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1.
J Surg Res ; 257: 246-251, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Training diverse house staff, including those who are underrepresented in medicine, is vital to provide high-quality patient care for the communities that we serve. In 2018, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education announced new common program requirements for systematic efforts to recruit and retain a diverse workforce. However, questions remain about how to implement such efforts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS) data from eight residency programs spanning two recruitment cycles (2017-2018, 2018-2019) was reviewed. The number of candidates at each stage in the process (applicant, invited to interview, interviewed, and matched) was examined by self-identified race or ethnicity. These data were presented to residency program directors at our Graduate Medical Education committee meeting before the next recruitment cycle. Data were analyzed following the 2019-20 residency match. Odds ratios and Pearson's chi-squared test were used to assess statistical significance. RESULTS: A total of 10,445 and 10,982 medical students applied to our 8 core residency programs in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Medical students who applied and self-identified as Asian, Black or African American, and Hispanic or Latino or Spanish origin had lower odds of being invited to interview than those who self-identified as White. After data presentation, the odds of inviting Black or African American applicants to interview increased significantly. The odds of attending an interview once invited were the same across groups. CONCLUSIONS: Sharing ERAS data patterns with residency program directors was associated with a significant year over year change in interviewee diversity. Structured analysis of institutional ERAS data can provide insight into the resident selection process and may be a useful tool to improve house staff diversity.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Mão de Obra em Saúde/organização & administração , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pessoal/organização & administração , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Candidatura a Emprego , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
2.
Am J Surg ; 221(1): 90-94, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Females comprise 1/3 of general surgery residents, 1/4 of surgical faculty and 10% of full professors. Inadequate sponsorship is one proposed mechanism for this decline. This study evaluated letters of recommendation (LOR) among applicants applying to a complex general surgical oncology (CGSO) fellowship. METHODS: Linguistic analysis of LOR for CGSO applicants was conducted. Demographics of authors and features of the LOR were extracted. Differences by gender of the applicant were analyzed. RESULTS: Among 340 letters, 67% were written for male and 33% written for female applicants. Males authored 84% of letters reviewed. Female authors used more grindstone adjectives than males (3.61 v 2.90). However, this difference was seen only among letters written for male applicants (3.82 v. 2.73). All other linguistic features were similar, aside from mention of physical appearance which was significantly more common in letters written about female applicants (4% v. 1%). CONCLUSIONS: Female authors write substantively different letters than males. Physical appearance is a small but important difference in letters for female applicants.


Assuntos
Correspondência como Assunto , Bolsas de Estudo/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Candidatura a Emprego , Oncologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
4.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73 Suppl 2: e20200225, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to know and analyze the nursing appeals on social media during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: it is a documentary, qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory research with data collected in publications in two social media. Two hundred ninety-five publications of nursing professionals published on Twitter and Instagram between March 11 and 20, 2020 were submitted to content analysis using ATLAS.ti resources. RESULTS: four thematic categories emerged: #stayathome, #whereismyPPE, #nowweareheroes, #nothingnewinthefrontline, according to frequency of communications. The appeals show a relationship with the social relevance of nursing professional work and with the conditions required for its exercise. Final considerations: old and new challenges of the profession were placed on the agenda in social media, especially related to the workforce and instruments of labor. These speeches can serve as a foundation for policies to improve working conditions and promote appreciation of the profession.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/provisão & distribução , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pessoal/métodos , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias
5.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(4)2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621675

