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1.
Food Chem ; 338: 127803, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822899

RESUMO

Quercus acorns have been used as a staple food since archeological times; currently, there is a renewed interest in the direct use of the acorns as nuts or as a source of consumable flour. In this regard, the phytochemical composition and variability of various morphotypes of acorns from Quercus ilex have been determined by using two platforms, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics. According to NIRS, starch was the most abundant compound (50-60%). UHPLC-QToF analysis was used for untargeted metabolomic analysis and 192 metabolites were annotated. Principal component analysis (PCA) discriminated the morphotypes; 50 compounds out of 192 identified had the highest load over the first two PCA components (explaining 67.2% variability) and can be potential markers of variability. The data presented here support the value of acorns as a source of nutritionally rich compounds thus justifying their use a good alternative to other nuts.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Quercus/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/fisiologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise de Componente Principal , Quercus/metabolismo , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Amido/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243238, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338076

RESUMO

Knowledge of genetic diversity in plant germplasm and the relationship between genetic factors and phenotypic expression is vital for crop improvement. This study's objectives were to understand the extent of genetic diversity and population structure in 60 common bean genotypes from East and Southern Africa. The common bean genotypes exhibited significant (p<0.05) levels of variability for traits such as days to flowering (DTF), days to maturity (DTM), number of pods per plant (NPP), number of seeds per pod (NSP), and grain yield per hectare in kilograms (GYD). About 47.82 per cent of the variation among the genotypes was explained by seven principal components (PC) associated with the following agronomic traits: NPP, NFF (nodes to first flower), DTF, GH (growth habit) and GYD. The SNP markers revealed mean gene diversity and polymorphic information content values of 0.38 and 0.25, respectively, which suggested the presence of considerable genetic variation among the assessed genotypes. Analysis of molecular variance showed that 51% of the genetic variation were between the gene pools, while 49% of the variation were within the gene pools. The genotypes were delineated into two distinct groups through the population structure, cluster and phylogenetic analyses. Genetically divergent genotypes such as DRK57, MW3915, NUA59, and VTTT924/4-4 with high yield and agronomic potential were identified, which may be useful for common bean improvement.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Phaseolus/genética , Sementes/genética , África Oriental , África Austral , Grão Comestível/anatomia & histologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Phaseolus/anatomia & histologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sementes/anatomia & histologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234627, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530960

RESUMO

Cuscuta (dodders) is a group of parasitic plants with tremendous economic and ecological significance. Their seeds are often described as "simple" or "unspecialized" because they do not exhibit any classical dispersal syndrome traits. Previous studies of seed morphology and/or anatomy were conducted on relatively few species. We expanded research to 101 species; reconstructed ancestral character states; investigated correlations among seed characters and explored allometric relationships with breeding systems, the size of geographical distribution of species in North America, as well as the survival of seedlings. Seed morphological and anatomical characters permit the separation of subgenera, but not of sections. Identification of Cuscuta species using seed characteristics is difficult but not impossible if their geographical origin is known. Seeds of subg. Monogynella species, exhibit the likely ancestral epidermis type consisting of elongated and interlocked cells, which are morphologically invariant, uninfluenced by dryness/wetness. Subgenera Cuscuta, Pachystigma and Grammica have evolved a seed epidermis with isodiametric cells that can alternate their morphology between two states: pitted when seeds are dry, and papillose after seed imbibition. A seed coat with double palisade architecture throughout the entire seed has also apparently evolved in subgenera Cuscuta, Pachystigma and Grammica, but several species in two clades of the latter subgenus reverted to a single palisade layer outside the hilum area. The same latter species also evolved a peculiar, globose embryo, likely having a storage role, in contrast to the ancestral filiform and coiled embryo present throughout the remainder of the genus. Autogamous species had on average the highest number of seeds per capsule, whereas fully xenogamous taxa had the lowest. No correlation was revealed between the size of the seeds and the size of their geographical distribution in North America, but seedlings of species with larger seeds survived significantly longer than seedlings resulted from smaller seeds. Diversity and evolution of seed traits was discussed in relationship with their putative roles in dormancy, germination and dispersal.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Classificação , Cuscuta/anatomia & histologia , Cuscuta/classificação , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Análise de Variância , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Análise de Regressão , Plântula/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/ultraestrutura
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6786, 2020 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321974

