Circovirus/genética , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Uso do Códon , Cães , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Mutação , Filogenia , Seleção Genética , Alinhamento de Sequência
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3956, 2021 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172741

RESUMO

Among crop fruit trees, the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) provides an excellent model to study divergence and adaptation processes. Here, we obtain nearly 600 Armeniaca apricot genomes and four high-quality assemblies anchored on genetic maps. Chinese and European apricots form two differentiated gene pools with high genetic diversity, resulting from independent domestication events from distinct wild Central Asian populations, and with subsequent gene flow. A relatively low proportion of the genome is affected by selection. Different genomic regions show footprints of selection in European and Chinese cultivated apricots, despite convergent phenotypic traits, with predicted functions in both groups involved in the perennial life cycle, fruit quality and disease resistance. Selection footprints appear more abundant in European apricots, with a hotspot on chromosome 4, while admixture is more pervasive in Chinese cultivated apricots. Our study provides clues to the biology of selected traits and targets for fruit tree research and breeding.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Genoma de Planta/genética , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Evolução Molecular , Frutas/classificação , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/genética , Metagenômica , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Prunus armeniaca/classificação , Prunus armeniaca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Seleção Genética
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3854, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158505

RESUMO

Sexual reproduction constrains progeny to inherit allelic genes from both parents. Selective acquisition of target genes from only one parent in the F1 generation of plants has many potential applications including the elimination of undesired alleles and acceleration of trait stacking. CRISPR/Cas9-based gene drives can generate biased transmission of a preferred allele and convert heterozygotes to homozygotes in insects and mice, but similar strategies have not been implementable in plants because of a lack of efficient homology-directed repair (HDR). Here, we place a gene drive, which consists of cassettes that produce Cas9, guide RNAs (gRNA), and fluorescent markers, into the CRYPTOCHROME 1 (CRY1) gene through CRISPR/Cas9-mediated HDR, resulting in cry1drive lines. After crossing the cry1drive/cry1drive lines to wild type, we observe F1 plants which have DNA at the CRY1 locus from only the cry1drive/cry1drive parent. Moreover, a non-autonomous trans-acting gene drive, in which the gene drive unit and the target gene are located on different chromosomes, converts a heterozygous mutation in the target gene to homozygous. Our results demonstrate that homozygous F1 plants can be obtained through zygotic conversion using a CRISPR/Cas9-based gene drive.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Criptocromos/genética , Tecnologia de Impulso Genético/métodos , Edição de Genes/métodos , Cruzamentos Genéticos , DNA de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Genótipo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação/genética , Reprodução/genética , Seleção Genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
7.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 55(3): 441-459, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097679

RESUMO

Preeclampsia (PE) is a severe hypertensive pathology and affects 2-8% of pregnancies worldwide. Its etiopathogenesis is poorly understood, and prognostic biomarkers and effective treatments are unavailable for this pregnancy complication, determining the high rates of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Racial and ethnic differences in PE incidence are of interest to study in terms of evolutionary medicine because such variability can be considered as a side effect of adaptive changes that have occurred in the genetic structure of modern populations since the dispersal of Homo sapiens from Africa. Genetic diversity at 10 regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (rSNPs) associated with PE was studied in North Eurasian populations and world populations of the 1000 Genomes Project. The role of natural selection in the formation of this genetic diversity was assessed at the microevolutionary level. High interpopulation diversity was observed with the greatest contribution being made by allele frequencies of NDRG1 rs3802252 (FST = 0.157). Signatures of natural selection were detected for rs10423795 of LHB, rs2167270 of LEP, rs2227262 and rs3802252 of NDRG1, rs56153523 and rs8109071 of SYDE1, and rs72959687 of INHA. The results are consistent with two evolutionary hypotheses of PE, namely, those of ancestral susceptibility and genetic conflicts.


