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1.
J Surg Res ; 257: 246-251, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Training diverse house staff, including those who are underrepresented in medicine, is vital to provide high-quality patient care for the communities that we serve. In 2018, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education announced new common program requirements for systematic efforts to recruit and retain a diverse workforce. However, questions remain about how to implement such efforts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS) data from eight residency programs spanning two recruitment cycles (2017-2018, 2018-2019) was reviewed. The number of candidates at each stage in the process (applicant, invited to interview, interviewed, and matched) was examined by self-identified race or ethnicity. These data were presented to residency program directors at our Graduate Medical Education committee meeting before the next recruitment cycle. Data were analyzed following the 2019-20 residency match. Odds ratios and Pearson's chi-squared test were used to assess statistical significance. RESULTS: A total of 10,445 and 10,982 medical students applied to our 8 core residency programs in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Medical students who applied and self-identified as Asian, Black or African American, and Hispanic or Latino or Spanish origin had lower odds of being invited to interview than those who self-identified as White. After data presentation, the odds of inviting Black or African American applicants to interview increased significantly. The odds of attending an interview once invited were the same across groups. CONCLUSIONS: Sharing ERAS data patterns with residency program directors was associated with a significant year over year change in interviewee diversity. Structured analysis of institutional ERAS data can provide insight into the resident selection process and may be a useful tool to improve house staff diversity.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Mão de Obra em Saúde/organização & administração , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pessoal/organização & administração , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Candidatura a Emprego , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
2.
Acad Med ; 96(1): 50-55, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910007

RESUMO

The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has led to dramatic changes in the 2020 residency application cycle, including halting away rotations and delaying the application timeline. These stressors are laid on top of a resident selection process already under duress with exploding application and interview numbers-the latter likely to be exacerbated with the widespread shift to virtual interviewing. Leveraging their trainee perspective, the authors propose enforcing a cap on the number of interviews that applicants may attend through a novel interview ticket system (ITS). Specialties electing to participate in the ITS would select an evidence-based, specialty-specific interview cap. Applicants would then receive unique electronic tickets-equal in number to the cap-that would be given to participating programs at the time of an interview, when the tickets would be marked as used. The system would be self-enforcing and would ensure each interview represents genuine interest between applicant and program, while potentially increasing the number of interviews-and thus match rate-for less competitive applicants. Limitations of the ITS and alternative approaches for interview capping, including an honor code system, are also discussed. Finally, in the context of capped interview numbers, the authors emphasize the need for transparent preinterview data from programs to inform applicants and their advisors on which interviews to attend, learning from prior experiences and studies on virtual interviewing, adherence to best practices for interviewing, and careful consideration of how virtual interviews may shift inequities in the resident selection process.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Pandemias , Seleção de Pessoal , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
3.
Laryngoscope ; 131(1): 28-32, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate peri-interview communication in the otolaryngology Match from the applicant's perspective. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey study. METHODS: A survey link was emailed to 401 otolaryngology residency applicants from the 2019 Match cycle. Survey items queried peri-interview communication practices and applicants' attitudes toward communication in the postinterview period. Data were collected anonymously. Qualitative analysis was performed for descriptive statistics. Responses from female and male participants were compared using Fisher exact tests. RESULTS: The survey yielded a 44% (56% male, 44% female) response rate and a 100% completion rate. Of applicants, 18% were told they were ranked to match, and 19% were asked how highly they planned to rank a given program. Interview questions regarding marital status and plans for children were asked to 38% and 12%, respectively. The majority (75%) believe peri-interview communication should be allowed. Most (65%) participants felt obligated to inform top program(s) of their high rank; however, only 45% of applicants found this to be stressful. Peri-interview communication may have altered the rank list for 10% of applicants. Of applicants, 96% created their final rank list based on where they most wanted to match rather than where they would most likely match. CONCLUSIONS: National Resident Matching Program peri-interview communication violations occur in the otolaryngology Match at similar rates when compared to other specialties. Although peri-interview communication can cause significant stress, the majority of otolaryngology residency applicants believe peri-interview communication should be allowed and do not believe it alters applicants' rank lists. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 131:28-32, 2021.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Internato e Residência , Otolaringologia/educação , Seleção de Pessoal , Médicos/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Orthop Clin North Am ; 52(1): 69-76, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222986