RESUMO

Aiming to understand Nature´s strategies that inspire new composite materials, the hierarchical levels of organization of the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) mesocarp were investigated. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microtomography (MicroCT) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) were used to deeply describe the cellular and fibrillary levels of organization. The mesocarp is the middle layer of the fruit which has developed several strategies to avoid its opening and protect its seed. Fibers have a different orientation in the three layers of the mesocarp, what reduces the anisotropy of the structure. Sclereids cells with thick cell walls fill the spaces between the fibers resembling a foam-filled structural composite. The mesocarp has several tubular channels and fractured surfaces which may work as sites for crack trapping and increase toughness. The thick and lignified cell wall of sclereids and fibers and the weak interface between cells can promote a longer and tortuous intercellular crack path. Additionally, fibers with high strength and stiffness due to microfibrils oriented along the main cell axis (µ = 0° to 17°) were identified in the innermost layer of the mesocarp. Such an understanding of each hierarchical level can inspire the development of new cellular composites with improved mechanical behavior.


Assuntos
Bertholletia/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Microfibrilas/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Bertholletia/anatomia & histologia , Bertholletia/ultraestrutura , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Frutas/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Microfibrilas/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/ultraestrutura , Difração de Raios X/métodos , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(6)2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197452

RESUMO

Changes in plant architecture, such as leaf size, leaf shape, leaf angle, plant height, and floral organs, have been major factors in improving the yield of cereal crops. Moreover, changes in grain size and weight can also increase yield. Therefore, screens for additional factors affecting plant architecture and grain morphology may enable additional improvements in yield. Among the basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factors in rice (Oryza sativa), we found an enhancer-trap T-DNA insertion mutant of OsbHLH079 (termed osbhlh079-D). The osbhlh079-D mutant showed a wide leaf angle phenotype and produced long grains, similar to the phenotypes of mutants with increased brassinosteroid (BR) levels or enhanced BR signaling. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR analysis showed that BR signaling-associated genes are largely upregulated in osbhlh079-D, but BR biosynthesis-associated genes are not upregulated, compared with its parental japonica cultivar 'Dongjin'. Consistent with this, osbhlh079-D was hypersensitive to BR treatment. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the expansion of cell size in the adaxial side of the lamina joint was responsible for the increase in leaf angle in osbhlh079-D. The expression of cell-elongation-associated genes encoding expansins and xyloglucan endotransglycosylases/hydrolases increased in the lamina joints of leaves in osbhlh079-D. The regulatory function of OsbHLH079 was further confirmed by analyzing 35S::OsbHLH079 overexpression and 35S::RNAi-OsbHLH079 gene silencing lines. The 35S::OsbHLH079 plants showed similar phenotypes to osbhlh079-D, and the 35S::RNAi-OsbHLH079 plants displayed opposite phenotypes to osbhlh079-D. Taking these observations together, we propose that OsbHLH079 functions as a positive regulator of BR signaling in rice.


Assuntos
Sequências Hélice-Alça-Hélice , Oryza/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Mutagênese Insercional , Oryza/anatomia & histologia , Oryza/genética , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4328, 2020 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152443

RESUMO

In biology, structure is the basis of function. For plants, changes in their physiological and ecological functions are usually caused by structural changes. To understand how shading conditions change the plant structures, thereby providing structural insights into the improved yield and quality, oilseed tree peony were shaded with different densities of polyethylene nets from 28 days after pollination (DAP) until harvesting. The thickness of the leaf (LT), vein (VT), upper epidermis (UET), lower epidermis (LET), palisade tissue (PT), sponge tissue (ST), as well as the accumulation and distribution of starch, protein, and fat, were observed at 14-day intervals. The results showed that shading had a significant effect on the anatomical structure of the leaves. In the rapid growth period (before 70 DAP), the LT, ET, and VT under shading were significantly lower than under non-shading. During this period, the accumulation of starch and protein under shading was lower than that under non-shading. At the maturation period (99-112 DAP), the LT and PT under shading were higher than under non-shading, indicating that light shading delayed leaf senescence and increased photosynthetic capacity. Shading delayed the degradation of the integument cells and prolonged seed development and nutrient accumulation.