Assuntos
Pré-Eclâmpsia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Gravidez , Seleção Genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070159

RESUMO

Pathogens are one of the main selective pressures that ancestral humans had to adapt to. Components of the immune response system have been preferential targets of natural selection in response to such pathogen-driven pressure. In turn, there is compelling evidence showing that positively selected immune gene variants conferring increased resistance to past or present infectious agents are today associated with increased risk for autoimmune or inflammatory disorders but decreased risk of cancer, the other side of the same coin. CD5 and CD6 are lymphocytic scavenger receptors at the interphase of the innate and adaptive immune responses since they are involved in both: (i) microbial-associated pattern recognition; and (ii) modulation of intracellular signals mediated by the clonotypic antigen-specific receptor present in T and B cells (TCR and BCR, respectively). Here, we review available information on CD5 and CD6 as targets of natural selection as well as on the role of CD5 and CD6 variation in autoimmunity and cancer.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/genética , Antígenos CD5/genética , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Seleção Genética , Animais , Autoimunidade/genética , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Evolução Molecular , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptores Depuradores/genética , Linfócitos T/imunologia
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3420, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103535

RESUMO

Theory shows how sexual selection can exaggerate male traits beyond naturally selected optima and also how natural selection can ultimately halt trait elaboration. Empirical evidence supports this theory, but to our knowledge, there have been no experimental evolution studies directly testing this logic, and little examination of possible associated effects on female fitness. Here we use experimental evolution of replicate populations of broad-horned flour beetles to test for effects of sex-specific predation on an exaggerated sexually selected male trait (the mandibles), while also testing for effects on female lifetime reproductive success. We find that populations subjected to male-specific predation evolve smaller sexually selected mandibles and this indirectly increases female fitness, seemingly through intersexual genetic correlations we document. Predation solely on females has no effects. Our findings support fundamental theory, but also reveal unforseen outcomes-the indirect effect on females-when natural selection targets sex-limited sexually selected characters.


Assuntos
Besouros/genética , Aptidão Genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Seleção Genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Tamanho Corporal , Cruzamento , Feminino , Variação Genética , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Fenótipo , Comportamento Predatório
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1952): 20210696, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074126

RESUMO

Social selection occurs when traits of interaction partners influence an individual's fitness and can alter total selection strength. However, we have little idea of what factors influence social selection's strength. Further, social selection only contributes to overall selection when there is phenotypic assortment, but simultaneous estimates of social selection and phenotypic assortment are rare. Here, we estimated social selection on body size in a wild population of New Zealand giraffe weevils (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis). We measured phenotypic assortment by body size and tested whether social selection varied with sex ratio, density and interacted with the body size of the focal individual. Social selection was limited and unaffected by sex ratio or the size of the focal individual. However, at high densities social selection was negative for both sexes, consistent with size-based competitive interactions for access to mates. Phenotypic assortment was always close to zero, indicating negative social selection at high densities will not impede the evolution of larger body sizes. Despite its predicted importance, social selection may only influence evolutionary change in specific contexts, leaving direct selection to drive evolutionary change.


Assuntos
Girafas , Gorgulhos , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Fenótipo , Seleção Genética
11.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1952): 20210407, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102891

RESUMO

Understanding how evolutionary forces interact to drive patterns of selection and distribute genetic variation across a species' range is of great interest in ecology and evolution, especially in an era of global change. While theory predicts how and when populations at range margins are likely to undergo local adaptation, empirical evidence testing these models remains sparse. Here, we address this knowledge gap by investigating the relationship between selection, gene flow and genetic drift in the yellowtail clownfish, Amphiprion clarkii, from the core to the northern periphery of the species range. Analyses reveal low genetic diversity at the range edge, gene flow from the core to the edge and genomic signatures of local adaptation at 56 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 25 candidate genes, most of which are significantly correlated with minimum annual sea surface temperature. Several of these candidate genes play a role in functions that are upregulated during cold stress, including protein turnover, metabolism and translation. Our results illustrate how spatially divergent selection spanning the range core to the periphery can occur despite the potential for strong genetic drift at the range edge and moderate gene flow from the core populations.


Assuntos
Deriva Genética , Genética Populacional , Adaptação Fisiológica , Fluxo Gênico , Genoma , Genômica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética
12.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 119, 2021 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natural populations harbor significant levels of genetic variability. Because of this standing genetic variation, the number of possible genotypic combinations is many orders of magnitude greater than the population size. This means that any given population contains only a tiny fraction of all possible genotypic combinations. RESULTS: We show that recombination allows a finite population to resample the genotype pool, i.e., the universe of all possible genotypic combinations. Recombination, in combination with natural selection, enables an evolving sexual population to replace existing genotypes with new, higher-fitness genotypic combinations that did not previously exist in the population. This process allows the sexual population to gradually increase its fitness far beyond the range of fitnesses in the initial population. In contrast to this, an asexual population is limited to selection among existing lower fitness genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide an explanation for the ubiquity of sexual reproduction in evolving natural populations, especially when natural selection is acting on the standing genetic variation.