RESUMO

Dermatology is arguably the most competitive residency (81.6% match rate for United States allopathic seniors) with significantly more applicants than available positions. To objectify this process, the National Residency Match Program (NRMP) has produced bi-annual Charting Outcomes in Match (COM) datasets, which aggregate data from the prior two application cycles and tabulate statistics to aid applicants. In parallel, online forums provide medical trainees with vast amounts of information, including residency application insights. Reddit medical school subforum compiles annual spreadsheets of anonymous, individualized applicant data to aid future applicants. We compared this data to NRMP data to show that although the data means are similar (e.g. Step 1), the Reddit dermatology spreadsheet collects more data and the individualized nature aids applicants in a personalized way unlike the mean aggregate data in NRMP. Under univariate analysis, Alpha Omega Alpha status, overall publications, and dermatology-specific publications are associated with interview invitation rates. Although limitations of the study include small data size and reporting bias, this is the first of its kind to our knowledge to compare these two often-used tools to aid dermatology applicants. Future endeavors should expand anonymous data reporting and use the data to carry out more extensive studies to investigate factors influencing the application process.


Assuntos
Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Dermatologia/educação , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolha da Profissão , Entrevistas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos
8.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 144(4): 420-426, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971466

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: Disagreement exists within the pathology community about the status of the job market for pathologists. Although many agree that jobs in pathology were harder to come by earlier this decade, recent evidence suggests improvement is occurring. OBJECTIVE.­: To assess the state of the job market for pathologists. DESIGN.­: We analyzed data from the 2018 College of American Pathologists Practice Leader Survey. This survey contains data from 253 practice leaders on practices' hiring (and retrenchments) in 2017, the skills and level of experience being sought, success in filling those positions, and expectations for hiring in the next 3 years. RESULTS.­: Among the surveyed practice leaders, 115 (45.5%) sought to hire at least 1 pathologist in 2017, and together tried to fill 246 full-time equivalent positions that year, of which 93.5 full-time equivalents (38%) were newly created. This hiring was not limited to larger, academic-based practices, but also occurred among smaller practices and practices based in nonacademic hospitals, independent laboratories, and other settings. Although some practices retrenched (60 full-time equivalents in 2017), the net increase was a healthy 187 full-time equivalents. Practices most frequently sought pathologists who had at least 2 years of experience, but the level of experience identified with the "optimal" candidate varied by desired areas of subspecialty expertise. Practice leaders also reported expected growth in hiring, with the number of positions they hope to fill in the next 3 years exceeding those vacated by retirement. CONCLUSIONS.­: Our findings support the proposition that the demand for pathologists is strong, at least at the current time.


Assuntos
Patologistas/provisão & distribução , Patologia Clínica/tendências , Escolha da Profissão , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Pract Radiat Oncol ; 10(1): e3-e7, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369886

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Many radiation oncology programs use Step 1 score metrics as a surrogate for intelligence and success to screen applicants. The impact of this practice on radiation oncology applicant pool diversity is unknown. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Electronic Residency Application Service applications submitted to our institution between 2015 and 2018 match cycles were reviewed. Sex, age, race/ethnicity, and Step 1 scores were collected. Groupings by characteristics were sex (female vs male), age ≤30 versus >30 years, and race/ethnicity by underrepresented minority (URM) versus non-URM status. URMs were defined as Black/African American, Hispanic, Native American/Alaskan Native, and Hawaiian/Pacific Islander. Step 1 scores were divided based on scores of 220 and 240. The association between applicant demographics and Step 1 scores was assessed using proportional odds logistic regression for ordinal outcomes. RESULTS: Eight hundred ten applicants with Step 1 scores ranging from 188 to 275 were collected, representing nearly 90% of all applicants during the 2015 to 2018 Electronic Residency Application Service cycles. Twenty-nine percent were female, 29% were >30 years of age, and 10% were URMs. Increasing Step 1 score requirements disproportionately decreased representation of applicants who were female versus male at 240 (-51% vs -31%), >30 versus ≤30 years old at 220 (-28% vs -6%) and 240 (-55% vs -26%), and URMs versus non-URMs at 220 (-34% vs -9%) and 240 (-61% vs -34%). On analysis, Step 1 score requirements had a statistically significantly impact on applicant distributions based on sex, age, and URM status (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Overemphasis of Step 1 scores may reduce the diversity of the radiation oncology applicant pool. Further evaluation of practices that counter the stated American Society of Clinical Oncology, American Society of Radiation Oncology, and American College of Radiology diversity missions should be pursued to improve understanding of barriers and biases.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Candidatura a Emprego , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pessoal/normas , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/educação , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Avaliação Educacional/normas , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência/normas , Licenciamento em Medicina/normas , Licenciamento em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/normas , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos
11.
Am J Surg ; 219(6): 932-936, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Letters of recommendation (LoR) are considered one of the most important predictors of matching into a pediatric surgery fellowship. We determined if gendered differences exist in LoR written for resident candidates. METHODS: A retrospective review of blinded LoR to a fellowship program between 2015 and 2017 was performed. RESULTS: Of the 364 LoR reviewed for 49 female and 48 male applicants, male surgeons wrote 82.5% of letters. Male LoR contained more agentic terms (p = 0. 042), first name occurrences (p = 0.0082) and phrase "future success" (p = 0.015). Female letters included more socio-communal phrases (p = 0. 010) and 5% referenced a spouse's accomplishments vs. 0% of male letters. Male LoR contained more active possessive language (p-0. 027); ie: "he published", "he presented". We found no difference in an applicant's research experience (p = 0.06) or leadership qualities (p = 0. 067). CONCLUSION: Gender differences exist in LoR written for fellowship applicants applying to a highly competitive subspecialty.