Assuntos
Paeonia/citologia , Paeonia/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/citologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Sementes/citologia , Luz Solar , Biomarcadores , Células Epidérmicas/citologia , Células Epidérmicas/ultraestrutura , Histocitoquímica , Paeonia/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
7.
Am Nat ; 195(2): 166-180, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017614

RESUMO

Plant community response to climate change ranges from synchronous tracking to strong mismatch. Explaining this variation in climate change response is critical for accurate global change modeling. Here we quantify how closely assemblages track changes in climate (match/mismatch) and how broadly climate niches are spread within assemblages (narrow/broad ecological tolerance, or "filtering") using data for the past 21,000 years for 531 eastern North American fossil pollen assemblages. Although climate matching has been strong over the last 21 millennia, mismatch increased in 30% of assemblages during the rapid climate shifts between 14.5 and 10 ka. Assemblage matching rebounded toward the present day in 10%-20% of assemblages. Climate-assemblage mismatch was greater in tree-dominated and high-latitude assemblages, consistent with persisting populations, slower dispersal rates, and glacial retreat. In contrast, climate matching was greater for assemblages comprising taxa with higher median seed mass. More than half of the assemblages were climatically filtered at any given time, with peak filtering occurring at 8.5 ka for nearly 80% of assemblages. Thus, vegetation assemblages have highly variable rates of climate mismatch and filtering over millennial scales. These climate responses can be partially predicted by species' traits and life histories. These findings help constrain predictions for plant community response to contemporary climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Pólen/classificação , Fósseis , Camada de Gelo , América do Norte , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Traqueófitas/anatomia & histologia , Traqueófitas/fisiologia , Árvores
8.
Am Nat ; 195(2): 275-283, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017633

RESUMO

Orchids are globally distributed, a feature often attributed to their tiny dustlike seeds. They were ancestrally terrestrial but in the Eocene expanded into tree canopies, with some lineages later returning to the ground, providing an evolutionarily replicated system. Because seeds are released closer to the ground in terrestrial species than in epiphytic ones, seed traits in terrestrials may have been under selective pressure to increase seed dispersal efficiency. In this study, we test the expectations that seed airspace-a trait known to increase seed flotation time in the air-is (i) larger in terrestrial lineages and (ii) has increased following secondary returns to a terrestrial habit. We quantified and scored 20 seed traits in 121 species and carried out phylogenetically informed analyses. Results strongly support both expectations, suggesting that aerodynamic traits even in dust seeds are under selection to increase dispersal ability, following shifts in average release heights correlated with changes in habit.


Assuntos
Orchidaceae/anatomia & histologia , Dispersão de Sementes , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Ecossistema , Orchidaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Vento
9.
Eur J Histochem ; 64(1)2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941265

RESUMO

The seed morphology of three Pseudocereal Grains (PSCg), i.e. quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd, Chenopodiaceae), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, Polygonaceae) and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L., Amaranthaceae) was studied by light microscopy (LM) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (ESEM-EDS). LM was used with visible light to evaluate either unstained sections or sections stained with Azan mixture and with fluorescent light. The aim of the study was to compare the architecture of the three seeds in order to connect their morphology with nutrient localization. The Azan staining allowed for the visualization of the seed coat, the embryo - with its shoot apical meristem - and the radicle cell layers, whereas the use of fluorescent microscopy identified the cells rich in phenolic compounds. Finally, the ESEM-EDS analysis revealed that the seed coat of the quinoa was thinner than that of amaranth or buckwheat. In all PSCg, starch granules appeared to be located in large polygonal cells, surrounded by a thin cell wall. Several globoids of proteins were observed in the embryo cells. In the radicle section, the vascular bundles of the procambium were evident, while Amaranth only showed a consistent layer of calcium crystals, located between the embryo and the perysperm. The morphological differences of the three PSCg were discussed in the context of their structural resistance to processing technologies which impact on nutritional value of derived foods.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/anatomia & histologia , Chenopodium quinoa/anatomia & histologia , Grão Comestível/anatomia & histologia , Fagopyrum/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Amaranthus/embriologia , Chenopodium quinoa/embriologia , Grão Comestível/embriologia , Fagopyrum/embriologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Sementes/embriologia
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906262

RESUMO

Data phenotyping traits on soybean seeds such as shape and color has been obscure because it is difficult to define them clearly. Further, it takes too much time and effort to have sufficient number of samplings especially length and width. These difficulties prevented seed morphology to be incorporated into efficient breeding program. Here, we propose methods for an image acquisition, a data processing, and analysis for the morphology and color of soybean seeds by high-throughput method using images analysis. As results, quantitative values for colors and various types of morphological traits could be screened to create a standard for subsequent evaluation of the genotype. Phenotyping method in the current study could define the morphology and color of soybean seeds in highly accurate and reliable manner. Further, this method enables the measurement and analysis of large amounts of plant seed phenotype data in a short time, which was not possible before. Fast and precise phenotype data obtained here may facilitate Genome Wide Association Study for the gene function analysis as well as for development of the elite varieties having desirable seed traits.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Soja/anatomia & histologia , Cruzamento , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sementes/genética , Soja/genética
11.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226779, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940374