Assuntos
Reprodução , Seleção Genética , Genótipo , Densidade Demográfica , Reprodução/genética
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 779: 146393, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030256

RESUMO

Warmer climate and more frequent extreme droughts will pose major threats to forest ecosystems. Past demography processes due to post-glacial recolonization and adaptation to local environmental conditions are among the main contributors to genetic differentiation processes among provenances. Assessing the intra-specific variability of tree growth responses to such changes is crucial to explore a species' potential to cope with climate warming. We combined growth-related traits derived from tree-ring width series with neutral genetic information of 18 European provenances of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) growing in two common garden experiments in Switzerland. Analyses based on neutral single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed that the studied provenances grouped into three longitudinal clusters. These three genetic clusters showed differences in growth traits (height and DBH), with the provenances from the eastern cluster exhibiting the highest growth. The Pyrenees cluster showed significantly lower recovery and resilience to the extreme drought of 2003 as well as lower values of growth autocorrelation. QST-FST and correlation analyses with climate of provenance origin suggest that the differences among provenances found in some traits result from natural selection. Our study suggests that the last post-glacial re-colonization and natural selection are the major drivers explaining the intra-specific variability in growth of silver fir across Europe. These findings highlight the importance of combining dendroecology and genetic analyses on fitness-related traits to assess the potential of a species to cope with global environmental change and provide insights to support assisted gene flow to ensure the persistence of the species in European forests.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Secas , Europa (Continente) , Seleção Genética , Suíça
14.
Mol Ecol ; 30(12): 2710-2723, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955064

RESUMO

A key step in understanding the genetic basis of different evolutionary outcomes (e.g., adaptation) is to determine the roles played by different mutation types (e.g., SNPs, translocations and inversions). To do this we must simultaneously consider different mutation types in an evolutionary framework. Here, we propose a research framework that directly utilizes the most important characteristics of mutations, their population genetic effects, to determine their relative evolutionary significance in a given scenario. We review known population genetic effects of different mutation types and show how these may be connected to different evolutionary outcomes. We provide examples of how to implement this framework and pinpoint areas where more data, theory and synthesis are needed. Linking experimental and theoretical approaches to examine different mutation types simultaneously is a critical step towards understanding their evolutionary significance.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Genética Populacional , Modelos Genéticos , Adaptação Fisiológica , Inversão Cromossômica , Mutação , Taxa de Mutação , Densidade Demográfica , Seleção Genética
15.
J Mol Evol ; 89(6): 341-356, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227833

RESUMO

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 is a zoonotic virus with a possible origin in bats and potential transmission to humans through an intermediate host. When zoonotic viruses jump to a new host, they undergo both mutational and natural selective pressures that result in non-synonymous and synonymous adaptive changes, necessary for efficient replication and rapid spread of diseases in new host species. The nucleotide composition and codon usage pattern of SARS-CoV-2 indicate the presence of a highly conserved, gene-specific codon usage bias. The codon usage pattern of SARS-CoV-2 is mostly antagonistic to human and bat codon usage. SARS-CoV-2 codon usage bias is mainly shaped by the natural selection, while mutational pressure plays a minor role. The time-series analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genome indicates that the virus is slowly evolving. Virus isolates from later stages of the outbreak have more biased codon usage and nucleotide composition than virus isolates from early stages of the outbreak.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Uso do Códon/genética , Evolução Molecular , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Animais , COVID-19/transmissão , Quirópteros/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Pandemias , Análise de Componente Principal , Seleção Genética/genética , Fatores de Tempo , Replicação Viral
16.
Ecol Lett ; 24(8): 1646-1654, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010500

RESUMO

The island rule is a putative pattern in island evolution, where small species become larger on islands and large species become smaller. Despite decades of study, a mechanistic explanation for why some taxonomic groups obey the island rule, while others do not, has yet to be identified. Here, we explore whether the island rule might result from evolutionary drift. We derived a simulation model that predicts evolutionary size changes on islands based on random evolutionary trajectories along bounded trait domains. The model consistently predicted the island rule and could account for its occurrence in plants inhabiting islands in the Southwest Pacific. When support for the island rule was not detected, insular gigantism was often observed, suggesting that natural selection was at work. Overall results indicate that evolutionary drift can provide a parsimonious explanation for the island rule, suggesting future work should focus on circumstances where it does not occur.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Seleção Genética , Ilhas , Fenótipo , Plantas
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3160, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039976