Assuntos
Bolsas de Estudo , Candidatura a Emprego , Pediatria/educação , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pessoal/normas , Distribuição por Sexo , Especialidades Cirúrgicas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Am J Nurs ; 120(1): 28-38, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2007 AcademyHealth published a landmark report on the U.S.-based international nurse recruitment industry. This article provides an update to that report, describing the current state of recruitment of foreign-educated health professionals (FEHPs), in particular foreign-educated nurses (FENs), to the United States. Areas covered include the regulatory landscape, economic issues, recruitment industry changes, and current demographic and migration trends. PURPOSE: To learn more, CGFNS International, Inc., formerly known as the Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools, and its Alliance for Ethical International Recruitment Practices division conducted a study designed to elicit qualitative and quantitative data that would further illuminate the recruitment experience. METHODS: Researchers conducted a survey of FEHPs, recruited from those who used VisaScreen services between 2015 and 2017, designed to assess their recruitment experiences. They also conducted interviews with a smaller sample of FENs and recruiters to elicit greater detail. RESULTS: While there was evidence of progress relative to the ethical recruitment of FEHPs, issues such as high breach fees, inadequate orientation, and misalignment of expectations regarding work environment and location were also revealed. CONCLUSION: Given that FEHP migration to the United States is likely to continue its upward trajectory, better strategies to implement market-wide practices that ensure the safe, orderly, and ethical recruitment of FEHPs are needed.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação Médica Continuada/organização & administração , Pessoal Profissional Estrangeiro/provisão & distribução , Pessoal Profissional Estrangeiro/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pessoal/métodos , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
13.
Work ; 65(1): 39-51, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with hearing loss experience unique barriers to employment frequently documented in the areas of communication and education. The purpose of this article is to contribute to extend this inquiry to the uniqueness of workplace discrimination involving persons with hearing loss. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated differences in allegations of workplace discrimination filed by persons with hearing loss ("Hearing") compared to those filed by persons with other physical or neurological disabilities (General Disability, or "GENDIS") before and after the enactment of the 2008 Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act (2008 Amendments). METHODS: Using secondary data collected from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Integrated Mission System, we employ simple measures of proportion and odds ratios to describe differences between allegations derived from GENDIS and Hearing loss populations. These are population statistics, and not samples, of all allegations of discrimination reported to the EEOC through 2016. The comparisons involve Characteristics of the Charging Parties, Issues or discriminatory behaviors alleged, and closure statuses or Merit Rate of the EEOC's investigations - both before and after the 2008 Amendments. RESULTS: Following the 2008 Amendments, Charging Parties changed dramatically on age and gender status. Reasonable Accommodation, Hiring, Harassment, and employment Terms and Conditions showed unique features between groups and/or time periods. The "veracity" (confirmed truthfulness or merit) of the EEOC allegation (or Merit) rate also changed following the Amendments: higher for GENDIS; lower for Hearing. CONCLUSIONS: Possible rationale for these findings are offered, and new research questions are raised. Finally, implications for the cross-disability movement are presented.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/legislação & jurisprudência , Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/legislação & jurisprudência , Preconceito , Adulto , Surdez , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Perda Auditiva , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pessoal/legislação & jurisprudência , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
14.
Laryngoscope ; 130(3): 603-608, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063586