RESUMO

This article explores the current state of the residency match in 2020 with a focus on orthopedic surgery, analyzing the utility of current applicant screening methods in producing future generations of competent surgeons. Discussed are anticipated changes to the residency application process considering the COVID-19 pandemic and Step 1 becoming pass/fail in January 2022. Also explored are potential changes to improve the process for applicants and residency programs, such as identifying and using predictive factors of resident success in the applicant screening process, finding better ways to match applicants with programs, and increasing female and underrepresented minorities within orthopedics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Internato e Residência/métodos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/educação , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos/educação , Pandemias , Seleção de Pessoal/métodos , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Critérios de Admissão Escolar , Estados Unidos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241307, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137113

RESUMO

Talent identification and recruitment (TIR) in elite sport is a complex process with performance and career longevity implications for athletes, sports organisations, and scouts (hereafter referred to as recruiters). Although there is an established body of published research on TIR the critical roles that recruiters perform has only recently gained attention from researchers. In this study, we report on the practices that 12 full time Australian Football recruiters use to inform their TIR decisions. Inductive qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted using open-ended questions. Thematic analysis resulted in the identification of four primary themes (the recruiter, processes and practices, assessment and selection). The results and discussion provide insights and an occupational 'road map' into the important role recruiters perform in sporting organisations.


Assuntos
Aptidão , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Futebol Americano/psicologia , Seleção de Pessoal , Adolescente , Atletas/psicologia , Austrália , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisadores/psicologia
12.
Acad Med ; 95(11): 1639-1642, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112586

RESUMO

Calls to change the residency selection process have increased in recent years, with many focusing on the need for holistic review and alternatives to academic metrics. One aspect of applicant performance to consider in holistic review is proficiency in behavioral competencies. The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) developed the AAMC Standardized Video Interview (SVI), an online, asynchronous video interview that assesses applicants' knowledge of professionalism and their interpersonal and communication skills. The AAMC worked with the emergency medicine community to pilot the SVI. Data from 4 years of research (Electronic Residency Application Service [ERAS] 2017-2020 cycles) show the SVI is a reliable, valid assessment of these behavioral competencies. It provides information not available in the ERAS application packet, and it does not disadvantage individuals or groups. Yet despite the SVI's psychometric properties, the AAMC elected not to renew or expand the pilot in residency selection.In this Invited Commentary, the authors share lessons learned from the AAMC SVI project about introducing a new tool for use in residency selection. They recommend that future projects endeavoring to find ways to support holistic review engage all stakeholders from the start; communicate the value of the new tool early and often; make direct comparisons with existing tools; give new tools time and space to succeed; strike a balance between early adopters and broad participation; help stakeholders understand the limitations of what a tool can do; and set clear expectations about both stakeholder input and pricing. They encourage the medical education community to learn from the SVI project and to consider future partnerships with the AAMC or other specialty organizations to develop new tools and approaches that prioritize the community's needs. Finding solutions to the challenges facing residency selection should be a priority for all stakeholders.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência/educação , Internato e Residência , Entrevistas como Assunto , Seleção de Pessoal , Competência Profissional , Habilidades Sociais , Gravação em Vídeo , Comunicação , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
13.
J Card Surg ; 35(10): 2539-2542, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A major difference exists between the rate of females and males entering cardiac surgery (CSx) residency in Canada. The objective of this study was to investigate the concerns and perceived obstacles of medical students with regards to CSx residency training to identify potential modifiable factors. METHODS: A 15-question web-based survey was designed to compare male to female medical students' perceptions with regards to CSx training. The survey was distributed to all 682 medical students at Western University (London, ON, Canada) enrolled during 2018 to 2019 academic year. A total of 153 students (63 males vs 90 females) completed the survey. RESULTS: More females perceived significant levels of difficulties to getting accepted in CSx residency programs (44/63 [63.8%] males vs 77/90 [85.6%] females, P = .03). As for their perception of the most difficult aspect about a career in CSx, more males expressed significant concerns about finding a job after completing the residency training (16/63 [25.3%] males vs 10/90 [11.0%] females, P = .02). A similar proportion of students expressed a strong interest in applying to a CSx residency (12/63 [19.0%] males vs 15/90 [16.7%] females, P = .83). Of these, more males expressed concerns about maintaining a work-life balance (6/12 [50%] males vs 1/15 [6.67%] female, P = .02), and more females expressed fears of not getting matched to CSx residency (3/12 [25%] males vs 11/15 [73.3%] females, P = .02). CONCLUSION: Despite showing a strong interest in completing a residency in CSx, female medical students perceive a significant fear of not getting matched to the speciality, which limits them from applying.