RESUMO

Previously unrecognized anatomical features of the cone scales of the enigmatic Early Cretaceous conifer Krassilovia mongolica include the presence of transversely oriented paracytic stomata, which is unusual for all other extinct and extant conifers. Identical stomata are present on co-occurring broad, linear, multiveined leaves assigned to Podozamites harrisii, providing evidence that K. mongolica and P. harrisii are the seed cones and leaves of the same extinct plant. Phylogenetic analyses of the relationships of the reconstructed Krassilovia plant place it in an informal clade that we name the Krassilovia Clade, which also includes Swedenborgia cryptomerioides-Podozamites schenkii, and Cycadocarpidium erdmanni-Podozamites schenkii. All three of these plants have linear leaves that are relatively broad compared to most living conifers, and that are also multiveined with transversely oriented paracytic stomata. We propose that these may be general features of the Krassilovia Clade. Paracytic stomata, and other features of this new group, recall features of extant and fossil Gnetales, raising questions about the phylogenetic homogeneity of the conifer clade similar to those raised by phylogenetic analyses of molecular data.


Assuntos
Traqueófitas/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Terminologia como Assunto , Traqueófitas/classificação
12.
Theor Appl Genet ; 133(1): 149-162, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570967

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Thirty environmentally stable QTL controlling grain size and/or plant height were identified, among which QTgw.cau-7D was delimited into the physical interval of approximately 4.4 Mb. Grain size and plant height (PHT) are important agronomic traits in wheat breeding. To dissect the genetic basis of these traits, we conducted a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using recombinant inbred lines (RILs). In total, 30 environmentally stable QTL for thousand grain weight (TGW), grain length (GL), grain width (GW) and PHT were detected. Notably, one major pleiotropic QTL on chromosome arm 3DS explained the highest phenotypic variance for TGW, GL and PHT, and two stable QTL (QGw.cau-4B and QGw.cau-7D) on chromosome arms 4BS and 7DS contributed greater effects for GW. Furthermore, the stable QTL controlling grain size (QTgw.cau-7D and QGw.cau-7D) were delimited into the physical interval of approximately 4.4 Mb harboring 56 annotated genes. The elite NILs of QTgw.cau-7D increased TGW by 12.79-21.75% and GW by 4.10-8.47% across all three environments. Collectively, these results provide further insight into the genetic basis of TGW, GL, GW and PHT, and the fine-mapped QTgw.cau-7D will be an attractive target for positional cloning and marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding programs.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/genética , Triticum/anatomia & histologia , Triticum/genética , Ligação Genética , Endogamia , Tamanho do Órgão , Fenótipo
13.
Syst Biol ; 69(1): 61-75, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099388

RESUMO

The ability of lineages to disperse long distances over evolutionary timescales may be influenced by the gain or loss of traits adapted to enhance local, ecological dispersal. For example, some species in the southern conifer family Podocarpaceae have fleshy cones that encourage bird dispersal, but it is unknown how this trait has influenced the clade's historical biogeography, or its importance compared with other predictors of dispersal such as the geographic distance between regions. We answer these questions quantitatively by using a dated phylogeny of 197 species of southern conifers (Podocarpaceae and their sister family Araucariaceae) to statistically compare standard, trait-independent biogeography models with new BioGeoBEARS models where an evolving trait can influence dispersal probability, and trait history, biogeographical history, and model parameters are jointly inferred. We validate the method with simulation-inference experiments. Comparing all models, those that include trait-dependent dispersal accrue 87.5% of the corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) model weight. Averaged across all models, lineages with nonfleshy cones had a dispersal probability multiplier of 0.49 compared with lineages with fleshy cones. Distance is included as a predictor of dispersal in all credible models (100% model weight). However, models with changing geography earned only 22.0% of the model weight, and models submerging New Caledonia/New Zealand earned only 0.01%. The importance of traits and distance suggests that long-distance dispersal over macroevolutionary timespans should not be thought of as a highly unpredictable chance event. Instead, long-distance dispersal can be modeled, allowing statistical model comparison to quantify support for different hypotheses.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Pinales/classificação , Dispersão Vegetal/fisiologia , Geografia , Pinales/fisiologia , Sementes/anatomia & histologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19693, 2019 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873181

RESUMO

Seeds of Australian species of the seagrass genus Posidonia are covered by a membranous wing that we hypothesize plays a fundamental role in seed establishment in sandy, wave swept marine environments. Dimensions of the seed and membrane were quantified under electron microscopy and micro-CT scans, and used to model rotational, drag and lift forces. Seeds maintain contact with the seabed in the presence of strong turbulence: the larger the wing, the more stable the seed. Wing surface area increases from P. sinuosa < P. australis < P.coriacea correlating with their ability to establish in increasingly energetic environments. This unique seed trait in a marine angiosperm corresponds to adaptive pressures imposed on seagrass species along 7,500 km of Australia's coastline, from open, high energy coasts to calmer environments in bays and estuaries.