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The objective of this study were to determine if any of the 10 attributes of the standardized letter of recommendation (SLOR) correlate significantly with objective measures of each applicant and to determine whether professor characteristics were associated with reported SLOR attributes. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: We reviewed 339 SLORs from 187 otolaryngology residency applicants. The 10 SLOR attributes were converted into a percentile score and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: All 10 SLOR attributes had a mean ± standard deviation above the 80th percentile (0.82-0.93 ± 0.08-0.52) and negative skewness. United States Medical Licensing Examination step 1 and 2 scores correlated most strongly with match potential (B = 93.1,P < .001 and B = 96.3, P = .002, respectively). Students from top 40 National Institutes of Health-funded institutions had a significant difference in length of relationship with their letter writer (B = -0.51, P = .02) and interpersonal communication skills (B = -12.9, P = .011). Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) and non-AOA members differed in medical knowledge (B = 21.0, P = .007), research (B = -8.80, P = .036), and commitment to otolaryngology (B = -25.89, P = .020). Total number of research experiences correlated most strongly with medical knowledge (B = -16.55, P = .011). There was a significant difference in means between length of relationship and professorial rank (F[4, 339] = 3.61, P = .023), administrative position (F[5, 339] = 5.43, P = .002), and institution of the letter writer (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the lack of correlation between SLOR attributes and objective measures suggests that the SLOR adds little to the residency application. Professor characteristics were similarly not associated with any of the 10 SLOR attributes; however, there were significant differences in the length of relationship between the professor and students with respect to professor rank, administrative rank, and institution of the letter writer. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 130:603-608, 2020.


Assuntos
Avaliação Educacional/normas , Internato e Residência/normas , Otolaringologia/educação , Seleção de Pessoal/normas , Adulto , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Otolaringologia/normas , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
15.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 73(supl.2): e20200225, 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1115419

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to know and analyze the nursing appeals on social media during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: it is a documentary, qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory research with data collected in publications in two social media. Two hundred ninety-five publications of nursing professionals published on Twitter and Instagram between March 11 and 20, 2020 were submitted to content analysis using ATLAS.ti resources. Results: four thematic categories emerged: #stayathome, #whereismyPPE, #nowweareheroes, #nothingnewinthefrontline, according to frequency of communications. The appeals show a relationship with the social relevance of nursing professional work and with the conditions required for its exercise. Final considerations: old and new challenges of the profession were placed on the agenda in social media, especially related to the workforce and instruments of labor. These speeches can serve as a foundation for policies to improve working conditions and promote appreciation of the profession.


RESUMEN Objetivo: conocer y analizar las llamadas de enfermería en las redes sociales durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Método: investigación documental, cualitativa, descriptiva y exploratoria, con datos recopilados en publicaciones en dos redes sociales, sometidos a análisis de contenido utilizando recursos del software ATLAS.ti. Se analizaron 295 publicaciones de profesionales de enfermería publicadas en Twitter e Instagram entre el 11 y el 20 de marzo de 2020. Resultados: fue organizado en cuatro categorías temáticas: #quédeseencasa, #dóndeestámiEPP, #ahorasomoshéroes, #nadanuevoenlalíneadefrente, según la frecuencia en las comunicaciones. Las apelaciones muestran una relación con la utilidad social del trabajo profesional y las condiciones requeridas para su ejercicio. Consideraciones finales: los viejos y nuevos desafíos de la profesión se colocaron en la agenda de las redes sociales, especialmente en relación con las herramientas de trabajo y la propia fuerza laboral. Estos discursos pueden servir de base para políticas que mejoren las condiciones de trabajo y promuevan la apreciación de la profesión.