RESUMO

Despite the high burden of Plasmodium vivax malaria in South Asian countries, the genetic diversity of circulating parasite populations is not well described. Determinants of antimalarial drug susceptibility for P. vivax in the region have not been characterised. Our genomic analysis of global P. vivax (n = 558) establishes South Asian isolates (n = 92) as a distinct subpopulation, which shares ancestry with some East African and South East Asian parasites. Signals of positive selection are linked to drug resistance-associated loci including pvkelch10, pvmrp1, pvdhfr and pvdhps, and two loci linked to P. vivax invasion of reticulocytes, pvrbp1a and pvrbp1b. Significant identity-by-descent was found in extended chromosome regions common to P. vivax from India and Ethiopia, including the pvdbp gene associated with Duffy blood group binding. Our investigation provides new understanding of global P. vivax population structure and genomic diversity, and genetic evidence of recent directional selection in this important human pathogen.


Assuntos
Genes de Protozoários , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Seleção Genética , África Oriental , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Ásia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Duffy , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Malária Vivax/sangue , Malária Vivax/tratamento farmacológico , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Plasmodium vivax/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium vivax/patogenicidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Reticulócitos/parasitologia
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2838, 2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990594

RESUMO

Atmospheric oxygen is thought to have played a vital role in the evolution of large, complex multicellular organisms. Challenging the prevailing theory, we show that the transition from an anaerobic to an aerobic world can strongly suppress the evolution of macroscopic multicellularity. Here we select for increased size in multicellular 'snowflake' yeast across a range of metabolically-available O2 levels. While yeast under anaerobic and high-O2 conditions evolved to be considerably larger, intermediate O2 constrained the evolution of large size. Through sequencing and synthetic strain construction, we confirm that this is due to O2-mediated divergent selection acting on organism size. We show via mathematical modeling that our results stem from nearly universal evolutionary and biophysical trade-offs, and thus should apply broadly. These results highlight the fact that oxygen is a double-edged sword: while it provides significant metabolic advantages, selection for efficient use of this resource may paradoxically suppress the evolution of macroscopic multicellular organisms.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Células Eucarióticas/citologia , Células Eucarióticas/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Aerobiose , Anaerobiose , Fenômenos Biofísicos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Evolução Molecular Direcionada , Deleção de Genes , Engenharia Genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Seleção Genética , Biologia Sintética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2983, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016968

RESUMO

Urbanisation is increasing worldwide, and there is now ample evidence of phenotypic changes in wild organisms in response to this novel environment. Yet, the genetic changes and genomic architecture underlying these adaptations are poorly understood. Here, we genotype 192 great tits (Parus major) from nine European cities, each paired with an adjacent rural site, to address this major knowledge gap in our understanding of wildlife urban adaptation. We find that a combination of polygenic allele frequency shifts and recurrent selective sweeps are associated with the adaptation of great tits to urban environments. While haplotypes under selection are rarely shared across urban populations, selective sweeps occur within the same genes, mostly linked to neural function and development. Collectively, we show that urban adaptation in a widespread songbird occurs through unique and shared selective sweeps in a core-set of behaviour-linked genes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Evolução Molecular , Passeriformes/fisiologia , Seleção Genética , Urbanização , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Cidades , Europa (Continente) , Frequência do Gene
20.
Ecol Lett ; 24(7): 1505-1521, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931936

RESUMO

Interactions between natural selection and population dynamics are central to both evolutionary-ecology and biological responses to anthropogenic change. Natural selection is often thought to incur a demographic cost that, at least temporarily, reduces population growth. However, hard and soft selection clarify that the influence of natural selection on population dynamics depends on ecological context. Under hard selection, an individual's fitness is independent of the population's phenotypic composition, and substantial population declines can occur when phenotypes are mismatched with the environment. In contrast, under soft selection, an individual's fitness is influenced by its phenotype relative to other interacting conspecifics. Soft selection generally influences which, but not how many, individuals survive and reproduce, resulting in little effect on population growth. Despite these important differences, the distinction between hard and soft selection is rarely considered in ecology. Here, we review and synthesize literature on hard and soft selection, explore their ecological causes and implications and highlight their conservation relevance to climate change, inbreeding depression, outbreeding depression and harvest. Overall, these concepts emphasise that natural selection and evolution may often have negligible or counterintuitive effects on population growth-underappreciated outcomes that have major implications in a rapidly changing world.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Seleção Genética , Humanos , Endogamia , Fenótipo , Dinâmica Populacional
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