Assuntos
Medo , Identidade de Gênero , Internato e Residência , Candidatura a Emprego , Seleção de Pessoal , Médicas/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Cirurgia Torácica/educação , Adulto , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Appl Psychol ; 105(11): 1207-1217, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030925

RESUMO

This study examines how job search behavior changed at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the weeks following the event's onset, and if the physical contact required by different jobs moderated these trends. Based on event system theory, we argue that the onset of the pandemic created a strong event because it was highly novel, disruptive, and critical. We test this by examining 16 weeks of job applications for 14 organizations that differ in terms of whether the jobs require employees to work from home or face-to-face. We use Bliese, Adler, and Flynn's (2017) transition framework and discontinuous random coefficient growth curve modeling to test the pandemic's effect on job search behavior both during the event onset and then the weeks following the onset. Importantly, we include a 9-week preonset baseline period to provide more rigorous tests of change. Results show that the onset of the pandemic created an immediate increase in job search behavior (job applications), and this effect endured into the postonset period. Job type moderated these trends, such that the onset and postonset applications were substantially greater for work-from-home jobs (which followed a negatively accelerated curve) compared to face-to-face jobs. These findings advance the job search literature by introducing event system theory and transition frameworks to better understand how and why events uniquely influence job search behavior over time. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Candidatura a Emprego , Seleção de Pessoal/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
17.
Eur J Public Health ; 30(Suppl_4): iv5-iv11, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894282

RESUMO

WHO Member States adopted the Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel 10 years ago. This study assesses adherence with the Code's principles and its continuing relevance in the WHO Europe region with regards to international recruitment of health workers. Data from the joint OECD/EUROSTAT/WHO-Europe questionnaire from 2010 to 2018 are analyzed to determine trends in intra- and inter-regional mobility of foreign-trained doctors and nurses working in case study destination countries in Europe. In 2018, foreign-trained doctors and nurses comprised over a quarter of the physician workforce and 5% of the nursing workforce in five of eight and four of five case study countries, respectively. Since 2010, the proportion of foreign-trained nurses and doctors has risen faster than domestically trained professionals, with increased mobility driven by rising East-West and South-North intra-European migration, especially within the European Union. The number of nurses trained in developing countries but practising in case study countries declined by 26%. Although the number of doctors increased by 27%, this was driven by arrivals from countries experiencing conflict and volatility, suggesting countries generally are increasingly adhering to the Code's principles on ethical recruitment. To support ethical recruitment practices and sustainable workforce development in the region, data collection and monitoring on health worker mobility should be improved.


Assuntos
Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal Profissional Estrangeiro/provisão & distribução , Mão de Obra em Saúde/ética , Seleção de Pessoal/normas , Médicos , Emigração e Imigração , União Europeia , Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico , Seleção de Pessoal/ética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Organização Mundial da Saúde
18.
Eur J Public Health ; 30(Suppl_4): iv18-iv21, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949242

RESUMO

In UK, since 2010 shortages of nurses and policy changes led many health service providers to become more active in recruiting nurses from the European Union Member States. This article analyses the experience of Portuguese nurses working in the English NHS considering the individual and organizational factors that affect the quality and duration of nurses' migration experience, future career plans and expectations. Twenty-seven semi-structured interviews were conducted at the individual, organizational and policy levels in UK with Portuguese nurses and NHS healthcare staff in 2015-16. The results demonstrate that organizational settings, conditions, actors' attitudes and level of support influence nurses' level of commitment to their employer and their overall mobility experience. Professional achievements, professional and personal sources of support made these nurses evaluate their overall mobility experience as positive, even overcoming personal challenges such as homesickness. The results reveal that migration is accomplished through constant interaction between institutions and individual actors at different levels. Understanding the influencing factors as well as the complex and dynamic nature of a professional's decision-making can design more effective retention responses.