RESUMO Objetivo: conhecer e analisar os apelos da Enfermagem nas mídias sociais durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Método: pesquisa documental, qualitativa, descritiva e exploratória, com dados coletados em publicações em duas mídias sociais, submetidos à análise de conteúdo utilizando recursos do software ATLAS.ti. Foram analisadas 295 publicações de profissionais de enfermagem veiculadas no Twitter e no Instagram entre os dias 11 e 20 de março de 2020. Resultados: organizados em quatro categorias temáticas: #fiqueemcasa, #cadêmeuEPI, #agorasomosheróis, #nadadenovonofront, segundo frequência nas comunicações. Os apelos mostram relação com a utilidade social do trabalho profissional e com condições requeridas para seu exercício. Considerações finais: antigos e novos desafios da profissão foram colocados em pauta nas mídias sociais, especialmente relacionados aos instrumentos de trabalho e à própria força de trabalho. Esses discursos podem servir de alicerce para políticas de melhoria das condições trabalho e fomentar a valorização da profissão.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Seleção de Pessoal/métodos , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Infecções por Coronavirus , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/provisão & distribução , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Betacoronavirus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Cir. Esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 97(10): 560-567, dic. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187931

RESUMO

Introducción: El acceso de los cirujanos a los equipos de trasplante hepático en España se realiza de manera heterogénea. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido cuantificar los recursos humanos de los equipos de trasplante españoles, la distribución de las diferentes tareas del trasplante entre los miembros del equipo, el mecanismo mediante el cual se adquieren las habilidades, la visión de sus líderes sobre su continuidad, así como las motivaciones de los residentes de cirugía general españoles para elegir el trasplante como su futura carrera profesional. Métodos: Se elaboraron dos encuestas diferentes, para los jefes de equipo y para residentes, sobre número de personas, capacitación, reclutamiento, organización de tareas y motivación para trabajar en trasplantes. Los cuestionarios se enviaron por correo electrónico tanto a los directores de programa de trasplante como a los residentes de cirugía. Resultados: Hay en promedio 8 cirujanos en cada unidad de trasplante. Más de 4 cirujanos realizan la hepatectomía en el 54,2% de los grupos, mientras que el implante lo realiza más de 4 cirujanos en solo el 25% de los centros. El 42% de los jefes de trasplante hepático aboga por un sistema tipo fellowship y el 87,5% cree que el recambio generacional está garantizado. De los 525 residentes, 101 respondieron. Respecto a la formación, un 12,8% no tiene interés en el trasplante. En cuanto a sus preferencias laborales, el 37,6% no está interesado en el trasplante por ser excesivamente exigente, y el 52,5% no desea ser parte de un equipo de trasplante de hígado en el futuro. Conclusiones: El recambio generacional parece estar garantizado según los directores de programa de trasplante de hígado. Las nuevas generaciones de cirujanos generalmente optan por otras áreas de cirugía diferentes al trasplante. Son necesarios estudios con mayor número de respuestas para validar estos resultados