Assuntos
Alismatales/fisiologia , Sementes/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Alismatales/anatomia & histologia , Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , Austrália , Baías , Simulação por Computador , Ecossistema , Estuários , Hidrodinâmica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Modelos Biológicos , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X
15.
Planta ; 251(1): 29, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802247

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: A novel allele of the sugary-1 rice mutant was isolated. The single amino acid change led to isoamylase activity reduction and accumulation of high-molecular-weight phytoglycogen in seeds. A new sugary rice variety with an improved seed appearance has been isolated and designated Hemisugary1. This mutant, which was derived from Japonica-type cultivar Tsugaruroman treated with sodium azide, has about half the isoamylase activity of seeds in the original Tsugaruroman. The mutant also accumulates significant phytoglycogen, albeit approximately 40% of the total phytoglycogen in the existing sugary cultivar Ayunohikari which is defective in its most isoamylase activity. The site of mutation was identified using a re-sequence of the whole genome and a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker. The hemisugary phenotypes of the F2 progeny were entirely consistent with the results of genotyping using the CAPS marker. Segregation analysis of the F2 population showed that the hemisugary phenotype was controlled by a single recessive gene, which was produced by a G → A single nucleotide polymorphism in the sugary-1 gene, resulting in a missense mutation from glycine to aspartic acid at amino acid position 333. Zymogram showed that this amino acid replacement resulted in a decrease in isoamylase activity with a concomitant reduction in the formation of isoamylase complexes. Phytoglycogen molecules from Hemisugary1 seeds were 3.5 times larger and contained more short glucan chains than did Ayunohikari seeds. Our data provide new insights into the relationship between isoamylase structure and phytoglycogen formation.


Assuntos
Alelos , Genes de Plantas , Mutação/genética , Oryza/genética , Açúcares/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , Glucanos/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Oryza/enzimologia , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/enzimologia , Solubilidade , Água/química
16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18769, 2019 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822718

RESUMO

Invasive plant species reduce the diversity of natives by altering habitats or disturbance regimes, but it is less clear whether they do so via competitive exclusion. Here, we show that invader abundance alters scale-dependent competitive effects of invasion on native plant richness. Large-seeded exotic annual Erodium cicutarium invaded a site that manipulated rodent granivores. The invader became dominant on all plots but attained its highest abundance on plots that removed rodents. Invasion reduced plant abundance but not evenness; site-wide richness did not change over time on control plots but declined significantly on rodent removal plots. Species-area relationships within plots changed differently with invasion intensity: slopes increased and y-intercepts decreased on control plots relative to rodent removal plots. Changes in species-area slopes and y-intercepts following invasion suggest that common rather than rare species were most strongly impacted at small spatial scales on control plots, while common and rare species were both negatively impacted at all spatial scales on rodent removal plots. Small-seeded species declined in abundance following invasion more so than large-seeded species, indicative of competitive interactions mediated by seed size. These results reveal variation in scale-dependent competitive effects of invasion on native richness associated with invasion intensity.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Dispersão Vegetal/fisiologia , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Ecossistema , Sementes/fisiologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18823, 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827117

RESUMO

Grain filling is an important growth process in formation of yield and quality for barley final yield determination. To explore the grain development behavior during grain filling period in barley, a high-density genetic map with 1962 markers deriving from a doubled haploid (DH) population of 122 lines was used to identify dynamic quantitative trait locus (QTL) for grain filling rate (GFR) and five grain size traits: grain area (GA), grain perimeter (GP), grain length (GL), grain width (GW) and grain diameter (GD). Unconditional QTL mapping is to detect the cumulative effect of genetic factors on a phenotype from development to a certain stage. Conditional QTL mapping is to detect a net effect of genetic factors on the phenotype at adjacent time intervals. Using unconditional, conditional and covariate QTL mapping methods, we successfully detected 34 major consensus QTLs. Moreover, certain candidate genes related to grain size, plant height, yield, and starch synthesis were identified in six QTL clusters, and individual gene was specifically expressed in different grain filling stages. These findings provide useful information for understanding the genetic basis of the grain filling dynamic process and will be useful for molecular marker-assisted selection in barley breeding.