Assuntos
Relações Interprofissionais , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Seleção de Pessoal/organização & administração , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Motivação , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/organização & administração , Portugal , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Reino Unido
19.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 44, sept. 2020
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52651

RESUMO

Objetivo. Identificar y sistematizar la evidencia empírica disponible sobre factores e intervenciones que inciden en las condiciones y medio ambiente de trabajo para incrementar la atracción, captación y retención de recursos humanos en salud en el primer nivel de atención de áreas rurales, remotas o desatendidas. Métodos. Revisión rápida de revisiones, seleccionadas según criterios de pertinencia, elegibilidad e inclusión con búsquedas en bases de datos electrónicas, de literatura gris y manual. Se empleó el AMSTAR I para evaluar la calidad de revisiones sistemáticas y un análisis temático para síntesis de resultados. Resultados. Se incluyeron 16 revisiones, una de las cuales contenía a su vez 14 revisiones. Del total, 20 revisiones analizaron factores y 9 evaluaron efectividad de intervenciones. La evidencia sobre factores es abundante, pero de limitada calidad. Los factores individuales, familiares y la “exposición rural previa” se asociaron a mayor captación; factores organizacionales y del contexto externo fueron gravitantes en la retención. El trabajo en red y el apoyo profesional incidieron en la captación y retención. La evidencia sobre efectividad de intervenciones fue limitada, en cantidad y calidad. El tipo de intervención más frecuentemente empleada fueron los incentivos. Conclusiones. La evidencia sobre factores que se relacionan positivamente con la captación y retención de trabajadores en el primer nivel de atención de áreas rurales, remotas o desatendidas es suficiente y debería ser tenida en cuenta al diseñar intervenciones. La evidencia de calidad sobre la efectividad de intervenciones es escasa. Se requieren más estudios controlados con rigurosidad metodológica, particularmente en las Américas. Palabras clave Condiciones de trabajo


Objective. To identify and systematize available empirical evidence on factors and interventions that affect working conditions and environment in order to increase the attraction, recruitment and retention of human resources for health at the primary care level in rural, remote or underserved areas. Methods. Rapid review of reviews selected according to relevance, eligibility and inclusion criteria. The search was conducted on electronic and manual databases, including grey literature. AMSTAR I was used to assess the quality of systematic reviews and a thematic analysis for synthesis of the results. Results. Sixteen reviews were included, one of which contained 14 reviews. Of the total, 20 reviews analyzed factors and 9 evaluated the effectiveness of interventions. The evidence on factors is abundant, but of limited quality. Individual, family and “previous exposure to a rural setting” factors were associated with higher recruitment; organizational and external context factors were important for human resource retention. Networking and professional support influenced recruitment and retention. Evidence on the effectiveness of interventions was limited, both in quantity and quality. The most frequently used intervention was incentives. Conclusions. Evidence on factors that are positively related to recruitment and retention of workers at the first level of care in rural, remote or underserved areas is sufficient and should be taken into account when designing interventions. Quality evidence on the effectiveness of interventions is scarce. More controlled studies with methodological rigor are needed, particularly in the Americas.


Assuntos
Condições de Trabalho , Zona Rural , Zonas Remotas , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Recursos Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Seleção de Pessoal , Condições de Trabalho , Zona Rural , Zonas Remotas , Seleção de Pessoal , Atenção Primária à Saúde
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993023

RESUMO

The research aimed to identify managers' conceptions of disability and the relationship that was established between these conceptions and their perception of the persons with disabilities (PWD) performance, bond, benefits of hiring, and training needs. 257 managers answered a questionnaire in order to identify conceptions of disability in organizations. Descriptive statistics, factorial analysis, and hierarchical analysis of grouping were performed while using IBM Statistic 20.0.0. The results show that managers who have the spiritual and the conception based on inclusion perceive the insertion of PWD as beneficial to the organization. Those who conceive disability as a question of normality perceive the PWD performance as inferior to those without disabilities, which implies that PWDs should be segregated; and, the managers who perceive disability as a social problem are likely to place PWDs in the workplace according to their potential. The results can be fruitfully used by managers, human resources' professionals, academics, and the society to promote inclusion.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/reabilitação , Local de Trabalho , Humanos , Cultura Organizacional , Percepção , Seleção de Pessoal , Preconceito , Reabilitação Vocacional/métodos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
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