Introduction: The access of surgeons to liver transplant teams in Spain is heterogeneous. This study aims to portray the current human resources of Spanish transplant teams, distribution of transplant duties among team members, how transplant team members acquire their skills, their leaders' view of their future, as well the motivations of Spanish General Surgery residents to choose transplantation as their future career choice. Methods: Two different surveys were created, one for head surgeons and one for residents, about the number of team members and their training, recruitment, organization of tasks and motivation to work in transplantation. The questionnaires were e-mailed to both the transplant program directors and the surgical residents. Results: There are on average 8 surgeons in each transplant unit. More than four surgeons perform the hepatectomy in 54.2% of the groups, while the graft implantation is performed by more than 4 surgeons at just 25% of the centers. Forty-two percent of the transplant chiefs advocated a fellowship training system, and 87.5% believe that generational turnover is guaranteed. Out of 525 residents, 101 responded. Regarding training, 12.8% had no interest in transplantation. Concerning their work preferences, 37.6% were not interested in transplantation because it is excessively demanding, and 52.5% would not like to be part of a liver transplant team in the future. Conclusions: The generational turnover seems to be guaranteed according to liver transplant program directors. The new generations of surgeons generally opt for other areas of surgery other than transplantation. Studies with a greater number of responses are necessary to validate these results


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Emprego/normas , Mão de Obra em Saúde/organização & administração , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgiões/provisão & distribução , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Escolha da Profissão , Competência Clínica , Educação/normas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Bolsas de Estudo/estatística & dados numéricos , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Motivação/fisiologia , Seleção de Pessoal/métodos , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Diretores Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Cirurgiões/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 217, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692790

RESUMO

Nurses have been identified as active workforce post-retirement. Little is known about nurses' intention to work post-retirement and their work ability and perceptions post-retirement. The aim of this scoping review is to identify studies that have investigated nurses' intention and recruitment strategies to work post-retirement and their work ability and perceptions post-retirement. PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, Nursing and Health Database and in addition Google scholar were searched using different keywords (retired nurses, retired RNs, work intention, work ability, work perceptions, and older nurses) and an independent reviewer cross-validated all the identified articles. Of the thirty-seven studies identified from the search, 26 papers were excluded based on exclusion criteria, with a total of 11 studies finally included in the study sample. The review found in two studies low and high intentions to work as nurses after retirement. Factors influencing both intentions and recruitment strategies to work as a nurse post-retirement focused on lighter and flexible work conditions, supportive environment, financial incentives and formal rehiring policies. Nurses working post-retirement reported benefits (intrinsic factors such as self-worth, overcoming social isolation) and barriers (such as job demands and reduced physical work ability). The review found low and high intentions to work as nurses after retirement and identified factors influencing both intentions and recruitment strategies to work as a nurse post-retirement and benefits and barriers of working as nurses post-retirement that can inform strategies to retain nurses post-retirement.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Aposentadoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Intenção , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação da Capacidade de Trabalho
18.
Hum Resour Health ; 17(1): 75, 2019 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Choosing who should be recruited as a community health worker (CHW) is an important task, for their future performance partly depends on their ability to learn the required knowledge and skills, and their personal attributes. Developing a fair and effective selection process for CHWs is a challenging task, and reports of attempts to do so are rare. This paper describes a five-stage process of development and initial testing of a CHW selection process in two CHW programmes, one in Malawi and one in Ghana, highlighting the lessons learned at each stage and offering recommendations to other CHW programme providers seeking to develop their own selection processes. CASE PRESENTATION: The five stages of selection process development were as follows: (1) review an existing selection process, (2) conduct a job analysis, (3) elicit stakeholder opinions, (4) co-design the selection process and (5) test the selection process. Good practice in selection process development from the human resource literature and the principles of co-design were considered throughout. Validity, reliability, fairness, acceptability and feasibility-the determinants of selection process utility-were considered as appropriate during stages 1 to 4 and used to guide the testing in stage 5. The selection methods used by each local team were a written test and a short interview. CONCLUSIONS: Working with stakeholders, including CHWs, helped to ensure the acceptability of the selection processes developed. Expectations of intensiveness-in particular the number of interviewers-needed to be managed as resources for selection are limited, and CHWs reported that any form of interview may be stressful. Testing highlighted the importance of piloting with CHWs to ensure clarity of wording of questions, interviewer training to maximise inter-rater reliability and the provision of guidance to applicants in advance of any selection events. Trade-offs between the different components of selection process utility are also likely to be required. Further refinements and evaluation of predictive validity (i.e. a sixth stage of development) would be recommended before roll-out.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pessoal/métodos , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , África ao Sul do Saara , Humanos
19.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 76(21): 1788-1793, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612922