Assuntos
Hordeum/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sementes/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grão Comestível , Hordeum/anatomia & histologia , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(24)2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817249

RESUMO

The fine tuning of hormone (e.g., auxin and gibberellin) levels and hormone signaling is required for maintaining normal embryogenesis. Embryo polarity, for example, is ensured by the directional movement of auxin that is controlled by various types of auxin transporters. Here, we present pieces of evidence for the auxin-gibberellic acid (GA) hormonal crosstalk during embryo development and the regulatory role of the Arabidopsis thaliana Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase-Related Kinase 5 (AtCRK5) in this regard. It is pointed out that the embryogenesis of the Atcrk5-1 mutant is delayed in comparison to the wild type. This delay is accompanied with a decrease in the levels of GA and auxin, as well as the abundance of the polar auxin transport (PAT) proteins PIN1, PIN4, and PIN7 in the mutant embryos. We have previously showed that AtCRK5 can regulate the PIN2 and PIN3 proteins either directly by phosphorylation or indirectly affecting the GA level during the root gravitropic and hypocotyl hook bending responses. In this manuscript, we provide evidence that the AtCRK5 protein kinase can in vitro phosphorylate the hydrophilic loops of additional PIN proteins that are important for embryogenesis. We propose that AtCRK5 can govern embryo development in Arabidopsis through the fine tuning of auxin-GA level and the accumulation of certain polar auxin transport proteins.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Germinação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Giberelinas/análise , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo
19.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 15(1): 016006, 2019 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698344

RESUMO

The stability of leading-edge vortices (LEVs) on a samara-inspired rotor during steady and unsteady gusty incoming flow was investigated experimentally using direct rotational speed measurements, as well as time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV). The blades of the samara-inspired rotor were designed to match the tip-speed ratio, the aspect ratio, and the distribution of the effective angle of attack of samara seeds to utilize LEVs similar to samara seeds. The flow around the blades of the samara-inspired rotor was compared to a reference rotor, which possesses a constant spanwise effective angle of attack, to investigate the influence of the samara-like spanwise effective angle-of-attack distribution on LEV stability. Furthermore, the unsteady performance of the samara-inspired rotor was compared to a generic low-inertia rotor that possesses blades with a constant effective angle of attack less than the stall angle. During steady rotation, the samara-inspired rotor exhibited a stably-attached LEV, while the reference rotor demonstrated unstable LEV shedding. Compared to a generic low-inertia rotor, the samara-inspired rotor demonstrated a relatively stable tip-speed ratio ([Formula: see text]) during the gust. Furthermore, the LEV remained stably-attached on the rotor's blades with a constant normalized circulation during the gust. Finally, the analysis of the LEV stability during the gust using the vorticity transport equation suggests that LEV stability is coupled with constant tip-speed ratio during gusts.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos , Dispersão de Sementes/fisiologia , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Vento , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Desenho de Equipamento , Modelos Biológicos , Reologia , Rotação
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698683

RESUMO

The quality and amount of yellow lupine yield depend on water availability. Water scarcity negatively affects germination, flowering, and pod formation, and thus introduction of an artificial irrigation system is needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of irrigation on the quality of yellow lupine seeds. Raining was applied with a semi-solid device with sprinklers during periods of greatest water demand. It was shown that watered plants produced seeds of lesser quality, having smaller size and weight. To find out why seeds of irrigated plants were of poor quality, interdisciplinary research at the cellular level was carried out. DNA cytophotometry evidenced the presence of nuclei with lower polyploidy in the apical zone of mature seeds. This may lead to formation of smaller cells and reduce depositing of storage materials. The electrophoretic and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses revealed differences in protein and cuticular wax profiles, while scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy revealed, among various chemical elements, decreased calcium content in one of seed zones (near plumule). Seeds from irrigated plants showed slightly higher germination dynamics but growth rate of seedlings was slightly lower. The studies showed that irrigation of lupine affected seed features and their chemical composition, an ability to germination and seedlings growth.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Lupinus/química , Sementes/química , 3,3'-Diaminobenzidina/metabolismo , Cotilédone/metabolismo , DNA de Plantas/genética , Germinação , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Meristema/metabolismo , Mitose , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/ultraestrutura , Espectrometria por Raios X , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
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