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The attitudes and expectations of residency program directors (RPDs) regarding nontraditional residency applicants (NTAs) were evaluated. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, survey-based study targeting RPDs of American Society of Health-System Pharmacists-accredited residency programs. A 14-question survey requesting information related to demographics, perceptions of NTAs compared with traditional applicants, advantages and disadvantages of NTAs, and advice for NTAs was administered electronically to RPDs. The primary outcome of this study was to determine RPDs' perceptions of NTAs as suitable residency candidates. The secondary outcome evaluated the rate of NTA acceptance into residency programs and a qualitative assessment of RPDs' advice for NTAs. RESULTS: Of the 1,414 RPDs contacted to participate, 328 (23%) completed the survey. RPDs were primarily affiliated with postgraduate year 1 pharmacy practice (52%) or postgraduate year 2 specialty residencies (30%), and 35% reported having an NTA in their program. Most respondents (87%) reported that NTAs are given equal consideration relative to traditional residency applicants. RPDs rated work experience as the most important quality of an NTA, followed closely by the ability to work with others and teachability. Most (277 [85%]) RPDs agreed that NTAs should possess experiences beyond work experience, such as research, leadership, and community service. The biggest concern regarding NTAs was significant time since graduation prior to application. CONCLUSION: The majority of RPDs did not perceive NTAs differently from traditional applicants in the selection process of prospective candidates.


Assuntos
Seleção de Pessoal/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Residências em Farmácia/organização & administração , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
20.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 76(23): 1944-1950, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605104

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Results of a study to identify characteristics associated with pharmacy residency applicant success in obtaining an invitation to interview and a top candidate ranking are reported. Subsequent development and initial validation of a predictive model based on those characteristics are described. METHODS: Bivariable analyses were performed for planned stratifications of applicants to a health-system pharmacy administration residency program according to whether they were offered an on-site interview or were among the 8 top candidates by final candidate ranking. A Random Forest algorithm was created to identify predictors of the likelihood of an applicant being offered an on-site interview. RESULTS: Applicants who were offered interviews had a higher median pharmacy school grade point average (GPA) than those not invited to interview: 3.63 (interquartile range [IQR], 3.46-3.79) versus 3.35 (IQR, 3.2-3.49); p < 0.001. Invited applicants also received more scholarships during pharmacy school (median, 2 [IQR, 1-3) versus 1 [IQR, 0-2]; p = 0.002). Applicants with prior work experience as a hospital pharmacy intern were also more likely than those without such experience to be offered an interview (70.0% versus 37.8% were invited, p = 0.001), as were applicants who presented a poster at a national meeting during pharmacy school (80% versus 60%, p = 0.02) or who served in a national pharmacy organization leadership position (41.4% versus 20%, p = 0.03). Pharmacy school GPA was associated with final candidate ranking; top-ranked candidates had a significantly higher median GPA than lower-ranked applicants (3.68 [IQR, 3.51-3.8] versus 3.48 [IQR, 3.23-3.7]; p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Objective criteria within the realms of academic performance and prior work experience may be used to streamline the applicant screening process when determining candidates to invite for an on-site interview. Pharmacy school GPA was the only characteristic found to be associated with applicant final ranking.


Assuntos
Liderança , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Administração Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Residências em Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Bolsas de Estudo/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Seleção de Pessoal/métodos , Editoração/estatística & dados numéricos , Faculdades de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Sociedades Farmacêuticas/organização & administração , Sociedades Farmacêuticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia
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